Ancient Greek Verbs
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Ancient Greek Verbs

Ancient Greek verbs have four moods (indicative, imperative, subjunctive and optative), three voices (active, middle and passive), as well as three persons (first, second and third) and three numbers (singular, dual and plural).

The distinction of the "tenses" in moods other than the indicative is predominantly one of aspect rather than time.

The different persons of a Greek verb are shown by changing the verb-endings; for example (lú?) "I free", (lúeis) "you free", ? (lúei) "he or she frees", etc. There are three persons in the singular ("I", "you (singular)", "he, she, it"), and three in the plural ("we", "you (plural)", "they"). In addition there are endings for the 2nd and 3rd persons dual ("you two", "they both"), but these are only very rarely used.

A distinction is traditionally made between the so-called athematic verbs (also called mi-verbs), with endings affixed directly to the root, and the thematic class of verbs which present a "thematic" vowel /o/ or /e/ before the ending. The endings are classified into primary (those used in the present, future, perfect and future perfect of the indicative, as well as in the subjunctive) and secondary (used in the aorist, imperfect, and pluperfect of the indicative, as well as in the optative).

To make the past tenses of the indicative mood, the vowel ?- (e-), called an "augment", is prefixed to the verb stem, e.g. aorist ?-? (é-lusa) "I freed", imperfect ?-? (é-luon) "I was freeing". This augment is found only in the indicative, not in the other moods or in the infinitive or participle. To make the perfect tense the first consonant is "reduplicated", that is, repeated with the vowel e ( (léluka) "I have freed", ? (gégrapha) "I have written"), or in some cases an augment is used in lieu of reduplication (e.g. (h?úr?ka) "I have found"). Unlike the augment of past tenses, this reduplication or augment is retained in all the moods of the perfect tense as well as in the perfect infinitive and participle.

The Ancient Greek verbal system preserves nearly all the complexities of Proto-Indo-European (PIE). Ancient Greek also preserves the PIE middle voice and adds a passive voice, with separate forms only in the future and aorist (elsewhere, the middle forms are used).

Thematic and athematic verbs

Ancient Greek verbs can be divided into two groups, the thematic (in which a thematic vowel /e/ or /o/ is added before the ending, e.g. -?- (lú-o-men) "we free"), and the athematic (in which the endings are attached directly to the stem, e.g. - (es-mén) "we are".[1] Thematic verbs are much more numerous.

Thematic verbs

Active verbs

Thematic verbs, in the 1st person singular of the present tense active, end in -? (-?). These are very numerous, for example, ? (lég?) "I say", (gráph?) "I write", (pémp?) "I send", etc. The endings of these tend to be regular:

  • ?, , , (?, ?,) ?, , ?(?)
lég?, légeis, légei, (légeton, légeton,) légomen, légete, légousi(n)
I say, you say, he/she/it says, (you two say, they both say,) we say, you (pl.) say, they say

The forms in brackets are the dual number, used for two people, and which exists only in the 2nd and 3rd person; it is rather rare, but still used sometimes by authors such as Aristophanes and Plato:

Hóm?rós te kaì H?síodos tautà légeton.
Homer and Hesiod both say the same things.

The present infinitive active of thematic verbs is - (-ein), e.g. (légein) "to say".

Middle verbs

Thematic verbs are also found in the middle voice, with the 1st person singular ending -? (-omai) e.g. (apokrnomai) "I answer", (gígnomai) "I become". The endings of the present tense go as follows:

  • -?, -/-?, -?, (-, -), -, -?, -
-omai, -ei/-?i, -etai, (-esthon, -esthon), -ometha, -esthe, -ontai
I, you (singular), he/she/it, (you two, the two of them), we, you (plural), they

The middle present infinitive is - (-esthai), e.g. ? (apokrnesthai) "to answer".

Many middle-voice verbs, such as (apokrnomai) "I answer", are deponent, that is to say, they have no corresponding active form. Other middle verbs, such as ? (paúomai) "I cease (doing something)" (intransitive), have a corresponding active form: ? (paú?) "I stop (something)" (transitive).

Passive verbs

Passive verbs, in the present, imperfect, and perfect tenses, have exactly the same endings as middle verbs. Examples are (di?komai) "I am pursued" and (keleúomai) "I am ordered (by someone)".

In the aorist tense, however, they differ from middle verbs in that they use the endings -? (-sth?n), - (-th?n), or - (-?n), for example (edi?khth?n) "I was pursued", ? (ekeleústh?n) "I was ordered", ? (ebláb?n) "I was harmed"; whereas middle verbs tend to have an aorist ending in - (-sám?n), -? (-ám?n), or -? (-óm?n), for example (epausám?n) "I stopped", (apekrinám?n) "I answered", (egenóm?n) "I became".

Contracted verbs

A special class of thematic verbs are the contracted verbs. In the dictionary these are entered as ending - (-á?), - (-é?) or - (-ó?), for example ? (horá?) "I see", (poié?) "I do", (d?ló?) "I show"; but in most cases when they are found in a text the vowel ?, ?, ? (a, e, o) contracts with the ending to make a single vowel. Thus the present tense of ? (horá?) "I see" goes as follows:

  • , ?, , (, ,) , , (?)
horô, horâis, horâi, (horâton, horâton,) horômen, horâte, horôsi(n)
I see, you see, he/she/it sees, (you both see, they both see,) we see, you (pl.) see, they see

While the present tense of (poié?) "I do" is as follows:

  • ?, , , (, ,) , ?, ?(?)
poiô, poieîs, poieî, (poieîton, poieîton,) poioûmen, poieîte, poioûsi(n)
I do, you do, he/she/it does, (you both do, they both do,) we do, you (plural) do, they do

And the present tense of (d?ló?) "I show" is as follows:

  • ?, , , (, ,) , ?, ?(?)
d?lô, d?loîs, d?loî, (d?loûton, d?loûton,) d?loûmen, d?loûte, d?loûsi(n)
I show, you show, he/she/it shows, (you both show, they both show,) we show, you (plural) show, they show

The present infinitive active of the three types of contracted verbs is ? (horân) "to see", (poieîn), "to do", (d?loûn) "to show".

Contracted verbs are also found in the middle and passive voices, e.g. ? (aphiknéomai) "I arrive" and (timáomai) "I am honoured".

Athematic verbs

Active

Athematic verbs have - (-mi) in the 1st person singular of the present tense, e.g. ? (eimí) "I am", ? (ph?mí) "I say", (díd?mi) "I give", (híst?mi) "I stand (transitive)". In the middle voice they end in -, e.g. ? (dúnamai) "I am able". The present tense of ? (eîmi) "I (will) go" is generally used with future meaning in the classical period.[3]

These verbs present many irregularities in conjugation. For example, the present tense of ? (eimí) "I am" goes as follows:

  • ?, , ?(?), (, ,) , ?, ?(?)
eimí, eî, estí(n), (estón, estón,) esmén, esté, eisí(n)
I am, you are, he/she/it is, (you both are, they both are), we are, you (plural) are, they are.

The present tense of the verb ? (eîmi) "I (will) go" is as follows:

  • ?, , ?(?), (?, ?,) ?, , ?(?)
eîmi, eî, eîsi(n), (íton, íton,) ímen, íte, í?si(n)
I will go, you will go, he/she/it will go, (you both will go, they both will go), we will go, you (plural) will go, they will go.

Whereas the present tense of (díd?mi) "I give" goes as follows:

  • , , (?), ?, , ?(?)
díd?mi, díd?s, díd?si(n), dídomen, dídote, didó?si(n)
I give, you give, he/she/it gives, we give, you (plural) give, they give

The dual of this verb, theoretically ? (dídoton), is not found.[4]

The active infinitive of athematic verbs ends in - (-nai), e.g. (eînai) "to be", (iénai) "to go", ? (didónai) "to give".

Middle

Athematic verbs are also found in the middle voice, e.g. ? (hístamai) "I stand" or ? (dúnamai) "I am able", with endings as follows:

  • -, -, -, (-?, -?), -?, -, -?
-mai, -sai, -tai, (-sthon, -sthon), -metha, -sthe, -ntai
I, you (singular), he/she/it, (you two, the two of them), we, you (plural), they

The infinitive is -? (-sthai).

The verb ? (oîda)

The verb ? (oîda) "I know", is irregular. Its endings are those of an athematic perfect tense, and go as follows:[5]

  • ?, , ?(?), (, ,) , ?, (?)
oîda, oîstha, oîde(n), (íston, íston,) ísmen, íste, ís?si(n)
I know, you know, he/she/it knows, (you both know, they both know), we know, you (plural) know, they know

The infinitive of ? (oîda) is ? (eidénai) "to know".

Tenses

The tense system

The Ancient Greek verbal system has seven tense-aspect forms, traditionally called "tenses" (, khrónoi, singular , khrónos). The temporal distinctions only appear in the indicative mood as shown on the table below:[6]

perfective
aspect
imperfective
aspect
perfect
aspect
primary
sequence
future
time
future future perfect
present
time
present[7] perfect
secondary
sequence
past
time
aorist,
(imperfect)
imperfect pluperfect

In the subjunctive and imperative moods, however, only three tenses are used,[8] and they distinguish aspect only, not time:

The optative mood likewise uses these three tenses, but there is also a future optative, used mainly to report indirectly what would be a future indicative in direct speech.[9]

Ancient Greek has no perfect progressive or past perfect progressive. Thus, the meaning "he has been doing" is typically expressed with the present tense, and "he had been doing (earlier)" is expressed with the imperfect tense:[10]

? .[11]
pollá ge ét? ?d? eimì en têi tékhn?i.
I have been (lit. I am) in the business for many years now.
? ? .[12]
tò ploîon hêken en hôi epnomen.
The boat arrived in which we had (earlier) been drinking.

Formation of the tenses

For further information on the endings, see Ancient Greek grammar (tables).

Principal parts of verbs

Dictionaries of Ancient Greek usually give six principal parts for any verb. For example, for the verb ? (paideú?) "I teach, train" the six parts are as follows:

  • ?, , , ?, , ?
paideú?, paideús?, epaídeusa, pepaídeuka, pepaídeumai, epaideúth?n
I teach, I will teach, I taught, I have taught, I have been taught, I was taught

The principal parts are these:

  • The present tense: ? (paideú?) "I teach"
Endings: -? - - (-? -?) -? - -?(?)
  • The future tense: (paideús?) "I will teach"
Endings: - -? - (- -) - -? -(?)
  • The aorist active tense: (epaídeusa) "I taught"
Endings: - - -(?) (- -) - -? -
  • The perfect active tense: ? (pepaídeuka) "I have taught"
Endings: - - -(?) (- -) - -? -?(?)
  • The perfect tense middle or passive: (pepaídeumai) "I have been taught"
Endings: - - - (-? -?) -? - -?
  • The aorist passive tense: ? (epaideúth?n) "I was taught"
Endings: - - - (- -) - -? -

Other tenses

Other tenses can be formed on the basis of these. For example, the imperfect tense (epaídeuon) "I was teaching" is based on the present stem with the addition of the prefix ?- (é-) (called an "augment", see below), and the pluperfect (epepaideúk?) "I had taught" is formed from the perfect stem:

  • The imperfect tense: (epaídeuon) "I was teaching", "I used to teach"
Endings: - - -?(?) (-? -?) -? - -
  • The pluperfect tense: (epepaideúk?) "I had taught"
Endings: - (-?) - (-?) -(?) ( - ) - -? -

Future and aorist without sigma

Not all verbs have a future tense made with -?- (-s-). Some, particularly those whose stem ends in ?, ?, ?, ? (l, m, n, r) such as ? (angéll?) "I announce" and ? (men?) "I remain", have a contracted future, with endings like the verb (poié?).[13] These same verbs also usually have an aorist without sigma:

  • Contracted future: (angelô) "I will announce"
Endings: -? - - (- -) - -? -?(?)
  • Aorist without sigma: ? (?ngeila) "I announced"
Endings: -? - -?(?) (-? -?) -? - -

Strong aorist

Some common verbs, instead of the ordinary (weak) aorist tense ending in -, have an aorist ending in - etc. exactly like the imperfect; this is known as a "strong" aorist or "2nd" aorist. However, it differs from the imperfect in that the stem of the verb is different. Thus the aorist of ?? (pheúg?) "I flee" is ? (éphugon) "I fled", with stem - (phug-), contrasting with the imperfect ? (épheugon), with stem ?- (pheug-).

Other strong aorists are (êlthon) "I came", (élabon) "I took", (eîpon) "I said", (éphagon) "I ate"; and in the middle voice (egenóm?n) "I became" and (aphikóm?n) "I arrived".

Root aorist

Many verbs have an aorist without the sigma markers and characteristic endings of the regular aorist. Typically these verbs have present progressive markers added to the stem in the present system, so that the basic stem is used in the aorist and in the other aspects. One example is the verb (baín?), "I go", which becomes ? (éb?n).

Less regular principal parts

However, by no means all Ancient Greek verbs are as regular in their principal parts as ? (paideú?). For example, the verb ? (lambán?) "I take" has the following parts:[14]

  • ?, ?, , , , ?
lambán?, l?psomai, élabon, eíl?pha, eíl?mmai, el?phth?n
I take, I will take, I took, I have taken, I have been taken, I was taken

As can be seen, the stems used (-, -, -, -) (lambán-, l?ph-, lab-, l?ph-) etc. vary from tense to tense. They all come from the same root, but the stem used in the present tense, ? (lambán?), has an extra ? (m) and (an); in the other tenses the vowel in the root varies between ? (a) and ? (?); and the final consonant, ?, changes by assimilation to ? (ps) or ? (m), or by aspiration to ? (ph).

The verb () (ág?) "I lead" goes:

  • , , , , ,
ág?, áx?, ?gagon, êkha, êgmai, ?khth?n
I lead, I will lead, I led, I have led, I have been led, I was led

Both of the above verbs have a "strong aorist" or "2nd aorist" ending in - (-on) rather than the usual - (-sa), and the perfect tense has an aspirated consonant ?, ? (ph, kh) before the ending instead of ? (k).

The tenses of (díd?mi) "I give" are as follows:

  • , ?, , , ?,
díd?mi, d?s?, éd?ka, déd?ka, dédomai, edóth?n
I give, I will give, I gave, I have given, I have been given (to someone), I was given (to someone)

The aorist of this verb is irregular, since it ends in (ka). However, this ? (k) is found only in the singular, and disappears in the plural, e.g. 3rd pl. (édosan) "they gave". The verbs (títh?mi) "I put" and ? (hí?mi) "I send" are similar, with aorists (éth?ka) 3rd pl. (éthesan) and (hêka) 3rd pl. (heîsan) respectively.

However, (híst?mi) "I stand (something)" does not follow this pattern and has a different aorist:

  • , , (trans.)/ (intrans.), (intrans.), ?, ?
híst?mi, st?s?, ést?sa/ést?n, hést?ka, héstamai, estáth?n
I stand (something), I will stand (something), I stood (something)/I stood, I have stood/am standing, I stand, I stood/was stood

Verbs using more than one stem

In some verbs the principal parts are even more irregular than this; like the English verbs "am/is, was, been" and "go, went, gone", they use different stems (derived from originally different verbs) for the different tenses. For example, the verb ? (phér?) "I bring, I bear" has the following principal parts using stems derived from three originally different verbs:

  • ?, ?, /?, ?, , ?
phér?, oís?, ?nenka/?nenkon, en?nokha, en?negmai, ?nékhth?n
I bring, I will bring, I brought, I have brought, I have been brought, I was brought

? (horá?) "I see" is another verb made from stems from three different roots, namely (horá), (op) and (id) (the last of these, which was originally pronounced - (wid-), is related to the root of the Latin verb video):

  • ?, , , /, ?/,
horá?, ópsomai, eîdon, heór?ka/he?r?ka, he?r?mai/ômmai, ?phth?n
I see, I will see, I saw, I have seen, I have been seen, I was seen

? (érkhomai) "I come" or "I go" is also irregular. This verb has only four principal parts, since there is no passive:

  • ?, /?, , ?
érkhomai, eleúsomai/eîmi, êlthon, el?lutha
I come/go, I will come/go, I came/went, I have come/gone

This verb is made more complex by the fact that in Attic Greek (that is, the dialect of most of the major classical authors), the present tense (apart from the indicative mood), imperfect tense, and future are usually replaced by parts of the irregular verb ? (eîmi) "I (will) go":[15] The indicative of ? (eîmi) is generally used with future significance in the classical period ("I will go") but the other parts such as the infinitive (iénai) "to go" are not future in meaning.

The past-tense augment

The three past tenses (imperfect, aorist, and pluperfect), in the classical period, are made by adding a prefix ?- (e-), called an "augment", on the beginning of the verb.[16] Thus from (gráph?) "I write" are made:

  • ? (égraphon) "I was writing"
  • ? (égrapsa) "I wrote"
  • ?? (egegráph?) "I had written"

This past-tense augment is found only in the indicative mood, not in the subjunctive, infinitive, participle, or other parts of the verb.

When a verb starts with a vowel, the augment usually merges with the vowel to make a long vowel. Thus /e/ + /a/ > /?/, /e/ + /e/ > /?/ (sometimes /ei/), /e/ + /i/ > /?/, /e/ + /o/ > /?/ and so on:[17]

  • ? (êgon) "I was leading", from (ág?) "I lead"
  • (khon) "I had, I was holding", from (ekh?) "I have, I hold"
  • ?? (?ikoun) "I was living in", from (oiké?) "I live in"

When a verb starts with a prepositional prefix, the augment usually goes after the prefix (although there are some verbs where it goes before the prefix, or even in both places):

  • ? (katéb?n) "I went down", from (katabaín?) "I go down"
  • (ané?ixa)[18] or ? (?noixa)[19] "I opened", from (anoígnumi) "I open"[20]

In Homer, and occasionally in Herodotus, the augment is sometimes omitted.[21]

Perfect tenses

The perfect tense is formed by repeating the first consonant of the stem with the vowel ? (e). This is known as "reduplication":[22]

  • (grapha) "I have written", from (gráph?) "I write"
  • (bebí?ka) "I have lived", from ? (bió?) "I pass my life"
  • ? (d?ka) "I have given", from (díd?mi) "I give"

When the first consonant of the verb is aspirated (?, ?, ?) (th, ph, kh), the reduplication is made with the equivalent unaspirated consonant (?, ?, ?) (t, p, k):[23]

  • (thn?ka) "I have died", from () ([apo]thn?isk?) "I die"
  • (pheuga) "I have fled", from ((pheúg?) "I flee"
  • (kekhár?ka) "I am very happy", from (khaír?) "I am happy"

When the verb starts with a vowel, ? (z) or with a combination of consonants such as (gn) or (str), instead of reduplication an augment is used:[24]

  • ? (h?úr?ka) "I have found", from ? (heurísk?) "I find"
  • ?? (h?ir?ka) "I have captured", from (hairé?) "I capture"
  • ? (égn?ka) "I have learned", from (gign?sk?) "I learn" (with the root -, gn?-)

More complex kinds of reduplication are found in:

  • ? (ak?koa) "I have heard", from (akoú?) "I hear"
  • (el?lutha) "I have come", from (êlthon) "I came"

Unlike the past-tense augment, this reduplication or perfect-tense augment is found in every part of the perfect tense, including the infinitive and participles.

Meanings of the tenses

The meanings of the tenses are as follows:

The present tense

The present tense (Greek ? (enest?s) "standing within") can be imperfective or perfective, and be translated "I do (now)", "I do (regularly)", "I am doing (now)":[25]

.[26]
ómn?mi pántas theoús.
I swear by all the gods!
.[27]
tòn ándra horô.
I see the man!
? , ? .[28]
?eì tautà légeis, ô S?krates.
You are always saying the same things, Socrates!
"? ," , " ? ;"[29]
"ô S?krates," éph?, "egr?goras ? katheúdeis?"
"O Socrates", he said, "have you woken up, or are you sleeping?"

The present tense is frequently used in historical narrative, especially to describe exciting moments:

' .[30]
heto ep' autòn kaì titr?skei.
He hurls himself at him and wounds him.

Imperfect tense

The imperfect tense (Greek (paratatikós) "for prolonging", from (parateín?) "prolong") is used in the indicative mood only. It often indicates a continuing situation in the past, rather than an event. It can be translated as "was doing", "used to do", "would do", etc., referring to either a progressive, habitual, or continual situation:[31]

? ? ? ? ? .[32]
ho lokhagòs ?idei hópou ékeito h? epistol?.
The captain knew where the letter was lying.
? ? ? .[33]
estratopedeúonto hekástote apékhontes all?l?n parasáng?n kaì pléon.
Every night the (two armies) would camp a parasang or more apart from each other.
[34]
taûta polùn khrónon hoút?s egígneto.
These things carried on like this for long time.

Often "began doing" is a possible translation:[35]

? ? , , ?, ?.[36]
sumbalóntes ts aspídas e?thoûnto, emákhonto, apékteinon, apéthn?iskon.
Throwing together their shields, they began shoving, fighting, killing, and dying.
? ? ? ?.[37]
metà tò deîpnon tò paidíon ebóa.
After dinner the baby began crying.
?, ?.[38]
epeid? dè hé?s egéneto, diébainon t?n géph?ran.
And when dawn came, they began crossing the bridge.

As noted above, the imperfect can also mean "had been doing", referring to a situation which existed earlier than the time of the main verb:[39]

? ? ? .[40]
apésteilan tàs naûs hsper pareskeuázonto.
They sent off the ships which they had been preparing.
? ?.[41]
eis?gagon i?tròn hôi pollà ét? ekhr?m?n
I brought in a doctor that I had been using for many years.

However, although the imperfect usually describes a situation, it is often used in narrative where English would use a simple past, especially with verbs meaning "send", "go", "say", and "order":[42]

? ? ?.[43]
es ts Ath?n?s ángelon épempon.
They sent off a messenger to Athens.
? ... ?.[44]
Míndaros katid?n t?n mákh?n ... ebo?thei.
Mindaros, seeing the battle from afar, set off to help.
... ... ... .[45]
ekéleuon sundeipneîn ... edeipnoûmen ... api?n ?ikheto ...ekátheudon.
I invited him to join me for dinner ... we sat down to dinner ... he went away ... I went to sleep.

The distinction between imperfect and aorist in the above examples can be seen not so much in terms of perfectivity vs. imperfectivity, as in terms of telicity vs. atelicity.[46] The aorist (edeipn?samen) would mean "we finished dinner" and would be a telic verb, implying that the action was carried through to its end, whereas the imperfect (edeipnoûmen) would mean "we began eating dinner" and would be atelic, implying that the action was started but not necessarily completed. Similarly the aorist (épeisa) means "I successfully persuaded", whereas the imperfect ? (épeithon) means "I urged" or "I attempted to persuade":[47][48]

? · ?' .[49]
épeithon apotrépesthai; hoi d' oukh hup?kouon.
They urged them to turn back, but they wouldn't listen.

Another meaning of the imperfect indicative is to refer to unreal (counterfactual) situations in present or past time. To give the meaning "would", the particle (án) is added:[50]

, ?.[51]
taûta dè ouk àn edúnanto poieîn, ei m? diaít?i metrí?i ekhrônto.
They wouldn't be able to do this if they weren't following a temperate diet.

Future tense

The future tense (Greek (méll?n) "going to be") describes an event or a state of affairs that will happen in the future. For example, it can be something promised or predicted:

. [52]
áx? h?mâs eis t?n Tr?iáda.
I will lead you to the Troad.
? , ? . [53]
h?x? parà sè aúrion, eàn theòs ethél?i.
I will come to see you tomorrow, if God is willing.

It can also be used after ? (hóp?s) for strong commands and prohibitions:[54]

? . [55]
hóp?s taûta m?deìs anthr?p?n peúsetai.
Make sure that no one finds out about these things.

Aorist tense

The aorist tense (Greek (aóristos) "unbounded" or "indefinite") describes a finished action in the past.

? ? ?.[56]
katéb?n khthès eis Peiraiâ.
I went down yesterday to Piraeus.

Often in narrative it is found mixed with present and imperfect tenses:[57]

? ?.[58]
hêken ekeín? kaì t?n thúr?n ané?ixen.
She came back (imperfect) and opened (aorist) the door.
? ? .[59]
ephúlatten hé?s ex?ûren hó ti eí? tò aítion.
She kept watch (imperfect) until she found out (aorist) what the cause was.

Often an aorist is equivalent to an English pluperfect tense, for example after ? (epeí) "when" or in relative clauses in sentences such as the following:[60]

? ?' ?, .[61]
epeì d' edeípn?san, exêge tò stráteuma.
When they had dined, he led the army out.
.[62]
ekéleusé me t?n epistol?n h?n égrapsa doûnai
He ordered me to give him the letter which I had written.

Another meaning of the aorist indicative is to refer to unreal (counterfactual) events in past time. To give the meaning "would", the particle (án) is added:[63]

, .[64]
ouk àn epoí?sen taûta, ei m? eg? autòn ekéleusa.
He would not have done this, if I had not ordered him.

Perfect tense

The perfect tense (Greek (parakeímenos) "lying nearby"), much as the English perfect tense, often describes a recent event of which the present result is important:

, · [65]
ak?kóate, he?rákate; dikázete
You have heard and you have seen (the evidence); now make your decision.

It can also, like the English perfect, be used experientially, of something that has often or always happened in the past:

? [66]
humeîs emoû pollákis ak?kóate légontos
You have often heard me speaking.

In some verbs the perfect tense can be translated by a present tense in English, e.g. (mémn?mai) "I remember", (hést?ka) "I am standing"/"I stand", (kékt?mai) "I possess", ? (oîda) "I know":[67]

? ' ? ? ? [68]
h? st?l? par' hêi hést?kas khilí?s drakhms keleúei opheílein
The inscribed stone beside which you are standing orders that you owe 1000 drachmas.

Pluperfect tense

The pluperfect tense (Greek (hupersuntélikos) "more than completed"), like the Imperfect, is used only in the indicative mood. It refers to a situation that existed due to events that had taken place at an earlier time:[69]

? ? ? · ? ? ? .[70]
mála ?khthonto hóti hoi Héll?nes epepheúgesan; hò oúp? prósthen epepoi?kesan.
They were very annoyed that the Greeks had fled - something which they had never done before.

However, the pluperfect is much less frequently used in Greek than in English, since after conjunctions such as ? (epeí) "when", usually the aorist is used:[71]

? ?' ?, .[72]
epeì d' edeípn?san, exêge tò stráteuma.
And when they had had dinner (aorist), he began leading out the army.

Future perfect tense

The future perfect tense (Greek ? (suntelesménos méll?n) "going to be completed") is rarely used. In the active voice only two verbs (? (tethn?x?) "I will be dead" and (hést?xa) "I will be standing") have a separate form for the future perfect tense,[73] though a compound ("periphrastic") tense can be made with a perfect participle, e.g ? (egn?k?s éstai)[74] "he is going to have realised"; but even this is extremely rare. It is more common in the passive.[75] It describes a future state that will result from a finished action:

? ?.[76]
phílos h?mîn oudeìs leleípsetai.
No friend will have been left for us.

Moods

There are four moods ( enklíseis "bendings" or "leanings"):

Indicative

(Greek horistik? "for defining", from horíz? "I define").

The indicative is the form of the verb used for ordinary statements of fact:

.[77]
apékteine tòn ándra.
He killed the man.

To make the negative of the indicative, (ou) or, before a vowel, (ouk) is added before the verb:

? .[78]
ouk edúnato katheúdein.
He was not able to sleep.

The imperfect and aorist indicative can also sometimes refer to unreal (counterfactual) situations in present or past time ("would be doing", "should be doing", "would have done" etc.).[79] (For further examples see above.)

; .[80]
tí sigâis? ouk ekhrên sigân.
Why are you keeping quiet? You should not be keeping quiet.

Subjunctive

(Greek ? hupotaktik? "for arranging underneath", from hupotáss? "I arrange underneath").

The subjunctive generally has the letters ? (?) or ? (?) in the ending.

It is often used when the meaning is may, for example in purpose clauses, especially those referring to present or future time:[81]

?, [82]
lége, hína akoú?
Speak, so that I may hear (lit. so that I may be hearing).

The above example uses the present subjunctive, but the aorist subjunctive is equally correct, with a slightly different shade of meaning:

?, [83]
lége, hína akoús?
Speak, so that I may hear (lit. so that I may hear (straightaway)).

Another very common use of the subjunctive is in indefinite subordinate clauses following a conjunction such as ? (en) "if (it may be that)", ? (hótan) "whenever", (hòs án) "whoever", (hé?s án) "until such time as" etc., referring to present or future time.[84] When used with the subjunctive, such conjunctions are always joined with the particle (an):

?, ? ?[85]
lége, hé?s àn oíkade h?r? êi apiénai
Speak, until it is time to go home.

The subjunctive can also be used of something that it is suggested "should" happen, for example in exhortations, deliberative questions, and negative commands such as the following:[86]

, [87]
áge n?n, í?men
Come now, let's go.
? ? ?;[88]
eíp?men ? s?gômen?
Should we speak (aorist) or should we remain silent (present)?
.[89]
m? thaumás?is.
Don't be surprised.

The negative of the subjunctive, as in the above example, is (m?).

Optative

(Greek: ? euktik? "for wishing", from ? eúkhomai "I wish").

The optative mood can generally be recognised because it has the letters (oi), (ai) or (ei) in the ending.

One use of the optative mood is in conditional sentences referring to a hypothetical situation in the future. The particle (an) is added in the main clause to give the meaning "would":[90]

?, [91]
h?dé?s àn láboimi, ei didoí?
I would gladly take, if he were to give.

However, the optative mood is not used in sentences referring to a hypothetical situation in the present or past; in such sentences the optative is replaced by the imperfect, aorist, or pluperfect indicative, with (an) in the main clause.[92]

The optative mood is also used in reported speech in past time:[93]

[94]
eîpen hóti thûsaí ti boúloito
He said that he wished to make a sacrifice.

Just as the subjunctive is used after a conjunction meaning "whenever", "until such time as" etc. referring to present or future time, so the optative can be used in similar clauses referring to repeated events in past time. However, in this case the particle (an) is not added to the conjunction:[95]

, .[96]
eth?reuen, hopóte gumnásai boúloito heautón.
He used to hunt, whenever he wished to take exercise.

The optative can also be used for wishes:[97]

? ?.[98]
hò m? génoito.
Which may it not happen!

The optative can also be used in purpose clauses in past time, and after verbs of fearing in past time:[99]

? ? ? ?.[100]
ekálese gár tis autòn hóp?s ídoi tà hierá.
Someone had summoned him so that he could see the sacrificial entrails.
? ? ?.[101]
édeisan hoi Héll?nes autòn m? túrannos génoito.
The Greeks were afraid of him in case he might become a tyrant.

However, some authors, such as Herodotus and Thucydides, prefer to use the subjunctive in such clauses.[102]

Imperative

(Greek: prostaktik? "for commanding", from prostáss? "I command").

The present imperative is used for general commands:[103]

? , ? .[104]
toùs mèn theoùs phoboû, toùs dè goneîs tm?.
Fear the gods, and honour your parents.

The aorist imperative is used when the speaker wishes something done at once:

? ? ?.[105]
dóte moi xíphos hóp?s tákhista.
Give me a sword as quickly as possible!

It is also possible in Greek to have a 3rd person imperative, as in the following examples:

? .[106]
apagét? tis aut?n oíkade
Someone take her away home (at once).
? ? .[107]
theoì h?mîn mártures ést?n.
The gods be witnesses for us.

The imperative mood can also be used in the perfect tense, as the following example shows:

?, ? , .[108]
kéntr?i tôi A, diast?mati tôi AB, gegráphth? kúklos
Let a circle have been drawn with centre A, radius AB.

Non-finite verb forms

Infinitives

(Greek: aparémphatos "not indicated").

Forms of the infinitive (active)

The infinitive is found in all three voices, and in the present, aorist, future, and perfect tenses. The four infinitives of the active voice of the verb (lú?) "I free" are as follows:

  • Present : (lúein) "to free" (in general)
  • Future : ? (lúsein) "to be going to free"
  • Aorist : (lûsai) "to free" (at once)
  • Perfect : (lelukénai) "to have freed"

Many commonly used verbs, instead of an aorist infinitive in - (-sai), have one ending in - (-eîn) (with a circumflex accent) instead. This is called the "strong aorist" or "2nd aorist":

  • (Strong) aorist : (labeîn) "to take"

Root aorists take a different infinitive:

  • (Root) aorist : (bênai) "to go"

Contracting verbs have a present infinitive ending in - (-ân), - (-eîn) or - (-oûn):[109]

  • Present : ? (horân) "to see"
  • Present : (poieîn) "to do"
  • Present : (d?loûn) "to show"

Verbs ending in - (-mi), such as (díd?mi) "I give", have present and aorist infinitives which end in - (-nai):[110]

  • Present : ? (didónai) "to give" (in general)
  • Aorist : (doûnai) "to give" (now)

The irregular verb ? (oîda) "I know" also has an infinitive ending in - (-nai):[111]

  • Present : ? (eidénai) "to know"

Uses

The infinitive is often used after verbs with meanings such as "he wanted", "he ordered", "he tried", "it is necessary", "he is able" etc. much as in English:[112]

.[113]
ekéleusen autoùs apeltheîn.
He ordered them to go aside (aorist).

It can also be used for indirect speech after certain verbs such as ? (ph?mí) "I say" or (nomíz?) "I think".[114] The subject of the infinitive, if it is different from the subject of the main verb, is put in the accusative case. When the statement is negative, the word (ou) "not" goes in front of ? (ph?mí).

?.[115]
oú ph?sin eînai áll?n hodón.
"They say there is no other way" (lit. "they do not say there to be another way")

In Greek an infinitive is also often used with the neuter definite article in various constructions. In this case it is similar in meaning to the English verbal noun in "-ing":[116]

[117]
epéskhomen toû dakrúein.
We refrained from weeping.

Participles

Participles were given the name metokh? "sharing" by Greek grammarians, because they share the characteristics of both adjectives and verbs. Like adjectives, they have gender, case, and number and agree with the nouns that they modify, and, like verbs, they have tense and voice.

Forms of the participle

Participles exist for all three voices in the present, aorist, future, and perfect tenses. Typical endings for the masc. sg., fem. sg., and masc. pl. are as follows:

Active:

  • -, -?, - (-?n, -ousa, -ontes) - present
  • -, -, - (s?n, -sousa, -sontes) - future
  • -, -?, - (-ôn, -oûsa, -oûntes) - contracting future and contracting present
  • -, -?, - (-sas, -sasa, -santes) - weak aorist
  • -, -?, - (-?n, -oûsa, -óntes) - strong aorist
  • -, -, -? (-?s, -uîa, -ótes) - perfect

Middle and Passive:

  • -, -, - (-ómenos, -omén?, -ómenoi) - present and strong aorist middle
  • -?, -, -? (-sómenos, -somén?, -sómenoi) - future middle
  • -?, -, -? (-sámenos, -samén?, -sámenoi) - weak aorist middle
  • -?, -, - (-theís, -theîsa, -théntes) - weak aorist passive
  • -, -?, - (ménos, -mén?, -ménoi) - perfect middle or passive

An example of usage

Participles are very frequently used in Greek. For example, in the following sentence from Plato's Phaedo there are six participles:

? ? ? ? ? ? , ? .[118]
kaì ho paîs exelth?n kaì sukhnòn khrónon diatrps?s hêken ág?n tòn méllonta d?sein tò phármakon, en kúliki phéronta tetrimménon.
And the boy, after going out and after spending a long time, came back leading the one intending to give the poison, (who was) carrying it already pounded in a cup.

This example is analysed in the paragraphs below.

Different tenses of the participle

An aorist participle, such as ? (exelth?n) "after going out", usually refers to an action which preceded the time of the main verb:

? ?.
exelth?n hêken.
After going out he came back.

A present participle, such as ? (ág?n) "leading", is used to refer to an action which is taking place simultaneously with the main verb:

? ? ().
hêken ág?n tòn (ánthr?pon).
He came back leading the man.

A perfect participle, such as (tetrimménon) "pounded", generally refers to the state that something is in as a result of an earlier action, e.g. "fallen", "dead", "broken" etc., rather than to the action itself:

? .
tò phármakon en kúliki phéronta tetrimménon.
Carrying the poison already pounded in a cup.

A future participle refers to an action which is to take place after the time of the main verb, and is often used to indicate purpose:[119]

? [120]
eis Ath?nas épleuse taûta exangelôn
He sailed to Athens to report (lit. going to report) these things.

Agreement

Because it is an adjective as well as a verb, a participle has to agree in case, gender, and number with the noun it refers to.[121] Thus in the first example above:

  • ? (exelth?n) "after going out", ? (diatrps?s) "after spending", and ? (ág?n) "leading" are all masculine singular nominative, since they refer to the boy who is the subject of the verb ? (hêken) "came back";
  • (méllonta ) "intending" and ? (phéronta) "carrying" are both masculine singular accusative, since they refer to the man who is the object of the participle ? (?) "leading";
  • (tetrimménon) "pounded" is neuter singular accusative, since it describes the poison (phármakon) which is the object of the participle ? (phéronta) "carrying".

Circumstantial participle

A participle frequently describes the circumstances in which another action took place. Often it is translated with "-ing", e.g. ? (ág?n) "leading" in the example above.

In some sentences it can be translated with a clause beginning "when" or "since":

? ... ?[122]
katid?n t?n mákh?n ... ebo?thei
When he saw the battle he went to help.

Another frequent use is in a construction known as the "genitive absolute", when the participle and its subject are placed in the genitive case. This construction is used when the participle refers to someone or something who is not the subject, object, or indirect object of the main verb:[123]

? [124]
enk?san Lakedaimónioi h?gouménou Ag?sandrídou
The Spartans won, with Agesandridas leading them.

But if the verb is an impersonal one, it is put in the accusative, e.g. ? (éxon) "it being possible".[125]

Participle with the article

Sometimes a participle is used with the article, in which case it can often be translated with "who":

.
tòn méllonta d?sein tò phármakon.
The (man who was) going to give the poison.

Supplementary participle

As well as being used in sentences such as the above, the participle can be used following verbs with meanings such as "I know", "I notice", "I happen (to be)", "I hear (that)" and so on. This use is known as the "supplementary" participle.[126]

?.[127]
?kouse Kûron en Kilikíi ónta.
He heard that Cyrus was in Cilicia (lit. he heard Cyrus being in Cilicia).
? ? .[128]
étukhe kaì ho Alkibiád?s par?n.
Alcibiades also happened to be present (lit. chanced being present).

Voices

The Ancient Greek grammar has three voices. The middle and the passive voice are the same except in the future and aorists.

Active voice

An active voice verb is any verb which has the endings of the -? or - verbs described above. It can be intransitive, transitive or reflexive (but intransitive is most common):

?.[129]
eis Ath?n?s épleuse.
He sailed to Athens.
.[130]
ephúlatton tà teíkh?
They were guarding the walls.
?.[131]
autòs hautòn diéphtheiren.
He killed himself.

Middle voice

In addition to the active endings (-? -? and - -mi) described above, many verbs also have a set of endings in -? (-omai) or - (-mai) which can be either passive or non-passive in meaning. When the meaning of such a verb is not passive, it is known as a "middle voice" verb.

Middle voice verbs are usually intransitive, but can also be transitive. Often the middle endings make a transitive verb intransitive:

  • ? (paúomai) "I stop (intransitive)"
  • ? (hístamai) "I stand (intransitive)"

Sometimes there is a reflexive meaning or an idea of doing something for one's own benefit:[132]

  • ? (loúomai) "I have a bath"
  • (hairéomai) "I take for myself, I choose"
  • (metapémpomai) "I send for someone"

Sometimes there can be a reciprocal meaning:[133]

  • ? (spondàs poieîsthai ) "to make a treaty"

Quite a number of verbs which are active in the present tense become middle in the future tense, e.g.:[134]

  • ? (l?psomai) "I will take"
  • (akoúsomai) "I will hear"
  • (ésomai) "I will be".

Deponent verbs

A number of common verbs ending in -? (-omai) or - (-mai) have no active-voice counterpart. These are known as "deponent" verbs.

Deponent middle verbs include verbs such as the following:

  • ? (aphiknéomai) "I arrive"
  • (apokrínomai) "I answer"
  • (gígnomai) "I become"
  • ? (dékhomai) "I receive"
  • ? (érkhomai) "I come"
  • ? (mákhomai) "I fight"
  • ? (punthánomai) "I find out"
  • (hupiskhnéomai) "I promise"

Some middle deponent verbs have a weak aorist tense formed with -- (-sa-), e.g. (edexám?n), but frequently they have a strong aorist middle such as (aphikóm?n) "I arrived" or (egenóm?n) "I became".[135] (? (érkhomai) "I come" is irregular in that it uses a strong aorist active (êlthon) "I came" as its aorist tense.)

All the above, since they have an aorist in the middle voice, are known as middle deponents. There are also deponent passive verbs with aorists in -- (-th?-), such as the following:[136]

  • ? (dúnamai) "I am able"
  • (boúlomai) "I am minded to, I want"
  • (oíomai) "I think"

Some examples of deponent verbs in use are the following:

? ?.[137]
tà dôra edéxato.
He received the gifts.
, .[138]
engùs dè genomén?n tôn Ath?naí?n, emákhonto.
When the Athenians came near, the two sides began fighting.
? [139]
oukéti edun?th? pleí? eipeîn
He became unable to say any more.

Passive voice

Occasionally a verb ending in -? (-omai) has a clear passive sense. If so, it is said to be in the passive voice:

? ? .[140]
h? pólis hupò tôn Lakedaimoní?n ?rkheto.
The city was being ruled by the Spartans.
? .[141]
en tôi nóm?i gégraptai.
It is written in the law. (lit. it has been written)

Usually when used passively, -? (-omai) verbs have an aorist tense containing -- (-th?-) in the ending:

? ' ?.[142]
ekeînoi kat' axí?n etim?th?san.
Those men were deservedly honoured.

Occasionally, an aorist passive can have an ending with -?- (-?-). This is known as the 2nd aorist or strong aorist passive, and uses a different verb-stem from the present. In the example below, the stem is ?- instead of the present stem -:[143]

.[144]
hoi polloì ephthár?san.
The majority were killed.

Deponent middle verbs can also be made passive in some tenses. Thus (hairéomai) "I choose" has an aorist passive (h?iréth?n) "I was chosen":

' .[145]
strat?gòs hup' autôn h?iréth?.
He was chosen by them as general.

The endings with -- (-th?-) and -?- (-?-) were originally intransitive actives rather than passives[146] and sometimes have an intransitive meaning even in Classical Greek. For example, (es?th?) (from ? s?íz? "I save") often means "I got back safely" rather than "I was saved":

? ? ?.[147]
ouk es?th? h? naûs eis tòn Peiraiâ.
The ship did not get back safely to Piraeus.

See also

References

  1. ^ Smyth, Herbert Weir (1920). "Part II: Inflection". A Greek grammar for colleges. Cambridge: American Book Company. §§ 602, 717.
  2. ^ Plato, Ion 531a
  3. ^ Smyth. A Greek grammar for colleges. § 774.
  4. ^ Perseus PhiloLogic search engine
  5. ^ Smyth. A Greek grammar for colleges. § 794.
  6. ^ Based on table in Hansen, Hardy; Quinn, Gerald M. (1992). Greek: An Intensive Course (2nd rev. ed.). p. 41.
  7. ^ For perfective present see Smyth. A Greek grammar for colleges. § 1853.
  8. ^ Smyth. A Greek grammar for colleges. § 359.
  9. ^ Smyth. A Greek grammar for colleges. §§ 1863c, 2218, 2287, 2231, 2229a.
  10. ^ Smyth. A Greek grammar for colleges. §§ 1885, 1907.
  11. ^ Plato, Protagoras 317c
  12. ^ Antiphon, 5.29
  13. ^ Smyth. A Greek grammar for colleges. § 535.
  14. ^ Perseus project "Logeion"
  15. ^ Liddell, Scott, & Jones Greek Lexicon
  16. ^ Smyth. A Greek grammar for colleges. § 428.ff
  17. ^ Smyth. A Greek grammar for colleges. §§ 435, 431.
  18. ^ Aristophanes
  19. ^ Xenophon
  20. ^ Liddell & Scott Greek Lexicon
  21. ^ Smyth. A Greek grammar for colleges. § 438.
  22. ^ Smyth. A Greek grammar for colleges. § 439.ff
  23. ^ Smyth. A Greek grammar for colleges. § 441.
  24. ^ Smyth. A Greek grammar for colleges. § 442.
  25. ^ Smyth. A Greek grammar for colleges. § 1875.ff
  26. ^ Xenophon, Agesilaus 5.5, Symposium 4.11
  27. ^ Xenophon, Anabasis 1.8.26
  28. ^ Plato, Gorgias 490e
  29. ^ Plato, Protagoras 310b
  30. ^ Xenophon, Anabasis 1.8.26
  31. ^ Smyth. A Greek grammar for colleges. § 1889.ff
  32. ^ Xenophon, Cyropaedia 2.2.9
  33. ^ Xenophon, Anabasis 2.4.10
  34. ^ Lysias, 1.10
  35. ^ Smyth. A Greek grammar for colleges. § 1892.
  36. ^ Xenophon, Agesilaus 2.12
  37. ^ Lysias, 1.11
  38. ^ Xenophon, Anabasis 2.4.24
  39. ^ Smyth. A Greek grammar for colleges. § 1892.
  40. ^ Thucydides, 2.23.2
  41. ^ Demosthenes, 47.67
  42. ^ Smyth. A Greek grammar for colleges. §§ 1891, 1908.
  43. ^ Thucydides, 2.6.1
  44. ^ Xenophon, Hellenica 1.1.4
  45. ^ Lysias, 1.23
  46. ^ cf. Smyth. A Greek grammar for colleges. § 1891.
  47. ^ Smyth. A Greek grammar for colleges. § 1909.
  48. ^ Rijksbaron, Albert (2006). The Syntax and Semantics of the Verb in Classical Greek: An Introduction (3rd ed.). Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press. § 6.2.4.
  49. ^ Xenophon, Anabasis 7.3.7
  50. ^ Smyth. A Greek grammar for colleges. § 2304.ff
  51. ^ Xenophon, Cyropaedia 1.2.16
  52. ^ Xenophon, Anabasis 5.6.23
  53. ^ Plato, La. 201c
  54. ^ Smyth. A Greek grammar for colleges. § 1920.
  55. ^ Lysias, 1.21
  56. ^ Plato, Republic 327a
  57. ^ Smyth. A Greek grammar for colleges. §§ 1908, 1927.
  58. ^ Lysias, 1.14
  59. ^ Lysias, 1.15
  60. ^ Smyth. A Greek grammar for colleges. § 1943.
  61. ^ Xenophon, Cyropaedia 4.2.9
  62. ^ Xenophon, Cyropaedia 2.2.9
  63. ^ Smyth. A Greek grammar for colleges. § 2305.ff
  64. ^ Xenophon, Anabasis 6.6.15
  65. ^ Lysias, 12.100
  66. ^ Plato, Apology 31c
  67. ^ Smyth. A Greek grammar for colleges. § 1946.
  68. ^ Andocides, 1.116
  69. ^ Smyth. A Greek grammar for colleges. § 1952.
  70. ^ Xenophon, Anabasis 5.4.18
  71. ^ Smyth. A Greek grammar for colleges. § 1943.; but cf. Xen. Anabasis 5.4.18
  72. ^ Xenophon, Cyropaedia 4.2.9
  73. ^ Smyth. A Greek grammar for colleges. § 584.
  74. ^ Demosthenes, 1.14
  75. ^ Smyth. A Greek grammar for colleges. § 1955.ff
  76. ^ Xenophon, Anabasis 2.4.5
  77. ^ Antiphon, 2.1
  78. ^ Xenophon, Anabasis 3.1.11
  79. ^ Smyth. A Greek grammar for colleges. §§ 2303, 1774.
  80. ^ Euripides, Hippolytus 295
  81. ^ Smyth. A Greek grammar for colleges. § 2193.
  82. ^ Plato, Lysis 211b
  83. ^ Plato, Phaedrus 263e
  84. ^ Smyth. A Greek grammar for colleges. §§ 1768, 2297, 2401.
  85. ^ Plato, Lysis 211b
  86. ^ Smyth. A Greek grammar for colleges. §§ 1797, 1805, 1841.
  87. ^ Aristophanes, Peace 850
  88. ^ Euripides, Ion 758
  89. ^ Plato, Phaedrus 238d
  90. ^ Smyth. A Greek grammar for colleges. § 2329.
  91. ^ Xenophon, Cyropaedia3.2.28
  92. ^ Smyth. A Greek grammar for colleges. § 2303.
  93. ^ Smyth. A Greek grammar for colleges. § 2619.
  94. ^ Xenophon, Anabasis 7.2.14
  95. ^ Smyth. A Greek grammar for colleges. § 2414.
  96. ^ Xenophon, Anabasis 1.2.7
  97. ^ Smyth. A Greek grammar for colleges. § 1814.
  98. ^ Demosthenes, 25.30 etc.
  99. ^ Smyth. A Greek grammar for colleges. §§ 2196, 2221.
  100. ^ Xenophon, Anabasis 2.1.9
  101. ^ Xenophon, Hellenica 6.4.32
  102. ^ Smyth. A Greek grammar for colleges. §§ 2197, 2225.
  103. ^ Smyth. A Greek grammar for colleges. § 1864.
  104. ^ Isocrates, 1.16
  105. ^ Aristophanes, The Wasps 165
  106. ^ Plato, Phaedo 60a
  107. ^ Xenophon, Cyropaedia 4.6.10
  108. ^ Euclid, Elements 1.1
  109. ^ Smyth. A Greek grammar for colleges. § 385.
  110. ^ Smyth. A Greek grammar for colleges. § 416.
  111. ^ Smyth. A Greek grammar for colleges. § 794.
  112. ^ Smyth. A Greek grammar for colleges. §§ 1991, 1992.
  113. ^ Thucydides, 6.58.1
  114. ^ Smyth. A Greek grammar for colleges. §§ 2016, 2017, 2018.
  115. ^ Xenophon, Anabasis 4.1.21
  116. ^ Smyth. A Greek grammar for colleges. §§ 2025, 2032.
  117. ^ Plato, Phaedo 117e
  118. ^ Plato, Phaedo 117a
  119. ^ Smyth. A Greek grammar for colleges. §§ 2044, 2065.
  120. ^ Xenophon, Hellenica 1.1.9
  121. ^ Smyth. A Greek grammar for colleges. § 2056.
  122. ^ Xenophon, Hellenica 1.1.4
  123. ^ Smyth. A Greek grammar for colleges. § 2070.
  124. ^ Xenophon, Hellenica 1.1.2
  125. ^ Smyth. A Greek grammar for colleges. § 2076.
  126. ^ Smyth. A Greek grammar for colleges. § 2088.ff
  127. ^ Xenophon, Anabasis 1.4.5
  128. ^ Thucydides, 5.76.3
  129. ^ Xenophon, Hellenica 1.1.8
  130. ^ Xenophon, Hellenica 4.4.14
  131. ^ Xenophon, Hellenica 7.4.19
  132. ^ Smyth. A Greek grammar for colleges. §§ 1719, 1721.
  133. ^ Smyth. A Greek grammar for colleges. §§ 1722, 1726.
  134. ^ Smyth. A Greek grammar for colleges. § 1728.
  135. ^ Smyth. A Greek grammar for colleges. § 810.
  136. ^ Smyth. A Greek grammar for colleges. §§ 811, 812.
  137. ^ Xenophon, Hellenica 7.1.38
  138. ^ Xenophon, Anabasis 6.6.5
  139. ^ Xenophon, Cyropaedia 5.4.31
  140. ^ Lysias, 26.2
  141. ^ Isaeus, 6.63
  142. ^ Aeschines, 3.118
  143. ^ Smyth. A Greek grammar for colleges. § 1739.
  144. ^ Thucydides, 2.99.5
  145. ^ Lysias, 12.65
  146. ^ Smyth. A Greek grammar for colleges. §§ 1739, 1740.
  147. ^ Demosthenes, 56.41

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