Awadhi
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Awadhi

Awadhi
? , ?
Native toIndia, Nepal, Fiji (as Fijian Hindustani)[1]
RegionAwadh and Lower Doab regions in Uttar Pradesh and Nepal and adjacent areas of neighboring states
EthnicityAwadhis
Native speakers
4 million in India[2] (2011 census)[1]
500,000 in Nepal (2011 census)[3] Census results conflate most Indian speakers with Hindi.[4]
Dialects
Devanagari, Kaithi, Perso-Arabic
Official status
Official language in
 Fiji (as Fiji Hindi)
   Nepal
Language codes
awa
awa
Glottologawad1243[5]

Awadhi (Devanagari, Kaithi )is a major dialect of the Eastern Hindi branch of Indo-Aryan languages spoken in northern India. [6][7] It is primarily spoken in the Awadh region of present day Uttar Pradesh, India. [6]The name Awadh () is connected to Ayodhya, the ancient town, which is regarded as the homeland of ?r? R?ma.

It was, along with Braj Bhasha, used widely as a literary vehicle before being ousted by Hindustani is the 19th century. [8]

The dialect is also referred as P?rb? literally meaning eastern, as well as Baisw?ri.[6][9]

Origin

In early Prakrit era, Awadhi speaking region was surrounded by Sauraseni spoken on its west and Magadhi on its east. This led to emergence of a Prakrit partly taking character of Sauraseni and partly that of Magadhi giving rise to Ardhamagadhi Prakrit or 'Half-Magadhi. Awadhi descends from the same Ardhamagadhi Prakrit.[10][11]

Literature

Quite a few important literary works were composed in the language[12][13], namely: 

  • Chandayan by Da'ud. (1373-1375 A.D.)[14][15]

Geographical Distribution

In India

Awadhi is predominantly spoken in the Awadh region encompassing central Uttar Pradesh along with lower portion of Ganga-Yamuna doab.[16][17] The districts include:

In Nepal

It's spoken mainly in Province No. 5 where Awadhi is an official language alongside Nepali.

Outside South Asia

A form of Awadhi is also spoken as a lingua franca for Indians in Fiji. Fiji Hindi is an older Awadhi dialect that was influenced by other Indian dialects, but retains most grammatical features of Awadhi.[18] Another form of Awadhi, known as Caribbean Hindustani is spoken in countries like Guyana, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, and other countries in the Caribbean. It is a mix of Bhojpuri, Awadhi, and other Indian dialects.

Popular culture

In 2001 Bollywood movie Lagaan, a neutralised form of Awadhi language was used to make it understandable to the masses.[19][20] The 2009 Bollywood movie Dev.D featured an Awadhi song 'Paayaliya' composed by Amit Trivedi.[21] In the television series Yudh, Amitabh Bachchan spoke parts of his dialogue in Awadhi which received critical acclaim from Hindustan times.[22]

Sample Phrases

Here are some sample phrases:

Awadhi English Translation Modern Standard Hindi
IPA?ã: ko: or kn

Devanagari: ? /

Who were there? ?
IPA? lka: d?e:ki: s?n?i: m? i:k h?i:

Devanagari: ? ? ?

This boy is fine in seeing and hearing.
IPA: so: ha:? h?m e:k ?:r?t? k? d?e: d?i:n?

Devanagari: ,

That necklace, I gave away to a woman. ,
IPA: e:ku? j?na: a:wa: h

Devanagari:

One person has arrived. ? ?
IPA: do: d? so: ma:r k

Devanagri? ?

Those who will go will be beaten. ?
IPA: kn la:o: to:?a: k?a:? le:i: to:?a: j?hu k? d d?e:i:

Devangari: ?, ,   ?

(She) said, let (me) eat a little and give a little to this one too. (?) , (?) ? -
IPA: c?j?n p ch?r:a: n? c?la:o:

Devanagari: ?

Do not fire shot at the birds. ?

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Awadhi at Ethnologue (16th ed., 2009)
  2. ^ "Statement 1: Abstract of speakers' strength of languages and mother tongues - 2011". www.censusindia.gov.in. Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved .
  3. ^ http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/sources/census/wphc/Nepal/Nepal-Census-2011-Vol1.pdf
  4. ^ "Census of India: Abstract of speakers' strength of languages and mother tongues -2001". Censusindia.gov.in. Retrieved .
  5. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Awadhi". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  6. ^ a b c Evolution of Awadhi (a Branch of Hindi). p. 1.
  7. ^ Linguistic Survery Of India Specimens Of The Eastern Hindi Language Vol.6. p. 1.
  8. ^ Evolution Of Awadhi. p. 11.
  9. ^ Linguistic Survery Of India Specimens Of The Eastern Hindi Language Vol.6. p. 10.
  10. ^ Linguistic Survery Of India Specimens Of The Eastern Hindi Language Vol.6. p. 2.
  11. ^ Patterns of Regional Geography: Indian perspective. p. 127.
  12. ^ Saxena, Baburam. Evolution of Awadhi (a Branch of Hindi). pp. 11-12.
  13. ^ Grierson. Indo-Aryan Family. Mediate Group. Specimens of the Eastern Hind? Language. pp. 12-13.
  14. ^ "Historical dictionary of Medieval India".
  15. ^ "Columbia University".
  16. ^ Evolution of Awadhi (a Branch of Hindi). pp. 1-2.
  17. ^ Linguistic Survey Of India Vol. 6. p. 10.
  18. ^ "Fiji Hindi". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2017.
  19. ^ "rediff.com, Movies: Exclusive!!! Aamir Khan on the sets of Lagaan". www.rediff.com. Retrieved .
  20. ^ "'Lagaan: Just perfect' - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved .
  21. ^ "Making music, from Aamir to Dev D". www.rediff.com. Retrieved .
  22. ^ "Yudh review: Amitabh Bachchan's show limps back to sluggish pace - Hindustan Times". 2014-08-02. Retrieved .

External links


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Awadhi
 



 



 
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