Artuqids
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Artuqids
Artuqid State

Artuklu Devleti
1101-1409
Artuqids (grey) and surrounding Anatolian states c. AD 1200
Artuqids (grey) and surrounding Anatolian states c. AD 1200
CapitalHasankeyf, later Diyarbak?r, Harput, finally Mardin
Common languagesKurdish, Turkish
Religion
Sunni Islam
GovernmentBeylik
Bey 
History 
o Vassal of Zengi Seljuk Empire
1101
o Vassal of the Ayyubid Sultanate
1180s
o Collapse of the Seljuk Empire
1194
o Annexation by Kara Koyunlu
1409
Currencydinar
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Today part of Turkey
 Syria

The Artuqids or Artuqid dynasty (Turkish: Artuklu Beyli?i or Art?kl?lar, Turkmen: Artykly begligi or Artykogullary, Azerbaijani: Artuklu b?yliyi or Art?ql?lar, sometimes also spelled as Artukid, Ortoqid or Ortokid; Turkish plural: Artuko?ullar?) was a Turkmen[1][2] dynasty originated from Dö?er tribe[3] that ruled in Eastern Anatolia, Northern Syria and Northern Iraq in the eleventh and twelfth centuries. The Artuqid dynasty took its name from its founder, Zaheer-ul-Daulah Artuk Bey, who was of the Döger branch of the Oghuz and ruled one of the Turkmen atabeyliks of the Seljuk Empire. The Artuqid rulers viewed the state as the common property of the dynasty members. Three branches of the family ruled in the region: Sokmen Bey's descendants ruled the region around Hasankeyf between 1102 and 1231; Necmeddin Ilgazi's branch ruled from Mardin between 1106 and 1186 (and until 1409 as vassals); and the Mayyafariqin Artuqid line ruled in Harput starting in 1112, and was independent between 1185 and 1233.

Artuqid rulers commissioned many public buildings, such as mosques, bazaars, bridges, hospitals and baths for the benefit of their subjects. They left an important cultural heritage by contributing to literature and the art of metalworking. The door and door handles of the great Mosque of Cizre are unique examples of Artuqid metal working craftsmanship, which can be seen in the Turkish and Islamic Arts Museum in Istanbul, Turkey.

History

City walls of Diyarbak?r.

The dynasty was founded by Artuk Bey, son of Eksük, a general originally under Malik Shah I and then under the Seljuq emir of Damascus, Tutush I. Tutush appointed Artuq governor of Jerusalem in 1086. Artuq died in 1091, and his sons Sökmen and Ilghazi were expelled from Jerusalem by the Fatimid vizier al-Afdal Shahanshah in 1098; the Fatimids lost the city to the crusaders the following year.

Sokman and Ilghazi set themselves up in Diyarbak?r, Mardin, and Hasankeyf in the Jezirah, where they came into conflict with the sultanate of Great Seljuq. Sokman, bey of Mardin, defeated the crusaders at the Battle of Harran in 1104. Ilghazi succeeded Sokman in Mardin and imposed his control over Aleppo at the request of the qadi Ibn al-Khashshab in 1118. In 1119 Ilgazi defeated the crusader Principality of Antioch at the Battle of Ager Sanguinis.

After pillaging the County of Edessa, Ilghazi made peace with the crusaders. In 1121, he went north towards Armenia and with supposedly up to 250 000 - 350 000 troops, including men led by his son-in-law Sadaqah and Sultan Malik of Ganja, he invaded Georgia and was defeated by the David IV of Georgia at the Battle of Didgori. Ilghazi died in 1122, and although his nephew Balak nominally controlled Aleppo, the city was really controlled by Ibn al-Khashshab. Al-Kashshab was assassinated in 1125, and Aleppo fell under the control of Zengi of Mosul. After the death of Balak, the Artuqids were split between Harput, Hasankeyf and Mardin. Sokman's son Davud, bey of Hasankeyf, died in 1144, and was succeeded by his son Kara Aslan. Kara Aslan allied with Joscelin II of Edessa against the Zengids, and while Joscelin was away in 1144, Zengi recaptured Edessa, the first of the Crusader states to fall (see Siege of Edessa). Hasankeyf became a vassal of Zengi as well.

Kara Aslan's son Nur ad-Din Muhammad allied with the Ayyubid sultan Saladin against the Sultan of Rum Kilij Arslan II, whose daughter had married Nur ad-Din Muhammad. In the peace settlement with Kilij Arslan, Saladin gained control of the Artuqid territory, even though the Artuqids were still technically vassals of Mosul, which Saladin did not yet control. With Artuqid support, however, Saladin eventually took control of Mosul as well, transferring the rule from nominal Seljuk Empire to the Ayyubid Sultanate by late 1180s. The Seljuk Empire completely disintegrated soon after that in 1194.

The Artuklu dynasty remained in nominal command of upper Mesopotamia, but their power declined under Ayyubid rule. The Hasankeyf branch conquered Diyarbak?r in 1198 and its center was moved here, but was demolished by the Ayyubids in 1231 when it attempted to form an alliance with the Seljuqs. The Harput branch was destroyed by the Sultanate of Rum due to following a slippery policy between the Ayyubids and Seljuqs. The Mardin branch survived for longer, but as a vassal of the Ayyubids, Sultanate of Rum, Il-Khanate and the Timurids. The Kara Koyunlu captured Mardin and finally put an end to Artuklu rule in 1409.

Foreign policy

Between Artuqids and house of Seljuq governor Tutush I was rivalry.[4]

Art

Figurative Architectural Piece Turkish and Islamic Arts Museum, Istanbul

Despite their constant preoccupation with war, members of the Artuklu dynasty left many architectural monuments.

They made the most significant additions to Diyarbak?r City Walls. Urfa Gate was rebuilt by Muhammad, son of Kara Arslan. In the same area of the western wall, south of Urfa Gate, two imposing towers, Ulu Beden and Yedi Karde? were commissioned in 1208 by the Artuklu ruler Salih Mahmud who designed the Yedi Karde? tower himself and apposed the Artukid double-headed eagle on its walls.

A large caravanserai in Mardin as well as the civil engineering feat of Malabadi Bridge are still in regular use in our day. The partially standing Old Bridge, Hasankeyf, was built in 1116 by Kara Arslan.

The Great Mosques of Mardin and Silvan were possibly but in any case considerably developed over the 12th century by several Artuklu rulers on the basis of existing Seljuq edifices. The congregational mosque of Dunaysir (now K?z?ltepe) was commissioned by Artuklu Bey Yülük Arslan (1184-1203) and completed after his death in 1204 by his brother Artuk Arslan (1203-1239).

Coinage

List of rulers

Hasankeyf branch

This branch was initially based at Hasankeyf (?i?n Kayf?). The capital moved to Diyarbak?r (Amid) in 1183.

Following the rule of Rukn al-D?n Mawd?d, the territories of the Hasankeyf branch of the Artuqids were taken over by the Ayyubids.

Harput Branch (It was initially part of H?snkeyfa one till 1185)

  • ?madeddin Ebubekir (1185-1203)
  • Nizameddin Ebubekir (1203-1223)
  • Nizameddin ?brahim (1223-1224)
  • ?emsüddevle Süleyman (1224)
  • ?zzeddin Ahmed (1224-1234)[6]

To Sultanate of Rum

Mardin Branch

  • Necmeddin ?lgazi (1107-1122)
  • Hüsameddin Timurta? (1122-1154)
  • Najm al-din Alpi (1154-1176)
  • Kotb ad-Din il-Ghazi (1176-1184)
  • Hüsameddin Yavlak Yörükaslan (1184-1201)
  • Mansur Nasreddin Artuk Arslan (1201-1239)
  • Said Necmeddin Gazi (1239-1260)
  • Muzaffer Ebulfeth Fahreddin Karaaslan (1260-1292)
  • Semseddin Davud (1292-1294)
  • Mansur Necmeddin Gazi (1294-1312)
  • Adil ?madeddin Ali Alp? (1312)
  • Salih ?emseddin (1312-1363)
  • Mansur Ahmed (1363-1367)
  • Salih Mahmud (1367)
  • Muzaffer Davud (1367-1376)
  • Zahir Mecdeddin ?sa (1376-1407)
  • Salih ?ihabeddin Ahmed (1407-1409)

To Kara Koyunlu

Aleppo subbranch (It was bounded to Mardin branch)

to Zengids

See also

References

  1. ^ Clifford Edmund Bosworth, The Mediaeval Islamic Underworld: The Ban? S?s?n in Arabic life and lore, (E.J. Brill, 1976), 107, 134;"The Artuqids, descendants of Artuq b. Ekseb, were a Turkmen dynasty established in Diyarbakr..."
  2. ^ Islamic Desk Reference, ed. E. J. Van Donzel, (Brill, 1994), 39;"Artuqids. Turkmen dynasty which reigned over...."
  3. ^ " ?, ? ? ? " (in Russian). TRT Russian. 22 December 2016. Archived from the original on 9 November 2016. Retrieved 2019.
  4. ^ "...Amongst the Turks[Turkic people] there was perpetual rivalry between the Seldjuks and the Danishmends, between the Ortoqids and the house of Tutush, and between the two sons of Tutush themselves." Steven Runciman, A History of the Crusades. Vol2. Cambridge University Press, page 8
  5. ^ a b c d Whelan 1988, p. 146.
  6. ^ Öztuna, Y?lmaz, "Devletler ve Hanedanlar" Cilt:2, Kültür Bakanl Yay?nlar?, Ankara (1996), s.43
  7. ^ Öztuna, Y?lmaz, "Devletler ve Hanedanlar" Cilt:2, Kültür Bakanl Yay?nlar?, Ankara (1996), s.43-44

Sources

External links


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