Angami Naga
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Angami Naga

Angami Naga
Total population
141,722 (2011 census)
Languages
Angami language (Sino-Tibetan)
Religion
Christianity (98.22%),
Animism (0.71%).[1]

The Angamis are a major Naga ethnic group native to the state of Nagaland in North-East India. The Angami Nagas are settled in Kohima District and Dimapur District of Nagaland and are also recognized as one of the ethnic groups in the state of Manipur.[2] The Angamis are divided into four regions namely Chakhro Angami, Northern Angami, Southern Angami and Western Angami. The now separated Chakhesangs were previously known as the Eastern Angamis.

Division

The territory of the Angamis is mostly located in the present Kohima and Dimapur District of Nagaland with a major part of its territory also lying in the Senapati District of Manipur. The territory is divided into four regions :

Southern Angami

This region also known as Japfüphiki is bounded on the south by the Mao Nagas, on the southwest by the Maram Nagas, on the west by the Zeliangrongs, on the northwest by the Western Angamis, on the north by the Northern Angamis, on the northeast by the Chokri Chakhesangs and on the southeast by the Khezha Chakhesangs.

The towns and villages are :

  • Viswema, Jakhama, Kigwema, Phesama, Kidima, Khuzama, Mima, Mitelephe, Pfuchama, Kezoma, Chakhabama and Kezo Town.

Western Angami

This region is bounded by the Zeliangrongs on the west, on the southeast by the Southern Angamis, on the east by the Northern Angamis and on the northwest by the Chakhro Angamis.

The towns and villages are :

  • Khonoma, Jotsoma, Mezoma, Sechü, Sechü-Zubza, Kiruphema, Peducha, Mengoujuma, Thekrejüma and Dzülekie

Northern Angami

This region is bounded by the Western Angamis on the west, on the south by the Southern Angamis, on the east by the Chakhesang Nagas, the northeast by the Sumi Nagas, on the north by the Rengma Nagas and on the northwest by the Western Sumis.

The towns and villages are :

  • Kewhira/Kohima, Chiechama, Nachama, Tuophema, Zhadima, Tsiemekhuma, Chüziema, Chedema, Meriema, Nerhema, Chiephobozou, Gariphema, Dihoma, Rüsoma, Tsiesema, Tsiesema basa, Seiyhama, Botsa and Phekerkrie

Chakhro Angami

Mostly small towns and villages around Dimapur District with large towns and villages being Medziphema, Chümoukedima, Sovima, Rüzaphema, etc. Other villages include Piphema, Tsiepama, Vidima, Kirha, Pherima, etc.

Former Eastern Angami

The former Eastern Angamis have separated and are now recognised as the Chakhesang Nagas.

Culture

Captain Butler and assembled Nagas; seated left to right: Lt. Ridgeway, Capt. Butler, Angami Naga interpreter Sezele of Chephama, Mikir coolie. Standing left to right: Angami Naga, Inspector of Police, Angami Naga Dotsole of Chedema, Angami Naga, Rengma Naga, Commander in Chief Manipur Army, (sacred tree with skulls), ?, 2 Rengma Nagas, Dr Brown - Political Agent, Manipur

The Angami Nagas are hill people depending basically on cultivation and livestock-rearing. The Angamis are known for terraced wet-rice cultivation; because of this labor-intensive cultivation, land is the most important form of property among them. They are one of the only two groups of Nagas out of the seventeen who practice wet-rice cultivation on terraces made on the hill slopes. This allows them to cultivate the same plot year after year. They depend, to a very small extent, on slash-and-burn cultivation.

Social stratification is not observed in the Angami community. Traditionally, property was divided equally among sons with daughters also receiving a share; in modern families it is shared among children. The youngest male in the family inherits the parental home, Kithoki, which means he is responsible for their care until they pass away.

Religion

Christianity

The Angami Christians are composed of five major denominations: Baptist, Revival, Roman Catholic, Pentecostal and Seventh-day Adventist. Baptists constitute more than 80% of the total Angami Christian population and all the Baptist churches in their region are under the Angami Baptist Church Council.

Other religions

Although more than 98% of the Angamis are Christians, they are one of the last Naga tribes having an animist population. The Angami animists practice a religion known as Pfutsana. According to the 1991 census, there were 1,760 Angami practitioners, but 10 years later the figure had halved to 884.[3] Currently there are several hundred adherents of the Pfutsana religion, scattered in nine villages of the southern Kohima district.[4] A religious organization, 'Japfuphiki Pfutsana', was founded in 1987 to streamline indigenous religious practices among the Angamis. According to the 2011 Census, 98.62% of the Angami are Christian, 0.47% are Buddhist, 0.37% Hindu, 0.24% Muslim and 0.19% Pfutsana.

Sekrenyi festival

The Angamis celebrate a ten-day festival called Sekrenyi[5] (sometimes also called Phousanyi) in February. The term Sekrenyi literally means sanctification festival (sekre= sanctification; nyi = feast; thenyi = festival). The festival takes places after the harvest and falls on the twenty-fifth day of the month Kezei (January-February).

See also

References

  1. ^ Table ST-14, Indian Census of 2001
  2. ^ "The Constitution (Scheduled Tribes): Order, 1950". Ministry of Law and Justice (India). Archived from the original on 20 September 2017. Retrieved 2015.
  3. ^ Table ST-14, Table ST-14a, Census of India 2001
  4. ^ "nscn: Japfuphiki Pfutsana annual feast". Nscn.livejournal.com. 26 March 2006. Retrieved 2014.
  5. ^ "Festival of Angami Naga". Nagaland.nic.in. Archived from the original on 20 June 2014. Retrieved 2014.

Further reading

  • Alban von Stockhausen: Imag(in)ing the Nagas: The Pictorial Ethnography of Hans-Eberhard Kauffmann and Christoph von Fürer-Haimendorf. Arnoldsche, Stuttgart 2014, ISBN 978-3-89790-412-5.
  • Durkheim, E. and Mauss, 1963. Primitive Classification. (trans. R. Needham), London, Free Press.
  • Edsman, C.M., 1987. 'Fire', The Encyclopaedia of Religion, vol. 5, ed. by M. Eliade. pp. 340-46. New York, Macmillan Publishing Company.
  • Hutton, J.H., 1969. The Angami Nagas, Bombay, Oxford University Press. (first published in 1921 by Macmillan & Co. London).
  • Joshi, Vibha. A Matter of Belief: Christian Conversion and Healing in North-East India (Berghahn Books; 2012) 298 pages; a study of Christian conversion and the revival of traditional animist culture among the Angami Naga.
  • Rudhardt, J., 1987. 'Water', The Encyclopaedia of Religion, vol. 15, ed. by M. Eliade, pp. 350-61. New York, Macmillan Publishing Company.
  • Stirn, Aglaja & Peter van Ham. The Hidden world of the Naga: Living Traditions in Northeast India. London: Prestel.
  • Oppitz, Michael, Thomas Kaiser, Alban von Stockhausen & Marion Wettstein. 2008. Naga Identities: Changing Local Cultures in the Northeast of India. Gent: Snoeck Publishers.
  • Kunz, Richard & Vibha Joshi. 2008. Naga - A Forgotten Mountain Region Rediscovered. Basel: Merian.
  • Jonathan Glancey.2011.Nagaland- A journey to India's Forgotten Frontier :Faber and Faber .

External links


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