Arabesques (Debussy)
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Arabesques Debussy

The Two Arabesques (Deux arabesques), L. 66, is a pair of arabesques composed for piano by Claude Debussy when he was still in his twenties, between the years 1888 and 1891.

Although quite an early work, the arabesques contain hints of Debussy's developing musical style. The suite is one of the very early impressionistic pieces of music, following the French visual art form. Debussy seems to wander through modes and keys, and achieves evocative scenes through music. His view of a musical arabesque was a line curved in accordance with nature, and with his music he mirrored the celebrations of shapes in nature made by the Art Nouveau artists of the time.[1] Of the arabesque in baroque music, he wrote:[2]

"that was the age of the 'wonderful arabesque' when music was subject to the laws of beauty inscribed in the movements of Nature herself."

The arabesques

The two arabesques are given these tempo marks:[3]

  1. Andantino con moto
  2. Allegretto scherzando

Arabesque No. 1. Andantino con moto

This arabesque is in the key of E major. The piece begins with parallelism of triads in first inversion, a composition technique very much used by Debussy and other Impressionists which traces back to the tradition of fauxbourdon. It leads into a larger section which begins with a left hand arpeggio in E major and a descending right hand E major pentatonic progression.

The second quieter B section is in A major, starting with a gesture (E-D-E-C), briefly passing through E major, returning to A major and ending with a bold pronouncement of the E-D-E-C gesture, but transposed to the key of C major and played forte.

In the middle of the recapitulation of the A section, the music moves to a higher register and descends, followed by a large pentatonic scale ascending and descending, and resolving back to E major.

Arabesque No. 2. Allegretto scherzando

The second arabesque in G major is noticeably quicker and more lively in tempo. It opens with left hand chords and right hand trills. The piece makes several transpositions and explores a lower register of the piano. Again notable is a hint of the pentatonic scale. It closes in a similar fashion to the first arabesque. The style more closely resembles some of Debussy's later works.

In popular culture

Arabesque No. 1 is generally the more well-known of the two, being a readily-recognized piece of classical music and making its way into such things as phone ringtones.

Arabesque No. 1 is used in the Japanese movie All about Lily Chou-Chou (2001), the title of which refers an enigmatic pop star who bears the nicknames of Debussy's wife and daughter.

Arabesque No. 1 is used as background music in the video "Masterpieces Of The Met", to accompany the images and verbal description (by Met director Philippe de Montebello) of a painting by the French Impressionist artist Monet.

Arabesque No. 1 is appropriated on R&B/Soul singer Alicia Keys' track "Like the Sea", from her 4th studio album The Element of Freedom.[4] Arabesque No. 1 was also sampled by the American musician Panda Bear on the track "Lonely Wanderer", which features on his 2015 album Panda Bear Meets the Grim Reaper.

In the video game Final Fantasy V, the character may play various pianos which are found throughout the game, which plays small musical segments simulating a gradually-improving grasp of piano technique. The final segment uses a small, adapted excerpt from the first Arabesque.[5]

Marching band composer and arranger Key Poulan arranged the second arabesque for marching band in Alfred Hitchcock's movie The Birds.[6][not in citation given]

In 2001 the British composer Kenneth Hesketh arranged the Arabesques for flute, clarinet, harp and string quartet. The scores are available from Schott Music, London.


  1. ^ Stillman, Mimi (Fall 2007). "Debussy, Painter of Sound and Image". The Flutist Quarterly. 33 (1): 41-46.
  2. ^ Lesure & Smith (eds.) Debussy on Music 1977, p84. Cited in Stillman, Mimi (Fall 2007). "Debussy, Painter of Sound and Image". The Flutist Quarterly. 33 (1): 41-46.
  3. ^ Olson, Lynn Freeman (1985). Debussy -- Deux Arabesques for the Piano. Alfred Music Publishing. ISBN 0739023063.
  4. ^ "Alicia Keys's Like the Sea sample of Claude Debussy's Arabesque No. 1". Who Sampled. Limited. Retrieved 2012.
  5. ^ Djibriel. "Final Fantasy V Walkthrough". Caves of Narshe FF5. Josh Alvies (Rangers51). Retrieved 2012.
  6. ^ "Alfred Hitchcock's - The Birds (Full Instrumentation)". Key Poulan Music. Retrieved 2012.

External links

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