|Founded||1984Fort Worth, Texas in |
1998 (second incarnation from Simmons Airlines)
|Parent company||American Airlines Group|
|Headquarters||Skyview, Fort Worth, Texas, United States|
American Eagle is an American brand name for the regional branch of American Airlines, under which six individual regional airlines operate short- and medium-haul feeder flights. Three of these airlines, Envoy Air (formerly American Eagle Airlines), Piedmont Airlines, and PSA Airlines, are wholly owned subsidiaries of the American Airlines Group. American Eagle's largest hub is Charlotte Douglas International's Concourse E, which operates over 340 flights per day, making it the largest express flight operation in the world.
Prior to the Airline Deregulation Act in 1978, most major US air carriers had maintained close relationships with independent regional carriers in order to feed passengers from smaller markets into the larger cities, and, in turn, onto the larger legacy carriers. In the post-regulation era, the hub-and-spoke system gained prominence, and in order to feed traffic from smaller markets into these newly established hubs, the major carriers outsourced regional operations to these smaller carriers. These relationships included the use of code sharing, shared branding, and listing regional partners in the computer reservations systems of the mainline carrier.
American Eagle commenced service on November 1, 1984, with a flight from Fayetteville, Arkansas, to Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport (DFW). This flight was operated by Metroflight Airlines (a wholly owned subsidiary of Metro Airlines), using a Convair 580 turboprop aircraft. Metroflight also operated de Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter commuter turboprop aircraft on American Eagle flights serving DFW. Other operators contracted by American Airlines to fly the American Eagle banner during this time included Air Midwest, Air Virginia (later AVAir), Chaparral Airlines, Command Airways, Simmons Airlines, and Wings West.
On September 15, 1986, Executive Airlines joined the American Eagle system. With hub operations at Luis Muñoz Marín International Airport in San Juan, Puerto Rico, the addition of Executive Airways to the American Eagle family opened up an extensive inter-island network throughout the Caribbean.
Between 1987 and 1989 AMR Corp. (parent corporation of American Airlines) gradually acquired most of its regional carriers, starting with Simmons Airlines. By 1991, AMR had consolidated its wholly owned regional carriers into four separate entities: Executive Airlines, Flagship Airlines, Simmons Airlines, and Wings West. AMR would later purchase the assets of bankrupt Metro Airlines in 1993. At this point, AMR owned all of the airlines that were operating for American Eagle.
On May 15, 1998, Flagship Airlines and Wings West were merged into Simmons Airlines, with the new entity given the name American Eagle Airlines. Along with Executive Airlines, these would be the only two operators using the American Eagle brand name for the next fourteen years.
After American Airlines acquired Trans World Airlines (TWA) in 2001, it retained the contracts with the carriers that operated under the Trans World Express banner, which, at the time, included Chautauqua Airlines, Corporate Airlines, and Trans States Airlines. However, instead of being integrated into the American Eagle brand, these carriers operated under a separate regional brand known as AmericanConnection. This brand name was used for thirteen years before being discontinued in 2014.
As part of its restructuring and emergence from chapter 11 bankruptcy, AMR announced that it would start contracting American Eagle flying to carriers outside of its wholly owned subsidiaries. On November 15, 2012, SkyWest Airlines and ExpressJet Airlines, both subsidiaries of SkyWest, Inc. began operations for American Eagle. On August 1, 2013, Republic Airways a subsidiary of Republic Airways Holdings, commenced flying operations under the American Eagle branding as part of a 12-year capacity purchase agreement to operate Embraer 175 aircraft for American Eagle.
On September 12, 2012, AMR announced the discontinuation of the AmericanConnection brand, and all operations were going to be integrated into the American Eagle brand. However, Chautauqua Airlines, a subsidiary of Republic Airways Holdings, and the only operator of AmericanConnection flights at the time of the announcement, opted not to renew its contract. All AmericanConnection flights ended on August 19, 2014.
American Eagle service operated by Executive Airlines ceased operations on March 31, 2013. At the same time, its base at San Juan was dehubbed.
Due to the fact that an increasing number of other carriers were being contracted to fly under the American Eagle brand, it was announced on January 15, 2014, that American Eagle Airlines would change its name to Envoy Air. The name change took effect on April 15, 2014.
Compass Airlines, a subsidiary of Trans States Holdings, began American Eagle operations on March 27, 2015, as part of a deal to operate 20 new Embraer 175 aircraft on behalf of American. These aircraft are based at American's Los Angeles hub.
In May 2018, American Airlines announced the termination of its partnerships with ExpressJet and Trans States Airlines as of 2019, meaning the end of those operators conducting American Eagle flights.
In March 2020, due to the reduction in flying in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, Compass Airlines announced that it would be ceasing operations on April 5, 2020, ending its operations as American Eagle.
In September 2020, Envoy Air, a subsidiary of American Eagle, announced a permanent closure at its two NY bases at LGA and JFK, due to a new codeshare agreement between American Airlines and JetBlue.
As of September 2021, the combined American Eagle branded fleet consists of the following regional jet aircraft:
|American Airlines Group airlines|
|Envoy Air||Embraer ERJ145||57||-||-||-||50||50|
|Piedmont Airlines||Embraer ERJ145||57||-||-||-||50||50|
|PSA Airlines||Bombardier CRJ700||61||-||9||8||48||65|
|Mesa Airlines||Bombardier CRJ900||57||-||9||-||67||76|
|Republic Airways||Embraer 170||7||9||12||20||34||66|
|SkyWest Airlines||Bombardier CRJ700||79||11||9||16||40||65|
|Airline||Years of operation||Notes|
|Air Midwest||1985-1988||Assets acquired by AMR and integrated into Nashville Eagle.|
|Air Wisconsin||2005-2018||Originally flew as US Airways Express. Transferred exclusively to United Express.|
|American Eagle Airlines||1998-2014||Rebranded as Envoy Air.|
|AVAir (formerly Air Virginia)||1985-1988||Declared Bankruptcy: Assets acquired by AMR and integrated into Nashville Eagle.|
|Chaparral Airlines||1984-1990||Acquired by AMR in 1992.|
Merged with Metroflight Airlines.
|Command Airways||1986-1991||Acquired by AMR in 1988.|
Merged with Nashville Eagle to form Flagship Airlines.
|Compass Airlines||2015-2020||Ceased operations in April 2020. Assets transferred to Envoy Air.|
|Executive Airlines||1986-2013||Acquired by AMR in 1989.|
|ExpressJet||2013-2018||Transferred exclusively to United Express.|
|Flagship Airlines||1991-1998||Merged with Simmons Airlines and Wings West Airlines to form American Eagle Airlines.|
|Metroflight Airlines, a division of Metro Airlines||1984-1993||Declared Bankruptcy: Assets acquired by AMR and integrated into Simmons Airlines.|
|Nashville Eagle||1988-1991||Merged with Command Airways to form Flagship Airlines.|
|Simmons Airlines||1985-1998||Acquired by AMR in 1987.|
Merged with Flagship Airlines and Wings West Airlines to form American Eagle Airlines.
|Trans States Airlines||1985-2018||Originally flew as Trans World Express. Transferred exclusively to United Express.|
|Wings West Airlines||1986-1998||Acquired by AMR in 1987.|
Merged with Flagship Airlines and Simmons Airlines to form American Eagle Airlines.
o In January 1988, Nashville Eagle became AMR Corp.'s first and only start-up airline, using equipment acquired from Air Midwest.
o Business Express was acquired by AMR Eagle Holdings Corporation in March 1999, although it never flew under the American Eagle brand before being fully integrated into American Eagle Airlines, Inc. in December 2000.
The American Eagle brand, through its various regional and commuter airline partners, operated a variety of twinjet aircraft over the years including the following types:
The American Eagle brand, through its various regional and commuter airline partners, operated a variety of twin turboprop aircraft over the years including the following types: