Autonomous Okrugs of Russia
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Autonomous Okrugs of Russia
Autonomous okrug
Autonomous districts of Russia.png
CategoryFederated state
LocationRussian Federation
Number4
Populations42,090 (Nenets Autonomous Okrug) - 1,532,243 (Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug)
Areas177,000 km2 (68,200 sq mi) (Nenets Autonomous Okrug) - 750,000 km2 (289,700 sq mi) (Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug)
GovernmentOkrug Government
Subdivisionsadministrative: districts, cities and towns of okrug significance, towns of district significance, urban-type settlements of district significance, selsoviets; municipal: urban okrugs, municipal districts, urban settlements, rural settlements

Autonomous okrug (Russian: ? , lit. 'avtonomny okrug'), occasionally also referred to as "autonomous district", "autonomous area", and "autonomous region", is a type of federal subject of Russia and simultaneously an administrative division type of some federal subjects. As of 2014, Russia has four autonomous okrugs of its eighty-five federal subjects. The Chukotka Autonomous Okrug is the only okrug which is not subordinate to an Oblast. The others three are Arkhangelsk Oblast's Nenets Autonomous Okrug, and Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug and Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug within Tyumen Oblast.

History

Originally called national okrug, this type of administrative unit was created in the 1920s and widely implemented in 1930 to provide autonomy to indigenous peoples of the North. In 1977, the 1977 Soviet Constitution changed the term "national okrugs" to "autonomous okrugs" in order to emphasize that they were indeed autonomies and not simply another type of administrative and territorial division. While the 1977 Constitution stipulated that the autonomous okrugs are subordinated to the oblasts and krais, this clause was revised on December 15, 1990, when it was specified that autonomous okrugs are subordinated directly to the Russian SFSR, although they still may stay in jurisdiction of a krai or an oblast to which they were subordinated before.

Recent developments

In 1990, ten autonomous okrugs existed within the RSFSR. Between 2005 and 2008, the three autonomous okrugs in which the titular nationality constituted more than 30% of the population were abolished. Since then, three more have been abolished, leaving four.

The ten autonomous okrugs in 1990 were:

Ethnic composition of autonomous okrugs

The table below also includes autonomous okrugs which have since changed status.

Autonomous Okrug titular nation Russians other[1]
year 1979 1989 2002 2010 1979 1989 2002 2010 1979 1989 2002 2010
Agin-Buryat Autonomous Okrug[2] ?52,2 ? 54,9 ? 62,5 ?42 ? 40,8 ? 35,1
Komi-Permyak Autonomous Okrug[2] ?61,6 ? 60,2 ? 59 ?34,9 ? 36,1 ? 38,1
Koryak Autonomous Okrug (all indigenous)[2] 16,3 ? 16,45 ? 26,6 ?30,3 62,9 ? 62 ? 50,5 ?46,2 24,9 ? 40,5 ?46,5
Nenets Autonomous Okrug (Komi) ?12,8 ? 11,9 ? 18,6 Steady18,6 ?66 ? 65,8 ? 62,4 ? 66,1 ?11,1 ? 9,5 ? 10,8 ? 9
Taymyr Autonomous Okrug (Dolgan and Nenets)[2] ?9,6 ? 8,9 ? 13,8 ? 15,7 ?68,9 ? 67,1 ? 58,6 ? 50,0 ?5 ? 4,4 ? 7,6 ? 10,1
Ust-Orda Buryat Autonomous Okrug[2] ?34,1 ? 36,3 ? 39,6 ?58,3 ? 56,5 ? 54,4
Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug ?1,9 ? 0,9 ? 1,2 ? 1,3 ?74,3 ? 66,3 ? 66 ? 68,1 ?1,1 ? 0,5 ? 0,7 ? 0,8
Chukotka Autonomous Okrug (all indigenous) ?8,1 ? 7,3 ? 23,4 ? 26,7 ?68,6 ? 66,1 ? 51,8 ? 52,5 9,6 ? 30,8 ? 35,3
Evenk Autonomous Okrug[2] ?20 ? 14,1 ? 21,5 ? 22,0 ?62,5 ? 67,5 ? 61,9 ? 59,4
Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug (Nenets) ?10,7 ? 4,2 ? 5,2 ? 5,9 ?59,1 ? 59,2 ? 58,8 ? 61,7 ?1,5 ? 1,7 ? 1,9

References

  1. ^ Are the people who are in parentheses next to the autonomous regions and the second-largest two-part indigenous autonomous regions.
  2. ^ a b c d e f liquidated Autonomous okrug.

See also


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Autonomous_okrugs_of_Russia
 



 



 
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