Archive.org
Get Archive.org essential facts below. View Videos or join the Archive.org discussion. Add Archive.org to your PopFlock.com topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.
Archive.org

Coordinates: 37°46?56?N 122°28?18?W / 37.782321°N 122.47161137°W / 37.782321; -122.47161137

Internet Archive
Internet Archive logo and wordmark.svg
Type of business501(c)(3) nonprofit
Type of site
Digital library
Available inEnglish
FoundedMay 12, 1996; 24 years ago (1996-05-12)[notes 1][1]
HeadquartersRichmond District
San Francisco, California, U.S.
ChairmanBrewster Kahle
ServicesArchive-It
Open Library
Wayback Machine (since 2001)
Netlabels
NASA Images
Prelinger Archives
RevenueIncrease $20.3 million (2018)[2]
EmployeesIncrease 168 (2018)[2]
URLarchive.org
Launched1996 (1996)
Current statusActive
Current headquarters

The Internet Archive is an American digital library with the stated mission of "universal access to all knowledge."[notes 2][notes 3] It provides free public access to collections of digitized materials, including websites, software applications/games, music, movies/videos, moving images, and millions of books. In addition to its archiving function, the Archive is an activist organization, advocating a free and open Internet. The Internet Archive currently holds over 20 million books and texts, 3 million movies and videos, 400,000 software programs, 7 million audio files, and 463 billion web pages in the Wayback Machine.

The Internet Archive allows the public to upload and download digital material to its data cluster, but the bulk of its data is collected automatically by its web crawlers, which work to preserve as much of the public web as possible. Its web archive, the Wayback Machine, contains hundreds of billions of web captures.[notes 4][4] The Archive also oversees one of the world's largest book digitization projects.

Operations

Mirror of the Internet Archive in the Bibliotheca Alexandrina

The Archive is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit operating in the United States. It has an annual budget of $10 million, derived from a variety of sources: revenue from its Web crawling services, various partnerships, grants, donations, and the Kahle-Austin Foundation.[5] The Internet Archive manages periodic funding campaigns, like the one started in December 2019 with a goal of reaching donations for $6 million.

Its headquarters are in San Francisco, California. From 1996 to 2009, headquarters were in the Presidio of San Francisco, a former U.S. military base. Since 2009, headquarters have been at 300 Funston Avenue in San Francisco, a former Christian Science Church.

At one time, most of its staff worked in its book-scanning centers; as of 2019, scanning is performed by 100 paid operators worldwide.[6] The Archive has data centers in three Californian cities: San Francisco, Redwood City, and Richmond. To prevent losing the data in case of e.g. a natural disaster, the Archive attempts to create copies of (parts of) the collection at more distant locations, currently including the Bibliotheca Alexandrina[notes 5] in Egypt and a facility in Amsterdam.[7] The Archive is a member of the International Internet Preservation Consortium[8] and was officially designated as a library by the state of California in 2007.[notes 6]

History

2008 headquarters

Brewster Kahle founded the archive in May 1996 at around the same time that he began the for-profit web crawling company Alexa Internet.[notes 7] In October 1996, the Internet Archive had begun to archive and preserve the World Wide Web in large quantities,[notes 8] though it saved the earliest pages in May 1996.[9][10] The archived content wasn't available to the general public until 2001, when it developed the Wayback Machine.

In late 1999, the Archive expanded its collections beyond the Web archive, beginning with the Prelinger Archives. Now the Internet Archive includes texts, audio, moving images, and software. It hosts a number of other projects: the NASA Images Archive, the contract crawling service Archive-It, and the wiki-editable library catalog and book information site Open Library. Soon after that, the archive began working to provide specialized services relating to the information access needs of the print-disabled; publicly accessible books were made available in a protected Digital Accessible Information System (DAISY) format.[notes 9]

According to its website:[notes 10]

Most societies place importance on preserving artifacts of their culture and heritage. Without such artifacts, civilization has no memory and no mechanism to learn from its successes and failures. Our culture now produces more and more artifacts in digital form. The Archive's mission is to help preserve those artifacts and create an Internet library for researchers, historians, and scholars.

In August 2012, the archive announced[11] that it has added BitTorrent to its file download options for more than 1.3 million existing files, and all newly uploaded files.[12][13] This method is the fastest means of downloading media from the Archive, as files are served from two Archive data centers, in addition to other torrent clients which have downloaded and continue to serve the files.[12][notes 11] On November 6, 2013, the Internet Archive's headquarters in San Francisco's Richmond District caught fire,[14] destroying equipment and damaging some nearby apartments.[15] According to the Archive, it lost a side-building housing one of 30 of its scanning centers; cameras, lights, and scanning equipment worth hundreds of thousands of dollars; and "maybe 20 boxes of books and film, some irreplaceable, most already digitized, and some replaceable".[16] The nonprofit Archive sought donations to cover the estimated $600,000 in damage.[17]

In November 2016, Kahle announced that the Internet Archive was building the Internet Archive of Canada, a copy of the archive to be based somewhere in Canada. The announcement received widespread coverage due to the implication that the decision to build a backup archive in a foreign country was because of the upcoming presidency of Donald Trump.[18][19][20] Kahle was quoted as saying:

On November 9th in America, we woke up to a new administration promising radical change. It was a firm reminder that institutions like ours, built for the long-term, need to design for change. For us, it means keeping our cultural materials safe, private and perpetually accessible. It means preparing for a Web that may face greater restrictions. It means serving patrons in a world in which government surveillance is not going away; indeed it looks like it will increase. Throughout history, libraries have fought against terrible violations of privacy--where people have been rounded up simply for what they read. At the Internet Archive, we are fighting to protect our readers' privacy in the digital world.[18]

Since 2018, the Internet Archive visual arts residency, which is organized by Amir Saber Esfahani and Andrew McClintock, helps connect artists with the archive's over 48 petabytes[notes 12] of digitized materials. Over the course of the yearlong residency, visual artists create a body of work which culminates in an exhibition. The hope is to connect digital history with the arts and create something for future generations to appreciate online or off.[21] Previous artists in residence include Taravat Talepasand, Whitney Lynn, and Jenny Odell.[22]

In 2019, the main scanning operations were moved to Cebu in the Philippines and were planned to reach a pace of half a million books scanned per year, until an initial target of 4 million books. The Internet Archive acquires most materials from donations, such as a donation of 250 thousand books from Trent University and hundreds of thousands of 78 rpm discs from Boston Public Library. All material is then digitized and retained in digital storage, while a digital copy is returned to the original holder and the Internet Archive's copy, if not in the public domain, is borrowed to patrons worldwide one at a time under the controlled digital lending (CDL) theory of the first-sale doctrine.[23] Meanwhile, in the same year its headquarters in San Francisco received a bomb threat which forced a temporary evacuation of the building.[24]

Web archiving

Wayback Machine

Wayback Machine logo, used since 2001
Mark Graham

The Internet Archive capitalized on the popular use of the term "WABAC Machine" from a segment of The Adventures of Rocky and Bullwinkle cartoon (specifically Peabody's Improbable History), and uses the name "Wayback Machine" for its service that allows archives of the World Wide Web to be searched and accessed.[25] This service allows users to view some of the archived web pages. The Wayback Machine was created as a joint effort between Alexa Internet and the Internet Archive when a three-dimensional index was built to allow for the browsing of archived web content.[notes 13] Millions of web sites and their associated data (images, source code, documents, etc.) are saved in a database. The service can be used to see what previous versions of web sites used to look like, to grab original source code from web sites that may no longer be directly available, or to visit web sites that no longer even exist. Not all web sites are available because many web site owners choose to exclude their sites. As with all sites based on data from web crawlers, the Internet Archive misses large areas of the web for a variety of other reasons. A 2004 paper found international biases in the coverage, but deemed them "not intentional".[26]

A purchase of additional storage at the Internet Archive

A "Save Page Now" archiving feature was made available in October 2013,[27] accessible on the lower right of the Wayback Machine's main page.[notes 14] Once a target URL is entered and saved, the web page will become part of the Wayback Machine.[27] Through the Internet address web.archive.org,[28] users can upload to the Wayback Machine a large variety of contents, including PDF and data compression file formats. The Wayback Machine creates a permanent local URL of the upload content, that is accessible in the web, even if not listed while searching in the http://archive.org official website.

May 12, 1996, is the date of the oldest archived pages on the archive.org WayBack Machine, such as infoseek.com.[29]

In October 2016, it was announced that the way web pages are counted would be changed, resulting in the decrease of the archived pages counts shown.[30]

Year Archived pages (billions)
2005 40[notes 15]
2006 85[notes 16]
2007 85[notes 17]
2008 85[notes 18]
2009 150[notes 19]
2010 150[notes 20]
2011 150[notes 21]
2012 150[notes 22]
2013 373[notes 23]
2014 430[31]
2015 479[notes 24]
2016 510[A][notes 25]

273[B][30]

2017 286[notes 26]
2018 344[notes 27]
A Using the old counting system used before October 2016
B Using the new counting system used after October 2016

In September 2020, the Internet Archive announced a partnership with Cloudflare to automatically index websites served via its "Always Online" services.[32]

Archive-It

Brewster Kahle of the Internet Archive talks about archiving operations

Created in early 2006, Archive-It[33] is a web archiving subscription service that allows institutions and individuals to build and preserve collections of digital content and create digital archives. Archive-It allows the user to customize their capture or exclusion of web content they want to preserve for cultural heritage reasons. Through a web application, Archive-It partners can harvest, catalog, manage, browse, search, and view their archived collections.[34]

In terms of accessibility, the archived web sites are full text searchable within seven days of capture.[35] Content collected through Archive-It is captured and stored as a WARC file. A primary and back-up copy is stored at the Internet Archive data centers. A copy of the WARC file can be given to subscribing partner institutions for geo-redundant preservation and storage purposes to their best practice standards.[36] Periodically, the data captured through Archive-It is indexed into the Internet Archive's general archive.

As of March 2014, Archive-It had more than 275 partner institutions in 46 U.S. states and 16 countries that have captured more than 7.4 billion URLs for more than 2,444 public collections. Archive-It partners are universities and college libraries, state archives, federal institutions, museums, law libraries, and cultural organizations, including the Electronic Literature Organization, North Carolina State Archives and Library, Stanford University, Columbia University, American University in Cairo, Georgetown Law Library, and many others.

Internet Archive Scholar

In September 2020 Internet Archive announced a new initiative to archive and preserve open access academic journals, called the "Internet Archive Scholar".[37]

Book collections

Text collection

Internet Archive "Scribe" book scanning workstation

The Internet Archive operates 33 scanning centers in five countries, digitizing about 1,000 books a day for a total of more than 2 million books,[38] financially supported by libraries and foundations.[notes 28] As of July 2013, the collection included 4.4 million books with more than 15 million downloads per month.[38] As of November 2008, when there were approximately 1 million texts, the entire collection was greater than 0.5 petabytes, which includes raw camera images, cropped and skewed images, PDFs, and raw OCR data.[39] Between about 2006 and 2008, Microsoft had a special relationship with Internet Archive texts through its Live Search Books project, scanning more than 300,000 books that were contributed to the collection, as well as financial support and scanning equipment. On May 23, 2008, Microsoft announced it would be ending the Live Book Search project and no longer scanning books.[40] Microsoft made its scanned books available without contractual restriction and donated its scanning equipment to its former partners.[40]

An Internet Archive in-house scan ongoing

Around October 2007, Archive users began uploading public domain books from Google Book Search.[notes 29] As of November 2013, there were more than 900,000 Google-digitized books in the Archive's collection;[notes 30] the books are identical to the copies found on Google, except without the Google watermarks, and are available for unrestricted use and download.[41] Brewster Kahle revealed in 2013 that this archival effort was coordinated by Aaron Swartz, who with a "bunch of friends" downloaded the public domain books from Google slow enough and from enough computers to stay within Google's restrictions. They did this to ensure public access to the public domain. The Archive ensured the items were attributed and linked back to Google, which never complained, while libraries "grumbled". According to Kahle, this is an example of Swartz's "genius" to work on what could give the most to the public good for millions of people.[42]Besides books, the Archive offers free and anonymous public access to more than four million court opinions, legal briefs, or exhibits uploaded from the United States Federal Courts' PACER electronic document system via the RECAP web browser plugin. These documents had been kept behind a federal court paywall. On the Archive, they had been accessed by more than six million people by 2013.[42]

The Archive's BookReader web app,[43] built into its website, has features such as single-page, two-page, and thumbnail modes; fullscreen mode; page zooming of high-resolution images; and flip page animation.[43][44]

Number of texts for each language

Number of all texts
(December 9, 2019)
22,197,912[45]
Language Number of texts
(November 27, 2015)
English 6,553,945[notes 31]
French 358,721[notes 32]
German 344,810[notes 33]
Spanish 134,170[notes 34]
Chinese 84,147[notes 35]
Arabic 66,786[notes 36]
Dutch 30,237[notes 37]
Portuguese 25,938[notes 38]
Russian 22,731[notes 39]
Urdu 14,978[notes 40]
Japanese 14,795[notes 41]

Number of texts for each decade

XIX century
Decade Number of texts
(November 27, 2015)
1800s 39,842[notes 42]
1810s 51,151[notes 43]
1820s 79,476[notes 44]
1830s 105,021[notes 45]
1840s 127,649[notes 46]
1850s 180,950[notes 47]
1860s 210,574[notes 48]
1870s 214,505[notes 49]
1880s 285,984[notes 50]
1890s 370,726[notes 51]
XX century
Decade Number of texts
(November 27, 2015)
1900s 504,000[notes 52]
1910s 455,539[notes 53]
1920s 185,876[notes 54]
1930s 70,190[notes 55]
1940s 85,062[notes 56]
1950s 81,192[notes 57]
1960s 125,977[notes 58]
1970s 206,870[notes 59]
1980s 181,129[notes 60]
1990s 272,848[notes 61]
XXI century
Decade Number of texts
(November 27, 2015)
2000s 579,905[notes 62]
2010s 855,253[notes 63]

Open Library

The Open Library is another project of the Internet Archive. The wiki seeks to include a web page for every book ever published: it holds 25 million catalog records of editions. It also seeks to be a web-accessible public library: it contains the full texts of approximately 1,600,000 public domain books (out of the more than five million from the main texts collection), as well as in-print and in-copyright books,[46] which are fully readable, downloadable[47][48] and full-text searchable;[49] it offers a two-week loan of e-books in its Books to Borrow lending program for over 647,784 books not in the public domain, in partnership with over 1,000 library partners from 6 countries[38][50] after a free registration on the web site. Open Library is a free and open-source software project, with its source code freely available on GitHub.

The Open Library faces objections from some authors and the Society of Authors, who hold that the project is distributing books without authorization and is thus in violation of copyright laws,[51] and four major publishers initiated a copyright infringement lawsuit against the Internet Archive in June 2020 to stop the Open Library project.[52]

List of digitizing sponsors for ebooks

As of December 2018, over 50 sponsors helped the Internet Archive provide over 5 million scanned books (text items). Of these, over 2 million were scanned by Internet Archive itself, funded either by itself or by MSN, the University of Toronto or the Internet Archive's founder's Kahle/Austin Foundation.[53]

The collections for scanning centers often include also digitisations sponsored by their partners, for instance the University of Toronto performed scans supported by other Canadian libraries.

Sponsor Main collection Texts (December 2018)[53]
Google [1] 1,302,624
Internet Archive [2] 917,202
Kahle/Austin Foundation [3] 471,376
MSN [4] 420,069
University of Toronto [5] 176,888
U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Library [6] 150,984
Wellcome Library [7] 127,701
University of Alberta Libraries [8] 100,511
China-America Digital Academic Library (CADAL) [9] 91,953
Sloan Foundation [10] 83,111
The Library of Congress [11] 79,132
University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign [12] 72,269
Princeton Theological Seminary Library [13] 66,442
Boston Library Consortium Member Libraries [14] 59,562
Jisc and Wellcome Library 55,878
Lyrasis members and Sloan Foundation [15] 54,930
Boston Public Library [16] 54,067
Nazi War Crimes and Japanese Imperial Government Records Interagency Working Group [17] 51,884
Getty Research Institute [18] 46,571
Greek Open Technologies Alliance through Google Summer of Code [19] 45,371
University of Ottawa [20] 44,808
BioStor [21] 42,919
Naval Postgraduate School, Dudley Knox Library [22] 37,727
University of Victoria Libraries [23] 37,650
The Newberry Library [24] 37,616
Brigham Young University [25] 33,784
Columbia University Libraries [26] 31,639
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill [27] 29,298
INRA (France) [28] 26,293
Montana State Library [29] 25,372
Allen County Public Library Genealogy Center [30] 24,829
Michael Best 24,825
Bibliotheca Alexandrina [31] 24,555
University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign Alternates [32] 22,726
Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences [33] 21,468
University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries [34] 20,827
Environmental Data Resources, Inc. 20,259
Public.Resource.Org [35] 20,185
Smithsonian Libraries [36] 19,948
Eric P. Newman Numismatic Education Society [37] 18,781
NIST Research Library [38] 18,739
Open Knowledge Commons, United States National Library of Medicine [39] 18,091
Biodiversity Heritage Library [40] 17,979
Ontario Council of University Libraries and Member Libraries]] [41] 17,880
Corporation of the Presiding Bishop, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints 16,880
Leo Baeck Institute Archives [42] 16,769
North Carolina Digital Heritage Center [43] 14,355
California State Library, Califa/LSTA Grant [44] 14,149
Duke University Libraries [45] 14,122
The Black Vault 13,765
Buddhist Digital Resource Center [46] 13,460
John Carter Brown Library [47] 12,943
MBL/WHOI Library [48] 11,538
Harvard University, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Ernst Mayr Library [49] 10,196
AFS Intercultural Programs [50] 10,114

In 2017, the MIT Press authorized the Internet Archive to digitize and lend books from the press's backlist,[54] with financial support from the Arcadia Fund.[55][56] A year later, the Internet Archive received further funding from the Arcadia Fund to invite some other university presses to partner with the Internet Archive to digitize books, a project called "Unlocking University Press Books".[57][58]

The Library of Congress has created numerous handle system identifers that point to free digitized books in the Internet Archive.[59] The Internet Archive and Open Library are listed on the Library of Congress website as a source of e-books.[60]

Media collections

Media reader
Microfilms at the Internet Archive
Videocassettes at the Internet Archive

In addition to web archives, the Internet Archive maintains extensive collections of digital media that are attested by the uploader to be in the public domain in the United States or licensed under a license that allows redistribution, such as Creative Commons licenses. Media are organized into collections by media type (moving images, audio, text, etc.), and into sub-collections by various criteria. Each of the main collections includes a "Community" sub-collection (formerly named "Open Source") where general contributions by the public are stored.

Audio collection

The Audio Archive includes music, audiobooks, news broadcasts, old time radio shows, and a wide variety of other audio files. There are more than 200,000 free digital recordings in the collection. The subcollections include audio books and poetry, podcasts, non-English audio, and many others.[notes 64] The sound collections are curated by B. George, director of the ARChive of Contemporary Music.[61]

The Live Music Archive sub-collection includes more than 170,000 concert recordings from independent musicians, as well as more established artists and musical ensembles with permissive rules about recording their concerts, such as the Grateful Dead, and more recently, The Smashing Pumpkins. Also, Jordan Zevon has allowed the Internet Archive to host a definitive collection of his father Warren Zevon's concert recordings. The Zevon collection ranges from 1976 to 2001 and contains 126 concerts including 1,137 songs.[62]

The Great 78 Project aims to digitize 250,000 78 rpm singles (500,000 songs) from the period between 1880 and 1960, donated by various collectors and institutions. It has been developed in collaboration with the Archive of Contemporary Music and George Blood Audio, responsible for the audio digitization.[61]

Brooklyn Museum

This collection contains approximately 3,000 items from Brooklyn Museum.[notes 65]

Images collection

This collection contains more than 3.5 million items.[63]Cover Art Archive, Metropolitan Museum of Art - Gallery Images, NASA Images, Occupy Wall Street Flickr Archive, and USGS Maps and are some sub-collections of Image collection.

Cover Art Archive

The Cover Art Archive is a joint project between the Internet Archive and MusicBrainz, whose goal is to make cover art images on the Internet. This collection contains more than 330,000 items.[notes 66]

Metropolitan Museum of Art images

The images of this collection are from the Metropolitan Museum of Art. This collection contains more than 140,000 items.[notes 67]

NASA Images

The NASA Images archive was created through a Space Act Agreement between the Internet Archive and NASA to bring public access to NASA's image, video, and audio collections in a single, searchable resource. The IA NASA Images team worked closely with all of the NASA centers to keep adding to the ever-growing collection.[64] The nasaimages.org site launched in July 2008 and had more than 100,000 items online at the end of its hosting in 2012.

Occupy Wall Street Flickr archive

This collection contains creative commons licensed photographs from Flickr related to the Occupy Wall Street movement. This collection contains more than 15,000 items.[notes 68]

USGS Maps

This collection contains more than 59,000 items from Libre Map Project.[notes 69]

Machinima archive

One of the sub-collections of the Internet Archive's Video Archive is the Machinima Archive. This small section hosts many Machinima videos. Machinima is a digital artform in which computer games, game engines, or software engines are used in a sandbox-like mode to create motion pictures, recreate plays, or even publish presentations or keynotes. The archive collects a range of Machinima films from internet publishers such as Rooster Teeth and Machinima.com as well as independent producers. The sub-collection is a collaborative effort among the Internet Archive, the How They Got Game research project at Stanford University, the Academy of Machinima Arts and Sciences, and Machinima.com.[notes 70]

Mathematics - Hamid Naderi Yeganeh

This collection contains mathematical images created by mathematical artist Hamid Naderi Yeganeh.[notes 71]

Microfilm collection

This collection contains approximately 160,000 items from a variety of libraries including the University of Chicago Libraries, the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, the University of Alberta, Allen County Public Library, and the National Technical Information Service.[notes 72][notes 73]

Moving image collection

The Internet Archive holds a collection of approximately 3,863 feature films.[notes 74] Additionally, the Internet Archive's Moving Image collection includes: newsreels, classic cartoons, pro- and anti-war propaganda, The Video Cellar Collection, Skip Elsheimer's "A.V. Geeks" collection, early television, and ephemeral material from Prelinger Archives, such as advertising, educational, and industrial films, as well as amateur and home movie collections.

Subcategories of this collection include:

  • IA's Brick Films collection, which contains stop-motion animation filmed with Lego bricks, some of which are "remakes" of feature films.
  • IA's Election 2004 collection, a non-partisan public resource for sharing video materials related to the 2004 United States presidential election.
  • IA's FedFlix collection, Joint Venture NTIS-1832 between the National Technical Information Service and Public.Resource.Org that features "the best movies of the United States Government, from training films to history, from our national parks to the U.S. Fire Academy and the Postal Inspectors"[notes 75]
  • IA's Independent News collection, which includes sub-collections such as the Internet Archive's World At War competition from 2001, in which contestants created short films demonstrating "why access to history matters". Among their most-downloaded video files are eyewitness recordings of the devastating 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake.
  • IA's September 11 Television Archive, which contains archival footage from the world's major television networks of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, as they unfolded on live television.[notes 76]

Netlabels

The Archive has a collection of freely distributable music that is streamed and available for download via its Netlabels service. The music in this collection generally has Creative Commons-license catalogs of virtual record labels.[notes 77][65]

Open Educational Resources

Open Educational Resources is a digital collection at archive.org. This collection contains hundreds of free courses, video lectures, and supplemental materials from universities in the United States and China. The contributors of this collection are ArsDigita University, Hewlett Foundation, MIT, Monterey Institute, and Naropa University.[notes 78]

TV News Search & Borrow

TV tuners at the Internet Archive

In September 2012, the Internet Archive launched the TV News Search & Borrow service for searching U.S. national news programs.[notes 79] The service is built on closed captioning transcripts and allows users to search and stream 30-second video clips. Upon launch, the service contained "350,000 news programs collected over 3 years from national U.S. networks and stations in San Francisco and Washington D.C."[66] According to Kahle, the service was inspired by the Vanderbilt Television News Archive, a similar library of televised network news programs.[67] In contrast to Vanderbilt, which limits access to streaming video to individuals associated with subscribing colleges and universities, the TV News Search & Borrow allows open access to its streaming video clips. In 2013, the Archive received an additional donation of "approximately 40,000 well-organized tapes" from the estate of a Philadelphia woman, Marion Stokes. Stokes "had recorded more than 35 years of TV news in Philadelphia and Boston with her VHS and Betamax machines."[68]

Other services and endeavors

Physical media

A vintage wall intercom, an example of another "archived" item

Voicing a strong reaction to the idea of books simply being thrown away, and inspired by the Svalbard Global Seed Vault, Kahle now envisions collecting one copy of every book ever published. "We're not going to get there, but that's our goal", he said. Alongside the books, Kahle plans to store the Internet Archive's old servers, which were replaced in 2010.[69]

Software

The Internet Archive has "the largest collection of historical software online in the world", spanning 50 years of computer history in terabytes of computer magazines and journals, books, shareware discs, FTP web sites, video games, etc. The Internet Archive has created an archive of what it describes as "vintage software", as a way to preserve them.[notes 80] The project advocated for an exemption from the United States Digital Millennium Copyright Act to permit them to bypass copy protection, which was approved in 2003 for a period of three years.[notes 81] The Archive does not offer the software for download, as the exemption is solely "for the purpose of preservation or archival reproduction of published digital works by a library or archive."[70] The exemption was renewed in 2006, and in 2009 was indefinitely extended pending further rulemakings.[71] The Library reiterated the exemption as a "Final Rule" with no expiration date in 2010.[72] In 2013, the Internet Archive began to provide abandonware video games browser-playable via MESS, for instance the Atari 2600 game E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial.[73] Since December 23, 2014, the Internet Archive presents, via a browser-based DOSBox emulation, thousands of DOS/PC games[74][75][notes 82][76] for "scholarship and research purposes only".[notes 83][77][78] In November 2020, the Archive introduced a new emulator for Adobe Flash called Ruffle, and began archiving Flash animations and games ahead of the December 31, 2020 end-of-life for the Flash plugin across all computer systems.[79]

Table Top Scribe System

A combined hardware software system has been developed that performs a safe method of digitizing content.[notes 84][80]

Credit Union

From 2012 to November 2015, the Internet Archive operated the Internet Archive Federal Credit Union, a federal credit union based in New Brunswick, New Jersey, with the goal of providing access to low- and middle-income people. Throughout its short existence, the IAFCU experienced significant conflicts with the National Credit Union Administration, which severely limited the IAFCU's loan portfolio and concerns over serving Bitcoin firms. At the time of its dissolution, it consisted of 395 members and was worth $2.5 million.[81][82]

Controversies and legal disputes

The main hall of the current headquarters

Grateful Dead

In November 2005, free downloads of Grateful Dead concerts were removed from the site. John Perry Barlow identified Bob Weir, Mickey Hart, and Bill Kreutzmann as the instigators of the change, according to an article in The New York Times.[83]Phil Lesh commented on the change in a November 30, 2005, posting to his personal web site:

It was brought to my attention that all of the Grateful Dead shows were taken down from Archive.org right before Thanksgiving. I was not part of this decision making process and was not notified that the shows were to be pulled. I do feel that the music is the Grateful Dead's legacy and I hope that one way or another all of it is available for those who want it.[84]

A November 30 forum post from Brewster Kahle summarized what appeared to be the compromise reached among the band members. Audience recordings could be downloaded or streamed, but soundboard recordings were to be available for streaming only. Concerts have since been re-added.[notes 85]

National security letters

A national security letter issued to the Internet Archive demanding information about a user

On May 8, 2008, it was revealed that the Internet Archive had successfully challenged an FBI national security letter asking for logs on an undisclosed user.[85][86]

On November 28, 2016, it was revealed that a second FBI national security letter had been successfully challenged that had been asking for logs on another undisclosed user.[87]

Opposition to SOPA and PIPA bills

The Internet Archive blacked out its web site for 12 hours on January 18, 2012, in protest of the Stop Online Piracy Act and the PROTECT IP Act bills, two pieces of legislation in the United States Congress that they claimed would "negatively affect the ecosystem of web publishing that led to the emergence of the Internet Archive". This occurred in conjunction with the English popflock.com resource blackout, as well as numerous other protests across the Internet.[88]

Opposition to Google Books settlement

The Internet Archive is a member of the Open Book Alliance, which has been among the most outspoken critics of the Google Book Settlement. The Archive advocates an alternative digital library project.[89]

Nintendo Power magazine

In February 2016, Internet Archive users had begun archiving digital copies of Nintendo Power, Nintendo's official magazine for their games and products, which ran from 1988 to 2012. The first 140 issues had been collected, before Nintendo had the archive removed on August 8, 2016. In response to the take-down, Nintendo told gaming website Polygon, "[Nintendo] must protect our own characters, trademarks and other content. The unapproved use of Nintendo's intellectual property can weaken our ability to protect and preserve it, or to possibly use it for new projects".[90]

Government of India

In August 2017, the Department of Telecommunications of the Government of India blocked the Internet Archive along with other file-sharing websites, in accordance with two court orders issued by the Madras High Court,[91] citing piracy concerns after copies of two Bollywood films were allegedly shared via the service.[92] The HTTP version of the Archive was blocked but it remained accessible using the HTTPS protocol.[91]

Turkey

On October 9, 2016, the Internet Archive was temporarily blocked in Turkey after it was used (amongst other file hosters) by hackers to host 17 GB of leaked government emails.[93][94]

National Emergency Library

In the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic which closed many schools, universities, and libraries, the Archive announced on March 24, 2020 that it was creating the National Emergency Library by removing the lending restrictions it had in place for 1.4 million digitized books in its Open Library but otherwise limiting users to the number of books they could check out and enforcing their return; normally, the site would only allow one digital lending for each physical copy of the book they had, by use of an encrypted file that would become unusable after the lending period was completed. This Library would remain as such until at least June 30, 2020 or until the US national emergency was over, whichever came later.[95] At launch, the Internet Archive allowed authors and rightholders to submit opt-out requests for their works to be omitted from the National Emergency Library.[96][97][98]

The Internet Archive said the National Emergency Library addressed an "unprecedented global and immediate need for access to reading and research material" due to the closures of physical libraries worldwide.[99] They justified the move in a number of ways. Legally, they said they were promoting access to those inaccessible resources, which they claimed was an exercise in Fair Use principles. The Archive continued implementing their Controlled Digital Lending policy that predated the National Emergency Library, meaning they still encrypted the lent copies and it was no easier for users to create new copies of the books than before. An ultimate determination of whether or not the National Emergency Library constituted Fair Use could only be made by a court. Morally, they also pointed out that the Internet Archive was a registered library like any other, that they either paid for the books themselves or received them as donations, and that lending through libraries predated copyright restrictions.[96][100]

However, the Archive had already been criticized by authors and publishers for its prior lending approach, and upon announcement of the National Emergency Library, authors, publishers, and groups representing both took further issue, equating the move to copyright infringement and digital piracy, and using the COVID-19 pandemic as a reason to push the boundaries of copyright (see also: Open Library § Copyright violation accusations).[101][102][103] After the works of some of these authors were ridiculed in responses, the Internet Archive's Jason Scott requested that supporters of the National Emergency Library not denigrate anyone's books: "I realize there's strong debate and disagreement here, but books are life-giving and life-changing and these writers made them."[104]

The operation of the National Emergency Library is part of the lawsuit filed against the Open Library project by four major book publishers in June 2020, challenging the copyright validity of the program.[52] In response, the Internet Archive closed the National Emergency Library on June 16, 2020, rather than the planned June 30, 2020, due to the lawsuit.[105][106] The plaintiffs claimed in their lawsuit that the Internet Archive's actions constituted a "willful mass copyright infringement". Additionally, Senator Thom Tillis (R-North Carolina), chairman of the intellectual property subcommittee on the Senate Judiciary Committee, said in a letter to the Internet Archive that he was "concerned that the Internet Archive thinks that it -- not Congress -- gets to determine the scope of copyright law".[107] The lawsuit trial is tentatively scheduled to begin in November 2021.[108]

Ceramic archivists collection

Ceramic figures of Internet Archive employees

The Great Room of the Internet Archive features a collection of more than 100 ceramic figures representing employees of the Internet Archive. This collection, inspired by the statues of the Xian warriors in China, was commissioned by Brewster Kahle, sculpted by Nuala Creed, and is ongoing.[109]

Artists in residence

The Internet Archive visual arts residency,[110] organized by Amir Saber Esfahani, is designed to connect emerging and mid-career artists with the Archive's millions of collections and to show what is possible when open access to information intersects with the arts. During this one-year residency, selected artists develop a body of work that responds to and utilizes the Archive's collections in their own practice.[111]

2019 Residency Artists: Caleb Duarte, Whitney Lynn, and Jeffrey Alan Scudder.

2018 Residency Artists: Mieke Marple, Chris Sollars, and Taravat Talepasand.

2017 Residency Artists: Laura Kim, Jeremiah Jenkins, and Jenny Odell

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Internet Archive: About the Archive". Wayback Machine. April 8, 2000. Archived from the original on April 8, 2000. Retrieved 2016.
  2. ^ "Internet Archive Frequently Asked Questions". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on October 21, 2009. Retrieved 2013.
  3. ^ "Internet Archive: Universal Access to all Knowledge". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 10, 2013. Retrieved 2013.
  4. ^ "Internet Archive: Projects". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 1, 2013. Retrieved 2013.
  5. ^ "Donation to the new Library of Alexandria in Egypt" Archived January 25, 2014, at the Wayback Machine; Alexandria, Egypt; April 20, 2002. Bibliotheca Alexandrina Archived September 2, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. Internet Archive.
  6. ^ "Internet Archive officially a library" Archived February 4, 2010, at the Wayback Machine, May 2, 2007. Internet Archive
  7. ^ "Brewster Kahle . In Scientific American". Internet Archive. November 4, 1997. Archived from the original on October 11, 1997. Retrieved 2016.
  8. ^ "Internet Archive: In the Collections". Wayback Machine. June 6, 2000. Archived from the original on June 6, 2000. Retrieved 2016.
  9. ^ "Daisy Books for the Print Disabled" Archived January 4, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, February 25, 2013. Internet Archive.
  10. ^ "Internet Archive Frequently Asked Questions". archive.org. Archived from the original on October 21, 2009. Retrieved 2015.
  11. ^ "Welcome to Archive torrents" Archived January 19, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. Internet Archive.
  12. ^ "Used Paired Space". archive.org. March 8, 2019. Archived from the original on April 2, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  13. ^ "Internet Archive. (2012). Frequently Asked Questions". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on October 21, 2009. Retrieved 2013.
  14. ^ "Wayback Machine main page". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on January 3, 2014. Retrieved 2013.
  15. ^ "Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on December 31, 2005. Retrieved 2014.
  16. ^ "Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on December 28, 2006. Retrieved 2014.
  17. ^ "Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on December 28, 2007. Retrieved 2014.
  18. ^ "Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on December 24, 2008. Retrieved 2014.
  19. ^ "Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on December 20, 2009. Retrieved 2014.
  20. ^ "Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on December 30, 2010. Retrieved 2014.
  21. ^ "Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on August 30, 2011. Retrieved 2014.
  22. ^ "Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on October 14, 2002. Retrieved 2014.
  23. ^ "Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on December 31, 2013. Retrieved 2014.
  24. ^ "Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on May 31, 2015. Retrieved 2018.
  25. ^ "Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on September 30, 2016. Retrieved 2018.
  26. ^ "Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on June 1, 2017. Retrieved 2018.
  27. ^ "Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on December 9, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  28. ^ Kahle, Brewster (May 23, 2008). "Books Scanning to be Publicly Funded" Archived September 24, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. Internet Archive Forums.
  29. ^ "Google Books at Internet Archive" Archived October 11, 1997, at the Wayback Machine. Internet Archive.
  30. ^ "List of Google scans" Archived January 26, 2014, at the Wayback Machine (search). Internet Archive.
  31. ^ "Internet Archive Search : (language:eng OR language:"English")". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 15, 2016. Retrieved 2015.
  32. ^ "Internet Archive Search : (language:fre OR language:"French")". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 17, 2016. Retrieved 2015.
  33. ^ "Internet Archive Search : (language:ger OR language:"German")". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on January 14, 2016. Retrieved 2015.
  34. ^ "Internet Archive Search : (language:spa OR language:"Spanish")". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 8, 2016. Retrieved 2015.
  35. ^ "Internet Archive Search : (language:Chinese OR language:"chi") AND mediatype:texts". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 8, 2016. Retrieved 2015.
  36. ^ "Internet Archive Search : (language:ara OR language:"Arabic")". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 22, 2016. Retrieved 2015.
  37. ^ "Internet Archive Search : (language:Dutch OR language:"dut") AND mediatype:texts". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 8, 2016. Retrieved 2015.
  38. ^ "Internet Archive Search : (language:Portuguese OR language:"por") AND mediatype:texts". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 15, 2016. Retrieved 2015.
  39. ^ "Internet Archive Search : (language:rus OR language:"Russian") AND mediatype:texts". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 19, 2016. Retrieved 2015.
  40. ^ "Internet Archive Search : (language:urd OR language:"Urdu") AND mediatype:texts". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 15, 2016. Retrieved 2015.
  41. ^ "Internet Archive Search : (language:Japanese OR language:"jpn") AND mediatype:texts". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 8, 2016. Retrieved 2015.
  42. ^ "Internet Archive Search : mediatype:texts AND date:[1800-01-01 TO 1809-12-31]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 9, 2016. Retrieved 2015.
  43. ^ "Internet Archive Search : mediatype:texts AND date:[1810-01-01 TO 1819-12-31]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 26, 2016. Retrieved 2015.
  44. ^ "Internet Archive Search : mediatype:texts AND date:[1820-01-01 TO 1829-12-31]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 15, 2016. Retrieved 2015.
  45. ^ "Internet Archive Search : mediatype:texts AND date:[1830-01-01 TO 1839-12-31]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 9, 2016. Retrieved 2015.
  46. ^ "Internet Archive Search : mediatype:texts AND date:[1840-01-01 TO 1849-12-31]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 26, 2016. Retrieved 2015.
  47. ^ "Internet Archive Search : mediatype:texts AND date:[1850-01-01 TO 1859-12-31]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 17, 2016. Retrieved 2015.
  48. ^ "Internet Archive Search : mediatype:texts AND date:[1860-01-01 TO 1869-12-31]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 13, 2016. Retrieved 2015.
  49. ^ "Internet Archive Search : mediatype:texts AND date:[1870-01-01 TO 1879-12-31]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 15, 2016. Retrieved 2015.
  50. ^ "Internet Archive Search : mediatype:texts AND date:[1880-01-01 TO 1889-12-31]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 16, 2016. Retrieved 2015.
  51. ^ "Internet Archive Search : mediatype:texts AND date:[1890-01-01 TO 1899-12-31]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 11, 2016. Retrieved 2015.
  52. ^ "Internet Archive Search : mediatype:texts AND date:[1900-01-01 TO 1909-12-31]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 18, 2016. Retrieved 2015.
  53. ^ "Internet Archive Search : mediatype:texts AND date:[1910-01-01 TO 1919-12-31]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 19, 2016. Retrieved 2015.
  54. ^ "Internet Archive Search : mediatype:texts AND date:[1920-01-01 TO 1929-12-31]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 9, 2016. Retrieved 2015.
  55. ^ "Internet Archive Search : mediatype:texts AND date:[1930-01-01 TO 1939-12-31]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 9, 2016. Retrieved 2015.
  56. ^ "Internet Archive Search : mediatype:texts AND date:[1940-01-01 TO 1949-12-31]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 26, 2016. Retrieved 2015.
  57. ^ "Internet Archive Search : mediatype:texts AND date:[1950-01-01 TO 1959-12-31]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 16, 2016. Retrieved 2015.
  58. ^ "Internet Archive Search : mediatype:texts AND date:[1960-01-01 TO 1969-12-31]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 15, 2016. Retrieved 2015.
  59. ^ "Internet Archive Search : mediatype:texts AND date:[1970-01-01 TO 1979-12-31]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 9, 2016. Retrieved 2015.
  60. ^ "Internet Archive Search : mediatype:texts AND date:[1980-01-01 TO 1989-12-31]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 9, 2016. Retrieved 2015.
  61. ^ "Internet Archive Search : mediatype:texts AND date:[1990-01-01 TO 1999-12-31]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 11, 2016. Retrieved 2015.
  62. ^ "Internet Archive Search : mediatype:texts AND date:[2000-01-01 TO 2009-12-31]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 26, 2016. Retrieved 2015.
  63. ^ "Internet Archive Search : mediatype:texts AND date:[2010-01-01 TO 2015-11-27]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 9, 2016. Retrieved 2015.
  64. ^ "Welcome to Audio Archive" Archived January 17, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. Internet Archive.
  65. ^ "Brooklyn Museum: Free Image : Download & Streaming : Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on January 3, 2015. Retrieved 2014.
  66. ^ "Cover Art Archive: Free Image : Download & Streaming : Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on January 3, 2015. Retrieved 2014.
  67. ^ "Metropolitan Museum of Art - Gallery Images: Free Image : Download & Streaming : Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on January 3, 2015. Retrieved 2014.
  68. ^ "Occupy Wall Street Flickr Archive: Free Image : Download & Streaming : Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on January 3, 2015. Retrieved 2014.
  69. ^ "USGS Maps: Free Image : Download & Streaming : Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on January 3, 2015. Retrieved 2014.
  70. ^ "Welcome to Machinima" Archived March 23, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. Internet Archive.
  71. ^ "Mathematics - Hamid Naderi Yeganeh (Image): Free Image : Download & Streaming : Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on October 14, 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  72. ^ "Internet Archive Search: collection:microfilm". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 31, 2016. Retrieved 2014.
  73. ^ "Microfilm". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 20, 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  74. ^ "Internet Archive Search: Collection: Feature Films". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 2, 2013. Retrieved 2013.
  75. ^ "FedFlix". Internet Archive. Retrieved 2013.
  76. ^ "September 11th Television Archive" Archived April 3, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. Internet Archive.
  77. ^ "Welcome to Netlabels" Archived April 4, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. Internet Archive.
  78. ^ "Download & Streaming : Open Educational Resources : Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on July 2, 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  79. ^ "TV NEWS : Search Captions. Borrow Broadcasts : TV Archive : Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 20, 2013. Retrieved 2013.
  80. ^ "The Internet Archive Classic Software Preservation Project". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on October 19, 2007. Retrieved 2007.
  81. ^ "Internet Archive Gets DMCA Exemption To Help Archive Vintage Software". Archived from the original on October 20, 2007. Retrieved 2007.
  82. ^ collection:softwarelibrary_msdos Archived June 28, 2015, at the Wayback Machine in the Internet Archive (December 29, 2014)
  83. ^ "Internet Archive's Terms of Use, Privacy Policy, and Copyright Policy". December 31, 2014. Archived from the original on January 3, 2015. Retrieved 2015. Access to the Archive's Collections is provided at no cost to you and is granted for scholarship and research purposes only.
  84. ^ "Table Top Scribe System". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on October 10, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  85. ^ Kahle, Brewster; Vernon, Matt (December 1, 2005). "Good News and an Apology: GD on the Internet Archive". Live Music Archive Forum. Internet Archive. Archived from the original on August 6, 2014.Authors and date indicate the first posting in the forum thread.

References

  1. ^ "archive.org WHOIS, DNS, & Domain Info - DomainTools". WHOIS. Archived from the original on November 5, 2018. Retrieved 2016.
  2. ^ a b "Nonprofit Explorer - Internet Archive". ProPublica. Retrieved 2020.
  3. ^ "archive.org Traffic, Demographics and Competitors". Alexa. Retrieved 2020.
  4. ^ Grotke, A. (December 2011). "Web Archiving at the Library of Congress" Archived December 15, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. Computers In Libraries, v.31 n.10, pp. 15-19. Information Today.
  5. ^ Womack, David (Spring 2003). "Who Owns History?". Cabinet Magazine (10). Archived from the original on March 19, 2013.
  6. ^ Whitney Kimball. "The Internet Archive Fights Wiki Citation Wars With Books". Gizmodo. Archived from the original on November 5, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  7. ^ "Brewster Kahle: Universal Access to All Knowledge - The Long Now". longnow.org. 45'47". Archived from the original on October 20, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  8. ^ "Members". Archived from the original on June 13, 2010. Retrieved 2011. International Internet Preservation Consortium. Netpreserve.org
  9. ^ "MTV Online: Main Page - Wayback Machine". Wayback Machine. May 12, 1996. Archived from the original on May 12, 1996. Retrieved 2016.
  10. ^ "Infoseek Guide - Wayback Machine". Wayback Machine. May 12, 1996. Archived from the original on May 12, 1996. Retrieved 2016.
  11. ^ Kahle, Brewster (August 7, 2012). "Over 1,000,000 Torrents of Downloadable Books, Music, and Movies" Archived August 13, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. Internet Archive Blogs.
  12. ^ a b Ernesto (August 7, 2012). "Internet Archive Starts Seeding 1,398,875 Torrents". TorrentFreak. Archived from the original on August 8, 2012.
  13. ^ "Hot List for bt1.us.archive.org (Updated August 7 2012, 7:31 pm PDT)" Archived August 3, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. US Cluster. Internet Archive.
  14. ^ B, Sarah (November 6, 2013). "Part of Internet Archive building badly burned in early morning fire". Archived from the original on January 31, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  15. ^ Alexander, Kurtis (November 16, 2013). "Internet Archive's S.F. office damaged in fire". San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on December 12, 2013.
  16. ^ "Fire Update: Lost Many Cameras, 20 Boxes. No One Hurt". Internet Archive Blogs. November 6, 2013. Archived from the original on November 7, 2013.
  17. ^ Shu, Catherine (November 6, 2013). "Internet Archive Seeking Donations To Rebuild Its Fire-Damaged Scanning Center". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on July 6, 2017.
  18. ^ a b Kahle, Brewster (November 29, 2016). "Help Us Keep the Archive Free, Accessible, and Reader Private". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on May 21, 2017. Retrieved 2016.
  19. ^ Johnson, Tim (December 1, 2016). "Donald Trump scares Internet Archive into moving to Canada". McClatchy DC. Archived from the original on December 2, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  20. ^ Rothschild, Mike (December 2, 2016). "The Internet Archive Is Moving to Canada to Protect Itself from Trump". Attn. Archived from the original on December 3, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  21. ^ Locker, Melissa (July 3, 2018). "The Internet Archive is helping these artists get inspired by digital history". Fast Company. Archived from the original on December 29, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  22. ^ "Jenny Odell - Neo-Surreal". The Photographers' Gallery. May 30, 2018. Archived from the original on September 27, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  23. ^ Matt Enis (May 2, 2019). "Internet Archive Expands Partnerships for Open Libraries Project". Archived from the original on May 3, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  24. ^ "Internet Archive evacuated due to bomb threat". msn.com. Archived from the original on July 14, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  25. ^ Green, Heather (February 28, 2002). "A Library as Big as the World". Business Week Online. Archived from the original on June 1, 2002.
  26. ^ Thelwall, Mike; Vaughan, Liwen (Spring 2004). "A fair history of the Web? Examining country balance in the Internet Archive" (PDF). Library & Information Science Research. 26 (2): 162-176. doi:10.1016/j.lisr.2003.12.009. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 24, 2015.
  27. ^ a b Rossi, Alexis (October 25, 2013). "Fixing Broken Links on the Internet". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on November 7, 2014. Retrieved 2013.
  28. ^ "Web.archive.org directory". Archived from the original on January 3, 2012. Retrieved 2014.
  29. ^ "Internet Archive Forums: What is the oldest page on the Wayback Machine?". archive.org. Archived from the original on March 11, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  30. ^ a b Goel, Vinay (October 23, 2016). "Defining Web pages, Web sites and Web captures". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on December 9, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  31. ^ "430 Billion Web Pages Saved. ... Help Us Do More! | Internet Archive Blogs". blog.archive.org. Archived from the original on July 7, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  32. ^ Graham, Mark (September 17, 2020). "Cloudflare and the Wayback Machine, joining forces for a more reliable Web". Internet Archive Blogs. Retrieved 2020.
  33. ^ "archive-it.org". archive-it.org. Archived from the original on April 14, 2013. Retrieved 2013.
  34. ^ Truman, Gail (January 2016). Web Archiving Environmental Scan. Harvard Library Report.
  35. ^ "What is the Difference between the General Archive (sometimes called the Wayback Machine) and Archive-It?" Archived October 15, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. Archive-It How to FAQ. Archive-It. - via Jira.com.
  36. ^ "About Archive-It". Archive-It. Archived from the original on February 21, 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  37. ^ Archives, in; Data; Education; Archive, Internet; September 22nd, Libraries |; Comment, 2020 Leave a. "The Internet Archive Will Digitize & Preserve Millions of Academic Articles with Its New Database, "Internet Archive Scholar"". Open Culture. Retrieved 2020.
  38. ^ a b c Hoffelder, Nate (July 9, 2013). "Internet Archive Now Hosts 4.4 Million eBooks, Sees 15 Million eBooks Downloaded Each Month" Archived November 10, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. The Digital Reader.
  39. ^ "Bulk Access to OCR for 1 Million Books" Archived December 6, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. Open Library Blog. November 24, 2008.
  40. ^ a b "Book search winding down". MSDN Live Search Blog. May 23, 2008. Archived from the original on August 20, 2008.
  41. ^ Books imported from Google have a metadata tag of scanner:google for searching purposes. The archive provides a link to Google for PDF copies, but also maintains a local PDF copy, which is viewable under the "All Files: HTTPS" link. As all the other books in the collection, they also provide OCR text and images in open formats, particularly DjVu, which Google Books doesn't offer.
  42. ^ a b Brewster Kahle, Aaron Swartz memorial at the Internet Archive Archived June 29, 2015, at the Wayback Machine, 2013-01-24, via The well-prepared mind Archived August 14, 2014, at the Wayback Machine, via S.I.Lex Archived August 8, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
  43. ^ a b "Internet Archive BookReader". archive.org. Archived from the original on June 21, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  44. ^ Kaplan, Jeff (December 10, 2010). "New BookReader!". blog.archive.org. Archived from the original on June 21, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  45. ^ "Internet Archive Search". Archived from the original on September 12, 2016.
  46. ^ "FAQ on Controlled Digital Lending (CDL)". National Writers Union. Retrieved 2019.
  47. ^ Gonsalves, Antone (December 20, 2006). "Internet Archive Claims Progress Against Google Library Initiative". InformationWeek. Archived from the original on October 14, 2007.
  48. ^ "The Open Library Makes Its Online Debut". The Wired Campus. Chronicle of Higher Education. July 19, 2007. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007.
  49. ^ "Search Inside" Archived October 20, 2013, at the Wayback Machine (feature). OpenLibrary.org.
  50. ^ Internet Archive (June 25, 2011). "In-Library eBook Lending Program Expands to 1,000 Libraries" Archived August 13, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. Internet Archive Blogs. June 25, 2011.
  51. ^ Flood, Alison (January 22, 2019). "Internet Archive's ebook loans face UK copyright challenge". The Guardian.
  52. ^ a b Brandom, Russell (June 1, 2020). "Publishers sue Internet Archive over Open Library ebook lending". The Verge. Retrieved 2020.
  53. ^ a b "Internet Archive meta manager". Archived from the original on January 27, 2019. Retrieved 2018.[failed verification]
  54. ^ "The MIT Press". archive.org. Retrieved 2020.
  55. ^ Hanamura, Wendy (May 30, 2017). "MIT Press Classics Available Soon at Archive.org". blog.archive.org. Retrieved 2020. For more than eighty years, MIT Press has been publishing acclaimed titles in science, technology, art and architecture. Now, thanks to a new partnership between the Internet Archive and MIT Press, readers will be able to borrow these classics online for the first time.
  56. ^ Green, Alex (December 1, 2019). "New Takes on Academic Publishing: Three university presses find new ways to keep up with a changing market". Publishers Weekly. Retrieved 2020. Since she became director [of the MIT Press] in 2015, there's little that Brand hasn't reenvisioned at the press. In 2017, the press partnered with the Internet Archive to make its deep backlist available for free at libraries, resurrecting books that had not seen the light of day in generations.
  57. ^ Freeland, Chris (May 21, 2018). "Internet Archive awarded grant from Arcadia Fund to digitize university press collections". blog.archive.org. Retrieved 2020. Internet Archive has received a $1 million dollar grant from Arcadia - a charitable fund of Lisbet Rausing and Peter Baldwin - to digitize titles from university press collections to make them available via controlled digital lending.
  58. ^ Albanese, Andrew (May 25, 2018). "Internet Archive Lands Grant to Digitize and Lend University Press Collections". Publishers Weekly. Retrieved 2020.
  59. ^ For example: "hdl.loc.gov/loc.gdc/scd0001.00198115083", retrieved 2020; "hdl.loc.gov/loc.gdc/scd0001.00060921933", retrieved 2020; "hdl.loc.gov/loc.gdc/scd0001.00060927248", retrieved 2020; "hdl.loc.gov/loc.gdc/scd0001.00001740908", retrieved 2020; "hdl.loc.gov/loc.gdc/scd0001.00027740005", retrieved 2020.
  60. ^ "External Web Sites - Finding E-books: A Guide - Library of Congress Bibliographies, Research Guides, and Finding Aids (Virtual Programs & Services, Library of Congress)". www.loc.gov. Retrieved 2020. The Internet Archive includes the full text of more than 2.5 million e-books, including e-books supplied by the Library of Congress. Books can be read online or downloaded and read in a variety of formats. E-books from the Internet Archive can also be found through Open Library, an Internet Archive initiative devoted to texts. And: "Devices and Formats - Finding E-books: A Guide - Library of Congress Bibliographies, Research Guides, and Finding Aids (Virtual Programs & Services, Library of Congress)". www.loc.gov. Retrieved 2020. Library of Congress publications are available for free download to the Kindle from the Internet Archive. ... The iPad can be used as an e-reader via apps such as iBooks, which support both ePub (.epub) and PDF (.pdf) formats. Both formats are available from the Internet Archive.
  61. ^ a b Pritchard, Will (August 18, 2017). "How The Great 78 Project is saving half a million songs from obscurity". The Vinyl Factory. Archived from the original on November 7, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  62. ^ Tirpack, Alex (June 3, 2009). "Warren Zevon live shows hit the web, possible film in the works". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on February 2, 2013.
  63. ^ "Image". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on September 25, 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  64. ^ "NASA Images" (archive). Internet Archive. Archived from the original on November 11, 2012. Retrieved 2013.
  65. ^ Boswell, Wendy (October 21, 2006). "Download free music at the Internet Archive". Lifehacker. Archived from the original on May 5, 2012. The Internet Archive has a ginormous collection of free, downloadable music in their NetLabels category ...
  66. ^ Fowler, Geoffrey A.; Hagey, Keach (September 18, 2012). "Let's Go to the Videotape: Nonprofit Offers News Clips". The Wall Street Journal Online. Archived from the original on April 24, 2013.(subscription required)
  67. ^ Kahle, Brewster (September 17, 2012). "Launch of TV News Search & Borrow with 350,000 Broadcasts". Internet Archive Blogs. Archived from the original on August 13, 2014.
  68. ^ Brownell, Brett; Benjy Hansen-Brandy (May 22, 2014). "Meet the People Behind the Wayback Machine, One of Our Favorite Things About the Internet". Mother Jones. Archived from the original on June 7, 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  69. ^ "Internet Archive founder turns to new information storage device - the book". The Guardian. August 1, 2011. Archived from the original on August 22, 2012. Brewster Kahle, the man behind a project to file every webpage, now wants to gather one copy of every published book
  70. ^ Library of Congress Copyright Office (November 27, 2006). "Exemption to Prohibition on Circumvention of Copyright Protection Systems for Access Control Technologies". Federal Register. 71 (227): 68472-68480. Archived from the original on November 1, 2007. Retrieved 2007. Computer programs and video games distributed in formats that have become obsolete and that require the original media or hardware as a condition of access, when circumvention is accomplished for the purpose of preservation or archival reproduction of published digital works by a library or archive. A format shall be considered obsolete if the machine or system necessary to render perceptible a work stored in that format is no longer manufactured or is no longer reasonably available in the commercial marketplace.
  71. ^ Library of Congress Copyright Office (October 28, 2009). "Exemption to Prohibition on Circumvention of Copyright Protection Systems for Access Control Technologies" (PDF). Federal Register. 27 (206): 55137-55139. Archived (PDF) from the original on December 2, 2009. Retrieved 2009.
  72. ^ Library of Congress Copyright Office (July 27, 2010). "Exemption to Prohibition on Circumvention of Copyright Protection Systems for Access Control Technologies". Federal Register. 75 (143): 43825-43839. Archived from the original on June 27, 2015.
  73. ^ Robertson, Adi (October 25, 2013). "The Internet Archive puts Atari games and obsolete software directly in your browser". The Verge. Archived from the original on October 27, 2013.
  74. ^ Ohlheiser, Abby (January 5, 2015). "You can now play nearly 2,400 MS-DOS video games in your browser". Washington Post. Archived from the original on January 7, 2015. Retrieved 2015.
  75. ^ Each New Boot a Miracle Archived January 9, 2015, at the Wayback Machine by Jason Scott (December 23, 2014)
  76. ^ Graft, Kris (March 5, 2015). "Saving video game history begins right now". Gamasutra. Archived from the original on March 7, 2015. Retrieved 2015.
  77. ^ Lu, Kathy (January 12, 2015). "Time suck alert: 'Pac-Man' among thousands of MS-DOS games available for free". The Kansas City Star. Archived from the original on December 20, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  78. ^ O'Neil, Lauren (January 7, 2015). "90's kids rejoice as Internet Archive releases 2,300 MS-DOS games for free - Your Community". CBCNEWS. Archived from the original on October 17, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  79. ^ Campbell, Ian Carlos (November 19, 2020). "The Internet Archive is now preserving Flash games and animations". The Verge. Retrieved 2020.
  80. ^ Stutz, Michael (March 28, 2007). "Linux to help the Library of Congress save American history". Linux.com. The Linux foundation. Archived from the original on October 23, 2017.
  81. ^ Strozniak, Peter (December 18, 2015). "Death of a Credit Union: Internet Archive FCU Voluntarily Liquidates". Credit Union Times. Archived from the original on October 6, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  82. ^ "Difficult Times at our Credit Union". Internet Archive Blogs. November 24, 2015. Archived from the original on June 16, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  83. ^ Leeds, Jeff; Mayshark, Jesse Fox (December 1, 2005). "Wrath of Deadheads stalls a Web crackdown". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 8, 2015.
  84. ^ Lesh, Phil (November 30, 2005). "An Announcement from Phil Lesh". Hotline (blog). PhilLesh.net. Archived from the original on July 15, 2007.
  85. ^ Broache, Anne (May 7, 2008). "FBI rescinds secret order for Internet Archive records". CNet. Archived from the original on May 15, 2008.
  86. ^ Nakashima, Ellen (May 8, 2008). "FBI Backs Off From Secret Order for Data After Lawsuit". Washington Post. Archived from the original on September 6, 2008.
  87. ^ Crocker, Andrew (December 1, 2016). "Internet Archive Received National Security Letter with FBI Misinformation about Challenging Gag Order". Electronic Frontier Foundation. Archived from the original on December 13, 2016.
  88. ^ Kahle, Brewster (January 17, 2012). "12 Hours Dark: Internet Archive vs. Censorship". Internet Archive Blogs. Archived from the original on August 13, 2014.
  89. ^ "Open Content Alliance". opencontentalliance.org. Archived from the original on April 10, 2013. Retrieved 2013.
  90. ^ Frank, Allegra (August 8, 2016). "Nintendo takes down Nintendo Power collection from Internet Archive after noticing it". Polygon. Archived from the original on August 11, 2016.
  91. ^ a b "Indian ISP Ban on Wayback Machine Lifted? Confirmation Awaited". Guiding Tech. August 9, 2017. Retrieved 2020.
  92. ^ Kelion, Leo (August 9, 2017). "Bollywood blocks the Internet Archive". BBC. Archived from the original on August 6, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  93. ^ "Turkey restores access to Google Drive after blocking cloud storage services". Turkey Blocks. Archived from the original on September 24, 2017. Retrieved 2016.
  94. ^ "Turkey Country Report | Freedom on the Net 2017". freedomhouse.org. November 14, 2017. Archived from the original on December 27, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  95. ^ Lee, Timothy B. (March 28, 2020). "Internet Archive offers 1.4 million copyrighted books for free online". Ars Technica. Retrieved 2020.
  96. ^ a b Freeland, Chris (March 30, 2020). "Internet Archive responds: Why we released the National Emergency Library". Internet Archive Blogs. Retrieved 2020.
  97. ^ Cohen, Noam (April 20, 2020). "The National Emergency Library and Its Discontents". Wired. Retrieved 2020.
  98. ^ Flood, Alison (March 30, 2020). "Internet Archive accused of using Covid-19 as 'an excuse for piracy'". The Guardian. Retrieved 2020.
  99. ^ Freeland, Chris (March 24, 2020). "Announcing a National Emergency Library to Provide Digitized Books to Students and the Public". Internet Archive Blogs. Retrieved 2020.
  100. ^ Hurst-Wahl, Jill (April 20, 2020). "Digitization 101: The National Emergency Library". Digitization 101. Retrieved 2020.
  101. ^ Flood, Alison (March 30, 2020). "Internet Archive accused of using Covid-19 as 'an excuse for piracy'". The Guardian. Retrieved 2020.
  102. ^ Dwyer, Colin (March 30, 2020). "Authors, Publishers Condemn The 'National Emergency Library' As 'Piracy'". NPR. Retrieved 2020.
  103. ^ Grady, Constance (April 2, 2020). "Why authors are so angry about the Internet Archive's Emergency Library". Vox. Retrieved 2020.
  104. ^ "Internet Archive Controversy". Lotus. May 2, 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  105. ^ Lee, Timothy (June 11, 2020). "Internet Archive ends "emergency library" early to appease publishers". Ars Technica. Retrieved 2020.
  106. ^ Dwyer, Colin (June 3, 2020). "Publishers Sue Internet Archive For 'Mass Copyright Infringement'". NPR. Retrieved 2020.
  107. ^ Harris, Elizabeth (June 11, 2020). "Internet Archive Will End Its Program for Free E-Books". NY Times. Retrieved 2020.
  108. ^ Albanese, Andrew (September 1, 2020). "Judge sets tentative schedule for Internet Archive copyright case". Publishers Weekly. Retrieved 2020.
  109. ^ Levy, Karyne (April 29, 2014). "These Are The Ceramic Action Figures For The Heroes Of The Internet". Business Insider. Insider Inc. Retrieved 2019.
  110. ^ "Internet Archive is a treasure trove of material for artists - SFChronicle.com". sfchronicle.com. August 11, 2017. Archived from the original on August 1, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  111. ^ "The Internet Archive's 2019 Artists in Residency Exhibition | Internet Archive Blogs". Archived from the original on July 31, 2019. Retrieved 2019.

Further reading

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Archive.org
 



 



 
Music Scenes