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Atlantic City inspired the U.S. version of the board game Monopoly, especially the street names. Since 1921, Atlantic City has been the home of the Miss America pageant. In 1976, New Jersey voters legalized casino gambling in Atlantic City. The first casino opened two years later.
A High Tide at Atlantic City by William Trost Richards is housed in the Brooklyn Museum.
Atlantic City, 1877
Because of its location in South Jersey, hugging the Atlantic Ocean between marshlands and islands, Atlantic City was viewed by developers as prime real estate and a potential resort town. In 1853, the first commercial hotel, the Belloe House, was built at the intersection of Massachusetts and Atlantic Avenues.
The city was incorporated in 1854, the same year in which the Camden and Atlantic Railroad train service began. Built on the edge of the bay, this served as the direct link of this remote parcel of land with Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. That same year, construction of the Absecon Lighthouse, designed by George Meade of the Corps of Topographical Engineers, was approved, with work initiated the next year. By 1874, almost 500,000 passengers a year were coming to Atlantic City by rail. In Boardwalk Empire: The Birth, High Times, and Corruption of Atlantic City, "Atlantic City's Godfather" Nelson Johnson describes the inspiration of Dr. Jonathan Pitney (the "Father of Atlantic City") to develop Atlantic City as a health resort, his efforts to convince the municipal authorities that a railroad to the beach would be beneficial, his successful alliance with Samuel Richards (entrepreneur and member of the most influential family in southern New Jersey at the time) to achieve that goal, the actual building of the railroad, and the experience of the first 600 riders, who "were chosen carefully by Samuel Richards and Jonathan Pitney":
After arriving in Atlantic City, a second train brought the visitors to the door of the resort's first public lodging, the United States Hotel. The hotel was owned by the railroad. It was a sprawling, four-story structure built to house 2,000 guests. It opened while it was still under construction, with only one wing standing, and even that wasn't completed. By year's end, when it was fully constructed, the United States Hotel was not only the first hotel in Atlantic City but also the largest in the nation. Its rooms totaled more than 600, and its grounds covered some 14 acres.
The first boardwalk was built in 1870 along a portion of the beach in an effort to help hotel owners keep sand out of their lobbies. Businesses were restricted and the boardwalk was removed each year at the end of the peak season. Because of its effectiveness and popularity, the boardwalk was expanded in length and width, and modified several times in subsequent years. The historic length of the boardwalk, before the destructive 1944 Great Atlantic Hurricane, was about 7 miles (11 km) and it extended from Atlantic City to Longport, through Ventnor and Margate.
The first road connecting the city to the mainland at Pleasantville was completed in 1870 and charged a 30-cent toll. Albany Avenue was the first road to the mainland available without a toll.
By 1878, because of the growing popularity of the city, one railroad line could no longer keep up with demand. Soon, the Philadelphia and Atlantic City Railway was also constructed to transport tourists to Atlantic City. At this point massive hotels like The United States and Surf House, as well as smaller rooming houses, had sprung up all over town. The United States Hotel took up a full city block between Atlantic, Pacific, Delaware, and Maryland Avenues. These hotels were not only impressive in size, but featured the most updated amenities, and were considered quite luxurious for their time.
In the early part of the 20th century, Atlantic City went through a radical building boom. Many of the modest boarding houses that dotted the boardwalk were replaced with large hotels. Two of the city's most distinctive hotels were the Marlborough-Blenheim Hotel and the Traymore Hotel.
In 1903, Josiah White III bought a parcel of land near Ohio Avenue and the boardwalk and built the Queen Anne style Marlborough House. The hotel was a success and, in 1905-06, he chose to expand the hotel and bought another parcel of land adjacent to his Marlborough House. In an effort to make his new hotel a source of conversation, White hired the architectural firm of Price and McLanahan. The firm made use of reinforced concrete, a new building material invented by Jean-Louis Lambot in 1848 (Joseph Monier received the patent in 1867). The hotel's Spanish and Moorish themes, capped off with its signature dome and chimneys, represented a step forward from other hotels that had a classically designed influence. White named the new hotel the Blenheim and merged the two hotels into the Marlborough-Blenheim. Bally's Atlantic City was later constructed at this location.
Atlantic City Boardwalk crowd in front of Blenheim hotel, 1911 (retouched)
The Traymore Hotel was located at the corner of Illinois Avenue and the boardwalk. Begun in 1879 as a small boarding house, the hotel grew through a series of uncoordinated expansions. By 1914, the hotel's owner, Daniel White, taking a hint from the Marlborough-Blenheim, commissioned the firm of Price and McLanahan to build an even bigger hotel. Rising 16 stories, the tan brick and gold-capped hotel would become one of the city's best-known landmarks. The hotel made use of ocean-facing hotel rooms by jutting its wings farther from the main portion of the hotel along Pacific Avenue.
One by one, additional large hotels were constructed along the boardwalk, including the Brighton, Chelsea, Shelburne, Ambassador, Ritz Carlton, Mayflower, Madison House, and the Breakers. The Quaker-owned Chalfonte House, opened in 1868, and Haddon House, opened in 1869, flanked North Carolina Avenue at the beach end. Over the years, their original wood-frame structures would be enlarged, and even moved closer to the beach. The modern Chalfonte Hotel, eight stories tall, opened in 1904. The modern Haddon Hall was built in stages and was completed in 1929, at eleven stories. By this time, they were under the same ownership and merged into the Chalfonte-Haddon Hall Hotel, becoming the city's largest hotel with nearly 1,000 rooms. By 1930, the Claridge, the city's last large hotel before the casinos, opened its doors. The 400-room Claridge was built by a partnership that included renowned Philadelphia contractor John McShain. At 24 stories, it would become known as the "Skyscraper by the Sea." The city became known as "The World's Playground".
In 1883, salt water taffy was conceived in Atlantic City by David Bradley. The traditional story is that Bradley's shop was flooded after a major storm, soaking his taffy with salty Atlantic Ocean water. He sold some "salt water taffy" to a girl, who proudly walked down to the beach to show her friends. Bradley's mother was in the back of the store when the sale was made, and loved the name, and so salt water taffy was born.
The 1920s, with tourism at its peak, are considered by many historians as Atlantic City's golden age. During Prohibition, which was enacted nationally in 1919 and lasted until 1933, much liquor was consumed and gambling regularly took place in the back rooms of nightclubs and restaurants. It was during Prohibition that racketeer and political boss Enoch L. "Nucky" Johnson rose to power. Prohibition was largely unenforced in Atlantic City, and, because alcohol that had been smuggled into the city with the acquiescence of local officials could be readily obtained at restaurants and other establishments, the resort's popularity grew further. The city then dubbed itself as "The World's Playground". Nucky Johnson's income, which reached as much as $500,000 annually, came from the kickbacks he took on illegal liquor, gambling and prostitution operating in the city, as well as from kickbacks on construction projects.
During this time, Atlantic City was led by mayor Edward L. Bader, known for his contributions to the construction, athletics and aviation of Atlantic City. Despite opposition, he had Atlantic City purchase the land that became the city's municipal airport and high school football stadium, both of which were later named Bader Field in his honor. He led the initiative, in 1923, to construct the Atlantic City High School at Albany and Atlantic Avenues. Bader, in November 1923, initiated a public referendum, during the general election, at which time residents approved the construction of a Convention Center. The city passed an ordinance approving a bond issue for $1.5 million to be used for the purchase of land for Convention Hall, now known as the Boardwalk Hall, finalized September 30, 1924. Bader was also a driving force behind the creation of the Miss America competition.
The 1930s through the 1960s were a heyday for nightclub entertainment. Popular venues on the white-populated south side included the 500 Club, the Clicquot Club, and the Jockey Club. On the north side, home to African Americans in the racially segregated city, a black entertainment district reigned on Kentucky Avenue. Four major nightclubs - Club Harlem, the Paradise Club, Grace's Little Belmont, and Wonder Gardens - drew both black and white patrons. During the summer tourist season, jazz and R&B music could be heard into the wee hours of the morning. Soul food restaurants and ribs joints also lined Kentucky Avenue, including Wash's Restaurant, Jerry's and Sap's.
Like many older east coast cities after World War II, Atlantic City became plagued with poverty, crime, corruption, and general economic decline in the mid-to-late 20th century. The neighborhood known as the "Inlet" became particularly impoverished. The reasons for the resort's decline were multi-layered. First, the automobile became more readily available to many Americans after the war. Atlantic City had initially relied upon visitors coming by train and staying for a couple of weeks. The car allowed them to come and go as they pleased, and many people would spend only a few days, rather than weeks. The advent of suburbia also played a significant role. With many families moving to their own private houses, luxuries such as home air conditioning and swimming pools diminished their interest in flocking to the luxury beach resorts during the hot summer. Finally, the rise of relatively cheap jet airline service allowed visitors to travel to year-round resort cities such as Miami Beach and the Bahamas.
By the late 1960s, many of the resort's once great hotels were suffering from embarrassing vacancy rates. Most of them were either shut down, converted to cheap apartments, or converted to nursing home facilities by the end of the decade. Prior to and during the advent of legalized gambling, many of these hotels were demolished. The Breakers, the Chelsea, the Brighton, the Shelburne, the Mayflower, the Traymore and the Marlborough-Blenheim were demolished in the 1970s and 1980s. Of the many pre-casino resorts that bordered the boardwalk, only the Claridge, the Dennis, the Ritz-Carlton, and the Haddon Hall survive to this day as parts of Bally's Atlantic City, a condo complex, and Resorts Atlantic City. The old Ambassador Hotel was purchased by Ramada in 1978 and was gutted to become the Tropicana Casino and Resort Atlantic City, only reusing the steelwork of the original building. Smaller hotels off the boardwalk, such as the Madison also survived.
The Borgata is Atlantic City's highest grossing casino.
In an effort at revitalizing the city, New Jersey voters in 1976 passed a referendum, approving casino gambling for Atlantic City; this came after a 1974 referendum on legalized gambling failed to pass. Immediately after the legislation passed, the owners of the Chalfonte-Haddon Hall Hotel began converting it into the Resorts International. It was the first legal casino in the eastern United States when it opened on May 26, 1978. Other casinos were soon constructed along the Boardwalk and, later, in the marina district for a total of eleven today. The introduction of gambling did not, however, quickly eliminate many of the urban problems that plagued Atlantic City. Many people have suggested that it only served to exacerbate those problems, as attested to by the stark contrast between tourism intensive areas and the adjacent impoverished working-class neighborhoods. In addition, Atlantic City has been less popular than Las Vegas as a gambling city in the United States.Donald Trump (who would later become the current U.S. president) helped bring big name boxing bouts to the city to attract customers to his casinos. The boxer Mike Tyson had most of his fights in Atlantic City in the 1980s, which helped Atlantic City achieve nationwide attention as a gambling resort. Numerous highrise condominiums were built for use as permanent residences or second homes. By end of the decade it was one of the most popular tourist destinations in the United States.
Despite being the state to initiate the landmark ruling, New Jersey was actually the third state to legalize sports betting following Nevada and Delaware. Gov. Phil Murphy signed the legislation into law on June 11, 2018, prompting several casino brands to launch sportsbooks, particularly in Atlantic City.
Modern day challenges
Night time view of Atlantic City
With the redevelopment of Las Vegas and the opening of twocasinos in Connecticut in the early 1990s, along with newly built casinos in the nearby Philadelphia metro area in the 2000s, Atlantic City's tourism began to decline due to its failure to diversify away from gaming. Determined to expand, in 1999 the Atlantic City Redevelopment Authority partnered with Las Vegas casino mogul Steve Wynn to develop a new roadway to a barren section of the city near the Marina. Nicknamed "The Tunnel Project", Steve Wynn planned the proposed 'Mirage Atlantic City' around the idea that he would connect the $330 million tunnel stretching 2.5 miles (4.0 km) from the Atlantic City Expressway to his new resort. The roadway was later officially named the Atlantic City-Brigantine Connector, and funnels incoming traffic off of the expressway into the city's marina district and the city of Brigantine.
Although Wynn's plans for development in the city were scrapped in 2002, the tunnel opened in 2001. The new roadway prompted Boyd Gaming in partnership with MGM/Mirage to build Atlantic City's newest casino. The Borgata opened in July 2003, and its success brought an influx of developers to Atlantic City with plans for building grand Las Vegas style mega casinos to revitalize the aging city.
Owing to economic conditions and the late 2000s recession, many of the proposed mega casinos never went further than the initial planning stages. One of these developers was Pinnacle Entertainment, who purchased the Sands Atlantic City for $250-$270 million, closed it in November 11, 2006 with plans to replace it with a larger casino. The following year, the resort was demolished in a dramatic, Las Vegas styled implosion, the first of its kind in Atlantic City. While Pinnacle Entertainment intended to replace it with a $1.5-2 billion casino resort, the company canceled its construction plans and sold the land for $29.5 million. The biggest disappointment was when MGM Resorts International announced that it would pull out of all development for Atlantic City, effectively ending their plans for the MGM Grand Atlantic City.
In 2006, Morgan Stanley purchased 20 acres (8.1 ha) directly north of the Showboat Atlantic City Hotel and Casino for a new $2 billion plus casino resort.Revel Entertainment Group was named as the project's developer for the Revel Casino. Revel was hindered with many problems, the biggest setback occurring in April 2010 when Morgan Stanley, the owner of 90% of Revel Entertainment Group, decided to discontinue funding for continued construction and put its stake in Revel up for sale. Early in 2010 the New Jersey state legislature passed a bill offering tax incentives to attract new investors and complete the job, but a poll by Fairleigh Dickinson University's PublicMind released in March 2010 showed that 60% of voters opposed the legislation, and two of three of those who opposed it "strongly" opposed it. Ultimately, Governor Chris Christie offered Revel $261 million in state tax credits to assist the casino once it opened. As of March 2011[update], Revel had completed all of the exterior work and had continued work on the interior after finally receiving the funding necessary to complete construction. It had a soft opening in April 2012, and was fully open by May 2012. Ten months later, in February 2013, after serious losses and a write-down in the value of the resort from $2.4 billion to $450 million, Revel filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy. It was restructured but still could not carry on and re-entered bankruptcy on June 19, 2014. It was put up for sale, however as no suitable bids were received the resort closed its doors on September 2, 2014. The property was bought by AC Ocean Walk, LLC for $200 million in 2017, and reopened in 2018.
In the wake of the closures and declining revenue from casinos, Governor Christie said in September 2014 that the state would consider a 2015 referendum to end the 40-year-old monopoly that Atlantic City holds on casino gambling and allowing gambling in other municipalities. With casino revenue declining from $5.2 billion in 2006 to $2.9 billion in 2013, the state saw a drop in money from its 8% tax on those earnings, which is used to fund programs for senior citizens and the disabled.
"Superstorm Sandy" struck Atlantic City on October 29, 2012, causing flooding and power-outages but left minimal damage to any of the tourist areas including the Boardwalk and casino resorts, despite widespread belief that the city's boardwalk had been destroyed. The source of the misinformation was a widely circulated photograph of a damaged section of the Boardwalk that was slated for repairs, prior to the storm, and incorrect news reports at the time of the disaster. The storm produced an all-time record low barometric pressure reading of 943 mb (27.85") for not only Atlantic City, but the state of New Jersey.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city had a total area of 17.037 square miles (44.125 km2), including 10.747 square miles (27.835 km2) of land and 6.290 square miles (16.290 km2) of water (36.92%).
Summers are typically warm and humid with a July daily average of 75.6 °F (24.2 °C). During this time, the city gets a sea breeze off the ocean that often makes daytime temperatures much cooler than inland areas, making Atlantic City a prime place for beating the summer heat from June through September. Average highs even just a few miles west of Atlantic City exceed 85 °F (29 °C) in July. Near the coast, temperatures reach or exceed 90 °F (32 °C) on an average of only 6.8 days a year, but this reaches 21 days at nearby Atlantic City International Airport.[a] Winters are cool, with January averaging 35.5 °F (2 °C). Spring and autumn are erratic, although they are usually mild with low humidity. The average window for freezing temperatures is November 20 to March 25, allowing a growing season of 239 days. Extreme temperatures range from -9 °F (-23 °C) on February 9, 1934, to 104 °F (40 °C) on August 7, 1918.[b]
Annual precipitation is 40 inches (1,020 mm) which is fairly spread throughout the year. Owing to its proximity to the Atlantic Ocean and its location in South Jersey, Atlantic City receives less snow than a good portion of the rest of New Jersey. Even at the airport, where low temperatures are often much lower than along the coast, snow averages only 16.5 inches (41.9 cm) each winter. It is very common for rain to fall in Atlantic City while the northern and western parts of the state are receiving snow.
Climate data for Atlantic City, New Jersey (downtown), 1981-2010 normals,[c] extremes 1874-present[d]
There were 15,504 households out of which 27.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 25.9% were married couples living together, 22.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 44.8% were non-families. 37.5% of all households were made up of individuals, and 14.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 3.34.
In the city, the population was spread out with 24.6% under the age of 18, 10.2% from 18 to 24, 26.8% from 25 to 44, 25.8% from 45 to 64, and 12.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36.3 years. For every 100 females there were 96.2 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 94.4 males.
The Census Bureau's 2006-10 American Community Survey showed that (in 2010 inflation-adjusted dollars) median household income was $30,237 (with a margin of error of +/- $2,354) and the median family income was $35,488 (+/- $2,607). Males had a median income of $32,207 (+/- $1,641) versus $29,298 (+/- $1,380) for females. The per capita income for the city was $20,069 (+/- $2,532). About 23.1% of families and 25.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 36.6% of those under age 18 and 16.8% of those age 65 or over.
As of the 2000 United States Census there were 40,517 people, 15,848 households, and 8,700 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,569.8 people per square mile (1,378.3/km2). There were 20,219 housing units at an average density of 1,781.4 per square mile (687.8/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 44.16% black or African American, 26.68% White, 0.48% Native American, 10.40% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 13.76% other races, and 4.47% from two or more races. 24.95% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 19.44% of the population was non-Hispanic whites.
There were 15,848 households out of which 27.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 24.8% were married couples living together, 23.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 45.1% were non-families. 37.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 3.26.
In the city the age distribution of the population shows 25.7% under the age of 18, 8.9% from 18 to 24, 31.0% from 25 to 44, 20.2% from 45 to 64, and 14.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.2 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $26,969, and the median income for a family was $31,997. Males had a median income of $25,471 versus $23,863 for females. The per capita income for the city was $15,402. About 19.1% of families and 23.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 29.1% of those under age 18 and 18.9% of those age 65 or over.
As of September 2014, the greater Atlantic City area has one of the highest unemployment rates in the country at 13.8%, out of labor force of around 141,000.
In July 2010, Governor Chris Christie announced that a state takeover of the city and local government "was imminent". Comparing regulations in Atlantic City to an "antique car", Atlantic City regulatory reform is a key piece of Governor Chris Christie's plan, unveiled on July 22, to reinvigorate an industry mired in a four-year slump in revenue and hammered by fresh competition from casinos in the surrounding states of Delaware, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, and more recently, Maryland. In January 2011, Chris Christie announced the creation of the Atlantic City Tourism District, a state-run district encompassing the boardwalk casinos, the marina casinos, the Atlantic City Outlets, and Bader Field.Fairleigh Dickinson University's PublicMind poll surveyed New Jersey voters' attitudes on the takeover. February 16, 2011 survey showed that 43% opposed the measure while 29% favored direct state oversight. The poll also found that even South Jersey voters expressed opposition to the plan; 40% reported they opposed the measure and 37% reported they were in favor of it.
On April 29, 2011, the boundaries for the state-run tourism district were set. The district would include heavier police presence, as well as beautification and infrastructure improvements. The CRDA would oversee all functions of the district and make changes to attract new businesses and attractions. New construction will be ambitious and may resort to eminent domain.
The tourism district would comprise several key areas in the city; the Marina District, Ducktown, Chelsea, South Inlet, Bader Field, and Gardner's Basin. Also included are 10 roadways that lead into the district, including several in the city's northern end, or North Beach. Gardner's Basin, which is home to the Atlantic City Aquarium, was initially left out of the tourism district, while a residential neighborhood in the Chelsea section was removed from the final boundaries, owing to complaints from the city. Also, the inclusion of Bader Field in the district was controversial and received much scrutiny from mayor Lorenzo Langford, who cast the lone "no" vote on the creation of the district citing its inclusion.
In the wake of the United States' economic downturn and the legalization of gambling in adjacent and nearby states (including Delaware, Maryland, New York, and Pennsylvania), four casino closures took place in 2014: the Atlantic Club on January 13; the Showboat on August 31; the Revel, which was Atlantic City's second-newest casino, on September 2; and Trump Plaza, which originally opened in 1984, and was the poorest performing casino in the city, on September 16.
Executives at Trump Entertainment Resorts, whose sole remaining property at the time was the Trump Taj Mahal, said in 2013 that they were considering the option of selling the Taj and winding down and exiting the gaming and hotel business. Trump Taj Mahal closed October 10, 2016 after failing to come to terms with union workers.
Caesars Entertainment executives have been reconsidering the future of their three remaining Atlantic City properties (Bally's, Caesars and Harrah's), in the wake of a Chapter 11 bankruptcy filing by the company's casino operating unit in January 2015.
The casino shut down having failed to reach a deal with its union workers to restore health care and pension benefits that were taken away from them in bankruptcy court. Nearly 3,000 workers lost their jobs. Reopened in 2018 as the Hard Rock Hotel and Casino Atlantic City.
On February 15, 2013, Trump Entertainment Resorts announced that it intended to sell Trump Plaza to the Meruelo Group for $20 million, the lowest price ever paid for an Atlantic City casino.Carl Icahn, senior lender for Trump Plaza's mortgage, declined to approve the sale for the proposed price.
Brookfield Asset Management's winning bid of $110 million on September 30, 2014, for Atlantic City's Revel Casino Hotel, and the company's intention to operate it as a casino, generated some excitement, but the company backed out of this deal on November 19, 2014. In January 2018, it was announced that the property had been sold for $200 million. It reopened as the Ocean Resort Casino in June 2018.
On December 13, 2014, Stockton University purchased the property for $18 million with the intent of turning it into an Atlantic City campus. However, a preexisting covenant required the property to operate as a casino. Stockton entered an agreement providing Glenn Straub with an option to purchase the property, which was not exercised. Stockton subsequently sold the property to developer Bart Blatstein in January 2016 for $23 million. The building was reopened in July 2016 as a non-casino hotel.
Originally opened by Playboy Enterprises, which was found unsuitable for licensure, Playboy casino closed and then reopened by Elsinor Corporation as the Atlantis. In 1989 the Casino Control Commission revoked Atlantis' license and property sold to become Trump World's Fair an extension of the Trump Plaza.
The Atlantic City Boardwalk opened on June 26, 1870, a temporary structure erected for the summer season that was the first boardwalk in the United States.
The Boardwalk starts at Absecon Inlet in the north and runs along the beach south-west to the city limit 4 miles (6.4 km) away then continues miles (2.4 km) into Ventnor City. Casino/hotels front the boardwalk, as well as retail stores, restaurants, and amusements. Notable attractions include the Boardwalk Hall, House of Blues, and the Ripley's Believe It or Not! museum.
In October 2012, Hurricane Sandy destroyed the northern part of the boardwalk fronting Absecon Inlet, in the residential section called South Inlet. The oceanfront boardwalk in front of the Atlantic City casinos survived the storm with minimal damage.
The Boardwalk has been home to several piers over the years. The first pier, Ocean Pier, was built in 1882. It eventually fell into disrepair and was demolished. Another famous pier built during that time was Steel Pier, opened in 1898, which once billed itself as "The Showplace of the Nation". It now operates as an amusement pier across from the Hard Rock. Captain John Lake Young opened "Young's Million Dollar Pier" as an arcade hall in 1903, and on the seaward side "erected a marble mansion", fronted by a formal garden, with lighting and landscaping designed by Young's longtime friend Thomas Alva Edison. Young's Million Dollar Pier, Atlantic City's largest amusement pier during its time", was transformed into a shopping mall in the 1980s, known as "Shops on Ocean One". In 2006, the Ocean One mall was bought, renovated and re-branded as "The Pier Shops at Caesars" and in 2015, it was renamed "Playground Pier." Garden Pier, located opposite Revel Atlantic City, once housed a movie theater, and is now home to the Atlantic City Historical Museum.
Two other piers, an amusement pier named Steeplechase Pier and a Heinz 57-owned pier named Heinz Pier were destroyed in the 1944 Great Atlantic Hurricane. Steeplechase was rebuilt after the hurricane, and survived into the casino era. The "Steeplechase Pier Heliport" on Steel Pier is named in its honor. The last of the four piers still standing is Schiff's Central Pier, which is the only one still offering the same attractions it did when it opened - a few stores, and the playcade, having reopened in 1990 after an $8 million renovation.
Panoramic view of Playground Pier
The Quarter at Tropicana
Atlantic City has many different shopping districts and malls, many of which are located inside or adjacent to the casino resorts. Several smaller themed retail and dining areas in casino hotels include the Borgata Shops and The Shoppes at Water Club inside the Borgata, the Waterfront Shops inside of Harrah's, Spice Road inside the Trump Taj Mahal, while Resorts Casino Hotel has a small collection of stores and restaurants. Major shopping malls are also located in and around Atlantic City.
In Atlantic City, shops include:
Playground Pier, an underwater-themed indoor high end shopping center located on the Million Dollar Pier formerly known as "Shops on Ocean One". The four-story shopping mall contains themed floors.
Tanger Outlets The Walk, an outdoor outlet shopping center spanning several blocks. The only outlet mall in Atlantic County, The Walk opened in 2003 and is undergoing an expansion.
The Quarter at Tropicana, an old Havana-themed indoor shopping center at the Tropicana, which contains over 40 stores, restaurants, and nightclubs.
The Atlantic City Convention Center
Boardwalk Hall, formally known as the "Historic Atlantic City Convention Hall", is an arena in Atlantic City along the boardwalk. Boardwalk Hall was Atlantic City's primary convention center until the opening of the Atlantic City Convention Center in 1997. The Atlantic City Convention Center includes 500,000 sq ft (46,000 m2) of showroom space, 5 exhibit halls, 45 meeting rooms with 109,000 sq ft (10,100 m2) of space, a garage with 1,400 parking spaces, and an adjacent Sheraton hotel. Both the Boardwalk Hall and Convention Center are operated by the Atlantic City Convention & Visitors Authority.
Arts and culture
Atlantic City (sometimes referred to as "Monopoly City") has become well-known over the years for its portrayal in the U.S. version of the popular board game, Monopoly, in which properties on the board are named after locations in and near Atlantic City. While the original incarnation of the game did not feature Atlantic City, it was in Indianapolis that Ruth Hoskins learned the game, and took it back to Atlantic City. After she arrived, Hoskins made a new board with Atlantic City street names, and taught it to a group of friends, who ultimately passed in on to Charles Darrow, who made some modifications to the game and claimed it as his own invention.
Marvin Gardens, the leading yellow property on the board, is actually a misspelling of the original location name, "Marven Gardens". The misspelling was said to have been introduced by Charles Todd and passed on when his home-made Monopoly board was copied by Charles Darrow and thence Parker Brothers. It was not until 1995 that Parker Brothers acknowledged this mistake and formally apologized to the residents of Marven Gardens for the misspelling, although the spelling error was not corrected.
Ever since Atlantic City's growth as a resort town, numerous attractions and tourist traps have originated in the city. A popular fixture in the early 20th century at the Steel Pier was horse diving, which was introduced by William "Doc" Carver. The Steel Pier featured several other novelty attractions, including the Diving Bell, human high-divers and a water circus. Advertisements for the Steel Pier in its heyday featured plaster sculptures set upon wooden bases along roads leading up to Atlantic City. By the end of World War II, many animal demonstrations declined in popularity after criticisms of animal abuse and neglect.
Rolling chairs, which were introduced in 1876 and in continuous use since 1887, have been a boardwalk fixture to this day. While powered carts appeared in the 1960s, the original and most common were made of wicker. The wicker canopied chairs-on-wheels are manually pushed the length of the boardwalk by attendants, much like a Rickshaw.
The Absecon Lighthouse is a coastal lighthouse located in the South Inlet section of Atlantic City overlooking Absecon Inlet. It is the tallest lighthouse in the state of New Jersey and is the third tallest masonry lighthouse in the United States. Construction began in 1854, with the light first lit on January 15, 1857. The lighthouse was deactivated in 1933 and although the light still shines every night, it is no longer an active navigational aid. Gardner's Basin, which is home to the Atlantic City Aquarium as well as small shops and restaurants, is located a short distance north of Absecon Light.
While located 2 miles (3.2 km) south of Atlantic City in Margate City, Lucy the Elephant has become almost an icon for the Atlantic City area. Lucy is a six-story elephant-shaped example of novelty architecture, constructed of wood and tin sheeting in 1882 by James V. Lafferty in an effort to sell real estate and attract tourism. Over the years, Lucy had served as a restaurant, business office, cottage, and tavern (the last closed by Prohibition). Lucy had fallen into disrepair by the 1960s and was scheduled for demolition. The structure was moved and refurbished as a result of a "Save Lucy" campaign in 1970 and received designation as a National Historic Landmark in 1976, and is open as a museum.
Miss America pageant
Atlantic City is the home of the Miss America competition, however it was moved to Las Vegas for seven years before returning. The Miss America competition originated on September 7, 1921, as a two-day beauty contest, and it included state contestants as well as women from various cities around the country. The event that year was called the "Atlantic City Pageant", and the winner of the grand prize, Margaret Gorman, took home the 3-foot Golden Mermaid trophy. Gorman was not called "Miss America" until 1922, when she re-entered the pageant and lost to Mary Campbell. The pageant was initiated to extend the tourist season after the Labor Day weekend. The pageant has been nationally televised since 1954. It peaked in the early 1960s, when it was repeatedly the highest-rated program on American television. It was seen as a symbol of the United States, with Miss America often being referred to as the female equivalent of the President. The pageant's longtime emcee, Bert Parks, hosted the event from 1955 to 1979. At the Atlantic City Convention Center, there is a 400-pound (180 kg) interactive statue of Parks holding a crown. When a visitor puts their head inside the crown, sensors activate a recorded playback of his "There She Is..." line through speakers hidden behind nearby bushes.
An LGBT event known as the "Miss'd America Pageant" is held annually. Originally started in 1994 as a fundraiser for local LGBT charities, the event features drag queens on the runway in a similar manner to the Miss America pageant.
Since 2010, Boardwalk Empire, an American television series from cable network HBO set in Atlantic City during the Prohibition era, has cast a new light on the city. Starring Steve Buscemi, the show was adapted from a chapter about historical criminal kingpin Enoch "Nucky" Johnson (who is renamed "Enoch Thompson" in the show) in Nelson Johnson's book, Boardwalk Empire: The Birth, High Times, and Corruption of Atlantic City. The series was filmed in New York City at various locations that captured Atlantic City's period architecture and on a set built to resemble the Atlantic City boardwalk in the 1920s.
Around the same time of the September 2010 premiere of the show, the Press of Atlantic City created Boss of the Boardwalk, a 45-minute documentary which premiered on August 21, 2010, on NBC TV-40 and aired six additional times in the following weeks.
After the premiere of Boardwalk Empire, interest in Roaring Twenties-era Atlantic City has grown. In October 2010, a plan was revealed to renovate the ailing Resorts Casino Hotel into a Roaring Twenties theme. The re-branding was proposed by current owner Dennis Gomes, and was initiated in December 2010 when he took over the casino. The changes accentuate the resort's existing art deco design, as well as presenting new 20s-era uniforms for employees and music from the time period. The casino also introduced drinks and shows reminiscent of the period. The actual building where he lived, The Ritz-Carlton, offer tours.
In 2011, Academy Bus began a trolley tour called "Nucky's Way", a tour bus service that features actors portraying Nucky, as well as other characters, as it loops around the city. Nucky's Way is the second trolley tour to capitalize off of Boardwalk Empire, after The Great American Trolley company started a weekly tour of Atlantic City with a Roaring Twenties theme in early June 2011.
On August 1, 2011, a façade modeled after the set of Boardwalk Empire was unveiled on the boardwalk in front of an empty lot at the former site of the Trump World's Fair resort. The façade of storefronts, which consists of vinyl tacked onto three large sections of plywood, was the brainchild of longtime area radio host Pinky Kravitz, who was also a columnist for The Press of Atlantic City and host of WMGM-TV Presents Pinky on NBC40.
In 2014, it was announced that Atlantic City would host two major beach concerts. The two headliners were Blake Shelton, which took place on July 31, 2015, and Lady Antebellum, which took place on August 3, 2014. On June 22, 2015, it was announced that Maroon 5 with special guest Nick Jonas and Matt McAndrew would headline on August 16, 2015. A few weeks later, it was announced that Rascal Flatts would play the second major beach concert of the summer season on August 20, 2015, with special guest Ashley Monroe. This concert would be part of their Riot Tour. Both concerts charged admission.
On November 16, 2006, Hal Handel, CEO of Greenwood Racing, announced that the Atlantic City Race Course in Hamilton Township would increase live racing dates from four days per year, to up to 20 days per year.
Atlantic City is governed within the Faulkner Act (formally known as the Optional Municipal Charter Law) under the Mayor-Council system of municipal government (Plan D), implemented by direct petition effective as of July 1, 1982. The City Council is the governing body of Atlantic City. There are nine Council members, who are elected to serve for a term of four years, one from each of six wards and three serving at-large. The City Council exercises the legislative power of the municipality for the purpose of holding Council meetings to introduce ordinances and resolutions to regulate City government. In addition, Council members review budgets submitted by the Mayor; provide for an annual audit of the City's accounts and financial transactions; organize standing committees and hold public hearings to address important issues which impact Atlantic City. Former Mayor Bob Levy created the Atlantic City Ethics Board in 2007, but the Board was dissolved two years later by vote of the Atlantic City Council.
As of 2018[update], the Mayor is Frank Gilliam. Members of the City Council are Council President Marty Small Sr. (2nd Ward, 2019), Chuen "Jimmy" Cheng (5th Ward, 2019), Moisse "Mo" Delgado (At-Large, 2017), Frank M. Gilliam Jr. (At-Large, 2017), Jesse O. Kurtz (6th Ward, 2019), William "Speedy" Marsh (4th Ward, 2019), Aaron "Sporty" Randolph (1st Ward, 2019), Kaleem Shabazz (3rd Ward, 2019) and George Tibbitt (At-Large, 2017).
Mayoral disappearance and resignation
Following questions about false claims he had made about his military record, Mayor Bob Levy left City Hall in September 2007 in a city-owned vehicle for an unknown destination. After a 13-day absence, his lawyer revealed that Levy was in Carrier Clinic, a rehabilitation hospital. Levy resigned in October 2007 and then-Council President William Marsh assumed the office of Mayor and served six weeks until an interim mayor was named.
Federal, state and county representation
Atlantic City is located in the 2nd Congressional district and is part of New Jersey's 2nd state legislative district.
As of March 23, 2011, there were a total of 20,001 registered voters in Atlantic City, of which 12,063 (60.3% vs. 30.5% countywide) were registered as Democrats, 1,542 (7.7% vs. 25.2%) were registered as Republicans and 6,392 (32.0% vs. 44.3%) were registered as Unaffiliated. There were 4 voters registered to other parties. Among the city's 2010 Census population, 50.6% (vs. 58.8% in Atlantic County) were registered to vote, including 67.0% of those ages 18 and over (vs. 76.6% countywide).
In the 2012 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 9,948 votes (86.6% vs. 57.9% countywide), ahead of Republican Mitt Romney with 1,548 votes (13.5% vs. 41.1%) and other candidates with 49 votes (0.4% vs. 0.9%), among the 11,489 ballots cast by the city's 21,477 registered voters, for a turnout of 53.5% (vs. 65.8% in Atlantic County). In the 2008 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 10,975 votes (82.1% vs. 56.5% countywide), ahead of Republican John McCain with 2,175 votes (16.3% vs. 41.6%) and other candidates with 82 votes (0.6% vs. 1.1%), among the 13,370 ballots cast by the city's 26,030 registered voters, for a turnout of 51.4% (vs. 68.1% in Atlantic County). In the 2004 presidential election, Democrat John Kerry received 8,487 votes (74.5% vs. 52.0% countywide), ahead of Republican George W. Bush with 2,687 votes (23.6% vs. 46.2%) and other candidates with 96 votes (0.8% vs. 0.8%), among the 11,389 ballots cast by the city's 23,310 registered voters, for a turnout of 48.9% (vs. 69.8% in the whole county).
In the 2013 gubernatorial election, Democrat Barbara Buono received 4,293 ballots cast (52.6% vs. 34.9% countywide), ahead of Republican Chris Christie with 2,897 votes (35.5% vs. 60.0%) and other candidates with 63 votes (0.8% vs. 1.3%), among the 8,155 ballots cast by the city's 23,049 registered voters, yielding a 35.4% turnout (vs. 41.5% in the county). In the 2009 gubernatorial election, Democrat Jon Corzine received 4,988 ballots cast (69.9% vs. 44.5% countywide), ahead of Republican Chris Christie with 1,578 votes (22.1% vs. 47.7%), Independent Chris Daggett with 157 votes (2.2% vs. 4.8%) and other candidates with 99 votes (1.4% vs. 1.2%), among the 7,141 ballots cast by the city's 22,585 registered voters, yielding a 31.6% turnout (vs. 44.9% in the county).
City and state agencies
New Jersey Casino Control Commission
The New Jersey Casino Control Commission is a New Jersey state governmental agency that was founded in 1977 as the state's Gaming Control Board, responsible for administering the Casino Control Act and its regulations to assure public trust and confidence in the credibility and integrity of the casino industry and casino operations in Atlantic City. Casinos operate under licenses granted by the Commission. The Commission is headquartered in the Arcade Building at Tennessee Avenue and Boardwalk in Atlantic City.
The CRDA was founded in 1984 and is responsible for directing the spending of casino reinvestment funds in public and private projects to benefit Atlantic City and other areas of the state. From 1985 through April 2008, CRDA spent US$1.5 billion on projects in Atlantic City and US$300 million throughout New Jersey.
Atlantic City Convention and Visitors Authority
The Convention & Visitors Authority (ACCVA) was in charge of advertising and marketing for the city as well as promoting economic growth through convention and leisure tourism development. The ACCVA managed the Boardwalk Hall and Atlantic City Convention Center, as well as the Boardwalk Welcome Center inside Boardwalk Hall and a welcome center on the Atlantic City Expressway. In 2011, the ACCVA was absorbed into the CRDA as part of the state takeover that created the tourism district.
Atlantic City Special Improvement District
The Atlantic City Special Improvement District (SID) was a nonprofit organization created in 1992, funded by a special assessment tax on businesses within the improvement district. It carried out various activities to improve the city's business community, including street cleaning and promotional efforts. In 2011, the SID was absorbed by the CRDA; the former SID boundaries would be expanded to the include all areas in the newly formed tourism district. Under the new structure, established by state legislation, the CRDA assumed responsibility for the staff, equipment and programs of the SID. The new SID division includes a SID committee made up of CRDA board members and an advisory council consisting of the current trustees and others.
The Atlantic City Fire Department (ACFD) provides fire protection and first responder emergency medical services to the city. The ACFD operates out of six fire stations, located throughout the city in one battalion, under the command of a Battalion Chief, who in-turn reports to an on-duty Deputy Chief, or Tour Commander per shift.
Fire station and apparatus locations
Headquarters, 2715 Atlantic Ave, Atlantic City, NJ 08401
The AtlantiCare Regional Medical Center City Campus
The AtlantiCare Regional Medical Center is a health system based in Atlantic City. Founded in 1898, it includes two hospitals; the Atlantic City Campus and the Mainland Campus in Pomona, New Jersey. It has Atlantic City's only cancer institute, heart institute, and neonatal intensive care unit.
South Jersey Industries provides natural gas to the city under the South Jersey Gas division. Marina Energy and its subsidiary, Energenic, a joint business venture with a long-time business partner, operate two thermal power stations in the city. The Marina Thermal Plant serves the Borgata while a second plant serves the Resorts Hotel and Casino. Another thermal plant is the Midtown Thermal Control Center on Atlantic and Ohio Avenues built by Conectiv, which opened in 1997 and provides chilled water for hotels and other facilities along the Boardwalk.
Pinky Kravitz (1927-2015), radio broadcaster and print journalist who hosted "Pinky's Corner" on WOND from an array of Atlantic City locations from 1958 until a few months before his death in 2015, hosted "WMGM presents Pinky!" for years on WMGM-TV and wrote columns for many periodicals including The Press of Atlantic City.
^At the downtown station, the highest annual number of days with 90 °F (32 °C)+ highs was 14 in 1983.
^The corresponding range at Atlantic City Int'l is -11 °F (-24 °C) on February 12, 1979 to 106 °F (41 °C) on June 28, 1969.
^Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the highest and lowest temperature readings during an entire month or year) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010.
^The official climatology station for Atlantic City was at the Weather Bureau Office downtown from January 1874 to 15 June 1958 and Atlantic City Int'l (ACY) in Egg Harbor Township since 16 June 1958. ACY's location in the Pine Barrens and distance away from the coast and urban heat island of downtown Atlantic City largely account for its markedly colder temperatures at night as compared to downtown; for example, from 1959 to 2013, there were 50 days with a low of 0 °F (-18 °C) or lower, while in the same period, the corresponding number of days at downtown was 2. The National Weather Service ceased regular snowfall observations at downtown after the winter of 1958-59.
^ abKuperinsky, Amy. "'The Jewel of the Meadowlands'?: N.J.'s best, worst and weirdest town slogans", NJ Advance Media for NJ.com, January 22, 2015. Accessed July 12, 2016. "'Do AC', the tourism campaign adopted in 2012 by the resort town, is managed by the Atlantic City Alliance, a marketing group whose impending dissolution is included in state plans.... Earlier in 2012, the city embraced 'The World's Famous Playground' as an official motto, replacing 'Always Turned On' from 2003 and the previous 'America's Favorite Playground' slogan."
^AboutArchived July 3, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, City of Atlantic City. Accessed November 20, 2016. "The first commercial hotel the Belloe House, located at Massachusetts and Atlantic Ave., was built in 1853, and operated till 1902."
^ abHistory, Absecon Lighthouse. Accessed July 27, 2017. "1854 - After a decade of prompting from Jonathan Pitney, considered by most to be the 'father' of Atlantic City, the U.S. Lighthouse Service requested and received a $35,000 appropriation from Congress for a lighthouse on Absecon Island.... 1855 Construction began under the direction of Major Hartman Bache."
^"Taffy Madness", AtlanticCityNJ.com. Accessed December 21, 2016. "The year was 1880. Mr. Bradley, a young candy merchant, had a stand on the Boardwalk. One night the little stand, which was only a couple steps from the sand, was swamped by an evening storm."
^"Nucky's Empire: The Prohibition Years - Prohibition in a Wide Open Town", The Atlantic City Experience. Accessed December 19, 2011. "In Atlantic City, Prohibition was essentially unenforced by the local authorities. Atlantic City was a well-known haven for those seeking alcohol. The tourist-based economy of the resort encouraged business owners to provide whatever was needed to make the visitors happy."
^Ryan, Robert. "Casinos mean facelift for Atlantic City", Boca Raton News, October 24, 1978. Accessed August 23, 2013. "Drawn by the year-round warmth of southern vacation spots, tourists have increasingly abandoned Atlantic City. Less expensive high-speed jet travel and rising middle-class affluence hastened the decline."
^Berger, Phil. "Trump fights to make Atlantic City king", Tampa Bay Times, January 23, 1988. Accessed February 4, 2012. "But lately, Trump has begun to show that knack for the bottom line in another endeavor. In less than a year he has become a force in the world of boxing in Atlantic City, N.J., buying the live rights to prime-time bouts that once were almost exclusive to Las Vegas casinos."
^Janson, Donald. "Atlantic Condominiums Bought for Fun and Profit", The New York Times, August 28, 1983. Accessed October 15, 2015. "Five years after the first casino opened in Atlantic City and began to transform the shabby Boardwalk into a boulevard of gambling and entertainment emporiums, major high-rise luxury condominium projects are beginning to pierce the city's skyline."
^Kraft, Randy. "Atlantic City is gambling on a brighter future", The Morning Call, September 2, 2001. Accessed January 13, 2012. "Another major improvement is the $330 million Atlantic City- Brigantine connector project, locally known simply as the tunnel. The new 2.5-mile (4.2 km) long highway with a 2,200-foot (670-meter) tunnel opened on July 31. A toll free extension of the Atlantic City Expressway, which links Atlantic City and Philadelphia, it connects the south end of the expressway to casinos in Atlantic City's marina district as well as to neighboring Brigantine."
^via Associated Press. "Revel Entertainment gets $1B financing to finish Atlantic City casino", The Star-Ledger, February 17, 2011. Accessed January 13, 2012. "Revel Entertainment said Thursday that it has secured the final $1 billion-plus it needs to finish its half-built casino on the Atlantic City Boardwalk, a project that is widely considered the best chance for the nation's second-largest gambling market to recover from four years of plunging revenue ... Gov. Chris Christie has committed $261 million in state tax credits to help Revel once it's open"
^Staff. "Thousands out of work in Atlantic City as big casinos shut doors", Atlantic City News.Net, September 1, 2014. Accessed October 15, 2015. "Showboat, which has operated on the city's boardwalk for 27 years shut its doors on Sunday. On Tuesday the glittering new $2.4 billion Revel Casino will close. Later in September Trump Plaza will close its doors. On 13 January this year the Atlantic Club which was completed in 1980 as the Golden Nugget, which then became the Bally Grand, and a Hilton was the first of the four major casinos to close this year."
^Young, Elise; and Dopp, Terrence. "N.J. Considers Ending Atlantic City's Gambling Monopoly", Bloomberg Business, September 8, 2014. Accessed October 15, 2015. "Voters may be asked as soon as November 2015 to overturn an almost 40-year-old law that gave Atlantic City a monopoly on gambling in New Jersey.... With as many as five of Atlantic City's 12 casinos closing this year, some lawmakers say allowing gambling in other towns is crucial to reclaim revenue that has gone to New York and Philadelphia."
^Overview, Casino Revenue Fund Advisory Commission. Accessed November 26, 2017. "In 1974 the voters of New Jersey were asked to amend the State Constitution by allowing Casino gambling to be permitted in Atlantic City and elsewhere. The referendum was defeated by 60% of voters. On November 2, 1976 the voters were again asked to decide Public Question #1, an amendment to the Constitution authorizing casino gambling in Atlantic City only."
^Clarity, James F. "It's 'Place Your Bets' as East's First Casino Opens", The New York Times, May 27, 1978. Accessed November 26, 2017. "Legalized casino gambling began officially in Atlantic City today, with eager, but smaller-than-expected, crowds of bettors moving into the Resorts International hotel gaming mom and politicians predicting that golden days were coming for this once-prosperous, now-shabby resort town by the sea."
^Brubaker, Harold. "Revel abandons Brookfield deal", The Philadelphia Inquirer, December 12, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2015. "U.S. Bankruptcy Judge Gloria M. Burns on Wednesday scheduled a hearing for that morning to consider Revel AC Inc.'s motion to terminate its agreement to sell its property to a subsidiary of Brookfield Asset Management Inc. for $110 million."
^Staff. "Sands casino in Atlantic City imploded", USA Today, October 19, 2007. Accessed October 30, 2015. "It took less than 20 seconds for the 21-story, 500-room tower where Frank Sinatra once held court to come crashing to the ground shortly after 9:30 p.m. in the first implosion of an East Coast casino. The demolition makes way for a mega-casino to be built on the Sands site by Pinnacle Entertainment at an estimated cost of $1.5 billion to $2 billion."
^Brennan, John. "Putting the Atlantic City Boardwalk myth to bed", The Record (Bergen County), October 30, 2012, backed up by the Internet Archive as of November 3, 2012. Accessed June 23, 2016. "The Atlantic City Boardwalk that was washed out by Hurricane Sandy is an area limited to the Boardwalk fronting the Absecon Inlet only. That small section of the Boardwalk is located in South Inlet, a prominent residential section of Atlantic City. It is a small stretch of Boardwalk that is being shown in video footage and photos."
^Jaffe, Greg. "Atlantic City takes stock of storm damage", The Washington Post, October 30, 2012. Accessed June 23, 2016. "One section of the famed boardwalk was destroyed, but most of it was intact, and on Tuesday, as white foam from the roiling Atlantic Ocean sprayed across it, the only people around were a few store owners who had come to check on their shops, some wave watchers and a few homeless men."
^"Atlantic City Experience: 100 Years of the Garden Pier", Atlantic City Experience. Accessed July 27, 2017. "Garden Pier stood apart from the other piers in Atlantic City. First opening on July 19, 1913, its 'uptown' location placed it away from the frenzied activity of the bustling downtown."
^Keough, W. F. "Central Pier Rides Again / A.C. Gets a Family Amusement Center", The Press of Atlantic City, June 3, 1990. Accessed August 23, 2013. "Central Pier, vacant since the dawn of casino gaming, will re-open its doors Saturday in an $8 million effort by its owners to re-create one of the resort's most famous pre-casino attractions - its amusement parks. Visitors who plan to test the rides later this week at the city's oldest pier will be treated to the screaming upside-down rush of a Super Loop, or the musical lure of a merry-go-round by the sea."
^Walsh, Tim (2004). The Playmakers: Amazing Origins of Timeless Toys. Keys Publishing. p. 48. ISBN0-9646973-4-3.
^Ecenbarger, Bill. "How to improve a property is the story of Monopoly", The Philadelphia Inquirer, May 31, 2009. Accessed September 23, 2016. "In the summer of 1929, Ruth Hoskins, a Quaker schoolteacher from Indianapolis, moved to Atlantic City, where she introduced the game to her new friends - and made a version using Atlantic City street names. Friends then showed the game to Charles E. Todd, a Philadelphia hotel manager, who passed it on to an acquaintance named Charles Darrow, who soon was playing it in Philadelphia.... Darrow refined the game and then claimed he'd invented it."
^Leonard, Nicole. "Miss'd America pageant finds new home in Atlantic City's Borgata", The Press of Atlantic City, May 22, 2015. Accessed September 21, 2016. "The reigning queen of the Miss'd America pageant, the LGBT spoof of Miss America, will relinquish her crown to a new winner on Sept. 26 as contestants from across the country descend on Atlantic City. The pageant has been held in recent years at Boardwalk Hall, Harrah's Resort and House of Blues at Showboat Casino Hotel since first returning to Atlantic City in 2010. ... Since its inception in 1994, the Miss'd America pageant has raised over $280,000 for local LGBT charities and organizations."
^Spoto, MaryAnn. "Surfers fighting to save dwindling free beaches", NJ Advance Media for NJ.com, May 20, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2015. "New Jersey has five free guarded ocean beaches - Atlantic City, Wildwood, North Wildwood, Wildwood Crest and the Strathmere section of Upper Township."
^Ryan, Joe. "Atlantic City mayor was at Carrier Clinic", The Star-Ledger, October 9, 2007. Accessed June 14, 2016. "The mayor of Atlantic City whose mysterious absence sparked political chaos and national intrigue was at a rehabilitation facility in Somerset County, his attorney said today. Robert Levy spent the start of his 13-day disappearance from public life at the Carrier Clinic in Belle Mead, his attorney told the Press of Atlantic City for a report on its Web site."
^Cox, Paul. "Marsh is sworn in as Atlantic City mayor", The Star-Ledger, October 11, 2007. Accessed June 14, 2016. "Atlantic City City Council President William 'Speedy' Marsh was sworn in as the resort's mayor Wednesday afternoon by City Clerk Rosemary Adams, according to a report in the Press of Atlantic City. The event occurred just hours after former Mayor Bob Levy resigned amid an ongoing federal investigation into his military record and after Levy had returned from a stay at a Somerset County clinic that specializes in mental health and addiction recovery."
^Raheem, Turiya S. A. "Community Updates: Pennsylvania Avenue School and More", Atlantic City Weekly, October 8, 2012. Accessed November 26, 2017. "The new Pennsylvania Avenue School (PAS) is a long-awaited addition to the Atlantic City School System.... Most students attending PAS have come from New Jersey Avenue School, one of the oldest in the city, which needed far too many repairs and had become a dark and dismal place for children and teachers alike."
^Company History, South Jersey Industries. Accessed December 4, 2015. "Marina's first project was the construction of the Marina Thermal Energy facility in Atlantic City, which opened in 2003. Marina Thermal provides Borgata Casino Hotel & Spa's heating, cooling and hot water needs in addition to electric generation."
^About Us, Atlantic City Electric. Accessed December 4, 2015. "Atlantic City Electric, a subsidiary of Pepco Holdings, Inc. (PHI), delivers safe, reliable and affordable electric service to more than 545,000 customers in southern New Jersey."
^Urgo, Jacqueline L. "Atlantic City wind turbines become a tourist attraction", The Press of Atlantic City, June 12, 2011. Accessed December 4, 2015. "Some casino hotel guests are so fascinated that they ask for rooms with a view of the five delicate fans, resort operators say. So the Atlantic County Utilities Authority is cranking open the security gates at the Route 30 wastewater-treatment facility that houses the turbines for twice-a-week tours in June, July, and August."
^Canby, Vincent. "Atlantic City (1980)", The New York Times, April 3, 1981. Accessed November 15, 2013. "Atlantic City, Louis Malle's fine new movie, may be one of the most romantic and perverse ghost stories ever filmed, set not in a haunted castle but in a haunted city, the contemporary Atlantic City, a point of transit where the dead and the living meet briefly, sometimes even make love, and then continue on their individual ways."
^Weis, Richard. "Film / A.C. Gets Its Fair Share of Exposure in Rounders", The Press of Atlantic City, September 8, 1998. Accessed November 15, 2013. "Atlantic City may never again get the star treatment it received from director Louis Malle in 1980 with his dreamy, bittersweet film Atlantic City. But the city does get the proverbial 15 minutes of fame in Rounders, a feature about a pair of go-for-broke poker players that stars Matt Damon and Edward Norton and opens nationally on Friday."
^Kempley, Rita. "Snake Eyes: A Bad Bet", The Washington Post, August 7, 1998. Accessed September 14, 2018. "Nicolas Cage, who sported wings as a somber seraphim in this spring's City of Angels, returns to more devilish pursuits in Brian De Palma's Snake Eyes. A glittery but dunderheaded murder mystery set in Atlantic City's Trump Taj Mahal, the movie gives both of these high-rollers a chance to strut and preen."
^Shivers, Marla Nicole. "A Boardwalk Empire Tour of Atlantic City", AtlanticCityNJ.com. Accessed December 26, 2014. "The critically-acclaimed original dramatic television series from HBO, Boardwalk Empire tells the story of corruption that takes place in Atlantic City, New Jersey during the Prohibition era."
^Reney, Tom. "Joe Albany: Low Down Proto Bopper on Film"Archived December 3, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, New England Public Radio, January 24, 2013. Accessed November 15, 2013. "The Atlantic City native is essentially the sole voice relating his life's story in the documentary, but he sounds humble and reliable, and his recollections of Bird and Pres and Lady Day are appreciative and insightful. Albany came to prominence in the 1940's, holding down the coveted piano chair in bands led by Georgie Auld and Benny Carter, where he was the only white member."
^Staff. "Transport: Atlantic City Dream", Time, November 5, 1934. Accessed November 15, 2013. "Longtime dream of Atlantic City's Mayor Harry Bacharach has been a new railroad station for 'America's Playground.' Last week, on his 61st birthday, Mayor Bacharach's dream came true."
^Henry, Big Joe. Big Joe's History of Christmas Music, NJ 101.5, December 22, 2012. Accessed February 1, 2013. "What do you get when you combine influences of 1950's era Atlantic City and Texas? You guessed it! You get the holiday hit Jingle Bell Rock. Composed by Joseph Beal, a public relations professional and longtime resident of Atlantic City, and James Boothe, a Texan writer in the advertising business."
^Monaghan, Charles. "Book Report", The Washington Post, June 14, 1987. Accessed August 8, 2018. "A native of Atlantic City, N.J., Beckham was president of his class at Atlantic City High School before going to Brown, where he was one of three black graduates in the class of 1966."
^Obituary of Carole Byard, Greenidge Funeral Home. Accessed February 6, 2018. "Carole Marie Byard, 'Suggie,' was born on July 22, 1941, in Atlantic City, New Jersey to the late William Alfred Byard and Viola London-Byard. Carole graduated from Atlantic City High School, class of 1959."
^"Harry Carroll"Archived December 15, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, Songwriters Hall of Fame. Accessed November 15, 2013. "Harry Carroll, the composer of such enduring standards as I'm Always Chasing Rainbows, Trail of the Lonesome Pine and By the Beautiful Sea, was born in Atlantic City, New Jersey on November 28, 1892."
^Staff. "Castellani to Box Giambra on Friday", The New York Times, July 29, 1956. Accessed June 1, 2017. "Joey Giambra of Buffalo, hailed as a standout contender for the middleweight title, will meet Rocky Castellani of Atlantic City in the main bout scheduled for ten rounds at Madison Square Garden Friday."
^Kent, Bill. "Atlantic City; Land and the Law", The New York Times, August 2, 1998. Accessed November 15, 2013. "On July 20, Judge Richard Williams of New Jersey Superior Court rejected the use of eminent domain to force Vera Coking, who owns a rooming house, and three other Atlantic City property holders to sell to Donald Trump, saying the seizure would benefit Mr. Trump and not the public at large."
^"Marjorie Guthrie", Jewish Women's Archive. Accessed November 16, 2013."Marjorie Guthrie was born in Atlantic City, New Jersey, on October 6, 1917, the fourth of five siblings: Herbert, a merchant marine; Gertrude, an artist; David, a mechanical engineer; and Bernard, a psychiatrist."
^Kuperinsky, Amy. "Atlantic City radio legend Pinky Kravitz dead at 88", NJ Advance Media for NJ.com, November 1, 2015. Accessed November 5, 2015. "The radio man, born in West Virginia, moved to Atlantic City with his family when he was 7. In 1988, the alumnus of Atlantic City High School told the New York Times that a class bully gave him his famous nickname."
^Jacob Lawrence Biography, DC Moore Gallery. Accessed December 21, 2016. "Born in 1917 in Atlantic City, New Jersey, Lawrence moved with his family to Harlem in 1930, where he came into contact with some of the greatest artistic and intellectual minds of his generation."
^"Libby Given 1964 Award", Statesville Record & Landmark, March 26, 1965. Accessed January 1, 2018. "A native of Atlantic City, N. J., Libby moved to Los Angeles three years ago after a stint as sports editor of the Yonkers (N.Y.) Herald-Statesman and sports writer for the New York Post."
^Staff. "Obituary: Bob Merrill", The Independent, February 19, 1998. Accessed April 25, 2016. "The son of a sweet- manufacturer, Merrill was born in 1921 in Atlantic City, New Jersey, but raised in Philadelphia."
^Davis, Eddie. "Acclaimed Food Writer, One-time A.C. Resident, Josh Ozersky Found Dead", WFPG, May 6, 2015. Accessed November 10, 2017. "Joshua Ozersky, who spent his teen years in Atlantic City and later turned his insatiable love of food in to an unforgettable career as a food writer, died Monday in Chicago. He was 47. Ozersky moved to Atlantic City as a 12-year-old in 1979, when his father, the painter David Ozersky, got a job as a stage technician at Resorts Casino. He attended Atlantic City High School and Rutgers University."
^Willis, John; and Monush, Barry. Screen World 2007. p. 417. Hal Leonard Corporation, 2010. ISBN9781557837295. Accessed January 13, 2017. "Jeremy Slate, 80, Atlantic City-born screen and television actor died in Los Angeles, CA, of complications after surgery for cancer of the esophagus, on November 19, 2006."