Arabic Names of Calendar Months
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Arabic Names of Calendar Months

The Arabic names of the months of the Gregorian calendar are usually phonetic Arabic pronunciations of the corresponding month names used in European languages. An exception is the Syriac calendar used in Mesopotamia and the Levant, which is inherited from Classical Arabic and correspond to roughly the same time of year.[1]

Though the lunar Hijri calendar and solar Hijri calendar are prominent in the Mideast, the Gregorian calendar is and has been used in nearly all the countries of the Arab world, in many places long before European occupation of some of them.[] All Arab states use the Gregorian calendar for civil purposes. The names of the Gregorian months as used in Egypt, Sudan, and Yemen are widely regarded as standard across the Arab world,[] although their Classical Arabic names are often used alongside them.[] In other Arab countries, some modification or actual changes in naming or pronunciation of months are observed.

Levant and Mesopotamia

These names are used primarily in Iraq, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon and Palestine. They are inherited from Classical Arabic and ultimately derived from the Syriac names of the Assyrian calendar. These names are cognate with some of the names of the Babylonian and Hebrew calendars. Nine of these names were used in the Ottoman Turkish calendar, of which five remain in use in the modern Turkish calendar.

No. Month Arabic name Transliteration Syriac name
1 January ? K?n?n ath-Th?n? ? ?
2 February Shub
3 March ?r
4 April Nays?n ?
5 May ? ?Ayy?r
6 June ?az?r?n
7 July ? Tamm?z ?
8 August b
9 September ?Ayl?l
10 October Tishr?n al-?Awwal ?
11 November Tishr?n ath-Th?n? ?
12 December ? K?n?n al-?Awwal ? ?

Egypt, Sudan, Arabic Gulf countries

The names of the Gregorian months in Egypt, Sudan and the Arabic Gulf states are based on the old Latin names.

No. Month Arabic name Transliteration Latin name Egyptian pronunciation
1 January Yan?yir Ianuarius [jæ'næ:je?]
2 February Fibr?yir Februarius [feb':je?]
3 March ? M?rs Martius ['mæ:?es]
4 April / ?Abr?l / ?Ibr?l Aprilis [b'?i:l, ?æb-]
5 May ? M?y? Maius ['mæ:ju]
6 June / Y?ny? / Y?nyah Iunius ['jonjæ, -jo]
7 July / Y?ly? / Y?lyah Iulius ['joljæ, -ju]
8 August ?Aghus?us Augustus ['?ost?os, ?o'-]
9 September Sibtambar September [seb'tæmbe?, -'tem-, -'t?m-]
10 October ?Ukt?bar October [ok'to:b, ek-, ?k-]
11 November N?fambar November [no'væmbe?, -'vem-, -'fæm-,
-'fem-, -'v?m-, -'f?m-]
12 December D?sambar December [de'sæmbe?, -'sem-, -'s?m-]

Libya (1969-2011)

The names of months used in the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya were derived from various sources, and were assembled after Muammar al-Gaddafi's seizure of power in 1969 and abolished in 2011 after the 17 February Revolution. The decision of changing calendar names was adopted in June 1986.[2] Although the Libyan calendar followed the same sequence of the (renamed) Gregorian months, it counted the years from the death of the prophet Muhammad.[3] This reckoning was therefore ten years behind the Solar Hijri calendar used in Iran and Afghanistan.

No. Month Arabic name Transliteration Meaning[4]
1 January Ayy an-N?r that of the fires
2 February an-Nuww?r the mornings
3 March ar-Rab the spring
al-Mirrij was also used[5]
4 April a?-?ayr the bird
5 May al-M the water
6 June a?-?ayf the summer
7 July ? Nir from Gamal Abd el-Nasser
8 August ? H?n?b?l from Hannibal Barca
9 September al-F?ti? the lightened
10 October / at-Tum?r / ath-Thum?r the dates
11 November al-?arth the tillage
12 December ? al-K?n?n the canon

Algeria and Tunisia

The names of the Gregorian months in Algeria and Tunisia are based on the French names of the months, reflecting France's long colonisation of these countries (1830-1962 in Algeria; 1881-1956 in Tunisia).

No. Month Arabic name Transliteration French name
1 January J?nv? Janvier
2 February F?vr? Février
3 March ? M?rs / M?ris Mars
4 April Avr?l Avril
5 May M?y Mai
6 June ? Juw?n Juin
7 July Juw?liyya Juillet
8 August ?t Août
9 September Sibtambir Septembre
10 October Ukt?bir Octobre
11 November N?vambir Novembre
12 December D?sambir Décembre

Morocco

As Morocco was long part of the Roman Empire, the long-standing agricultural Berber calendar of the country preserves the Julian calendar and (in modified form) the names of its months. There are regional variations of the Berber calendar, since some communities did not recognise the Julian 29 February in century years where the Gregorian calendar had no equivalent date. When Morocco adopted the Gregorian calendar for civil purposes, the names of the months were taken from this local tradition.

No. Month Arabic name Transliteration
1 January Yann?yir
2 February Fibr?yir
3 March ? M?rs
4 April ?Ibr?l
5 May M?y
6 June Y?niy?
7 July Y?liy?z
8 August Ghusht
9 September Shutanbir
10 October ?Ukt?bir
11 November Nuwanbir
12 December Dujanbir

See also

References

  1. ^ "The months of the Gregorian (Christian) calendar in various languages: Arabic". Archived from the original on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 2007.
  2. ^ "Libya Changes Names Of Months On Calendar - Sun Sentinel". Articles.sun-sentinel.com. Agence France-Presse. 23 June 1986. Retrieved 2013.
  3. ^ "ACM: Months". Library.princeton.edu. Archived from the original on 20 June 2010. Retrieved 2013.
  4. ^ "Libyan Arab Jamahiriya - ? ". Sites.google.com. Retrieved 2013.
  5. ^ "Tratamiento del árabe". Conf-dts1.unog.ch. Retrieved 2013.

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