In phonology, apocope () is the loss (elision) of one or more sounds from the end of a word, especially the loss of an unstressed vowel.
Apocope comes from the Greek ? (apokop?) from ? (apokóptein) "cutting off", from - (apo-) "away from" and ? (kóptein) "to cut".
Historical sound change
In historical linguistics, apocope is often the loss of an unstressed vowel.
Loss of an unstressed vowel or vowel and nasal
- Vulgar Latin panem -> Spanish pan (bread)
- Vulgar Latin lupum -> French loup (wolf)
- Proto-Germanic *land? -> Old, Middle, and Modern English land
- Old English lufu -> Modern English love (noun)
- Old English lufian -> Modern English love (verb)
Loss of other sounds
In Estonian and the Sami languages, apocopes explain the forms of grammatical cases. For example, a nominative is described as having apocope of the final vowel, but the genitive does not have it. Throughout its history, however, the genitive case marker has also undergone apocope: Estonian linn ("a city") and linna ("of a city") are derived from linna and linnan respectively, as can still be seen in the corresponding Finnish word.
In the genitive form, the final /n/, while it was being deleted, blocked the loss of /a/. In Colloquial Finnish, the final vowel is sometimes omitted from case markers.
Some languages have apocopations that are internalized as mandatory forms. In Spanish and Italian, for example, some adjectives that come before the noun lose the final vowel or syllable if they precede a noun (mainly) in the masculine singular form. In Spanish, some adverbs and cardinal and ordinal numbers have apocopations as well.
- grande ("big, great") -> gran -> gran mujer (feminine) ("great woman". However, if the adjective follows the noun, the final syllable remains, but the meaning may also change: mujer grande, meaning "large woman")
- bueno ("good") -> buen -> buen hombre (masculine) ("good man"; the final vowel remains in hombre bueno, with no accompanying change in meaning)
- tanto ("so much") -> tan ("so") -> tan hermoso ("so beautiful")
- Cardinal numbers
- Ordinal numbers
- primero ("first") -> primer -> primer premio ("first prize")
- segundo ("second") -> según ("according to") -> según él ("according to him")
- tercero ("third") -> tercer -> tercer lugar ("third place")
- postrero ("final") -> postrer -> postrer día ("final day")
Various sorts of informal abbreviations might be classed as apocope:
- English photograph -> photo
- English animation -> Japanese anim?shon (?) -> anime ()
- English synchronization -> sync, synch, syncro, or synchro
- English Alexander -> Alex, Alec and so on with other hypocorisms
- English clitoris -> clit:109
- French sympathique -> sympa, meaning "nice"
- French réactionnaire -> réac, meaning "reactionary"
- Spanish fotografía -> foto, meaning "photography"
- Spanish televisión -> tele, meaning "television" (cf. French télé for télévision)
- Israeli Hebrew ? lehitraot -> lehit, meaning "see you, goodbye":155
For a list of similar apocopations in the English language, see List of English apocopations.
Diminutives in Australian English lists many apocopations.
The process is also linguistically subsumed under one called clipping, or truncation.
- Crowley, Terry. (1997) An Introduction to Historical Linguistics. 3rd edition. Oxford University Press.