|Emperor of Vietnam|
|Emperor of the Nguyen Dynasty|
|Reign||8 January 1926 - 25 August 1945|
|Chief of State of Vietnam|
|Reign||13 June 1949 - 26 October 1955|
Nguy?n V?n Xuân
(as Head of Provisional government)
|Successor||Ngô ?ình Di?m |
(as President of the Republic of South Vietnam)
|Born||22 October 1913|
Doan-Trang-Vien Palace, Hu?, French Indochina
|Died||30 July 1997 (aged 83)|
Val-de-Grâce, Paris, France
Hoàng Phi Ánh
Bùi M?ng ?i?p
|Issue||B?o Long (1934-2007)|
Phng Mai (1937)
Phng Liên (1938)
Phng Dung (1942)
B?o Th?ng (1943-2017)
Phng Th?o (1946)
Phng Minh (1949-2012)
B?o Ân (1953)
B?o Hoàng (1954-1955)
B?o S?n (1957-1987)
|Mother||Hoàng Th? Cúc|
B?o i (Vietnamese: [?a?:w ?â:j?], Hán t?: ??, lit. "keeper of greatness", 22 October 1913 – 30 July 1997), born Nguy?n Phúc V?nh Th?y, was the 13th and final Emperor of the Nguy?n dynasty, the last ruling family of Vietnam. From 1926 to 1945, he was Emperor of Annam, which was then a protectorate in French Indochina, covering the central two thirds of the present-day Vietnam. B?o i ascended the throne in 1932.
The Japanese ousted the Vichy French administration in March 1945 and then ruled through B?o i, who he renamed his country "Vietnam". He abdicated in August 1945 when Japan surrendered. From 1949 to 1955, B?o i was the chief of state of the State of Vietnam (South Vietnam). B?o i was criticized for being too closely associated with France and spending much of his time outside Vietnam. Prime Minister Ngô ?ình Di?m eventually ousted him in a fraudulent referendum vote in 1955.
B?o i was born on 22 October 1913 and given the name of Prince Nguy?n Phúc V?nh Th?y (?) in the Palace of Doan-Trang-Vien, part of the compound of the Purple Forbidden City in Hu?, the capital of Vietnam. He was later given the name Nguy?n V?nh Th?y. His father was Emperor Kh?i nh of Annam. His mother was the Emperor's second wife, Tu Cung, who was renamed 'Doan Huy' upon her marriage. She held various titles over the years that indicated her advancing rank as a favored consort until she eventually became Empress Dowager in 1933. Vietnam had been ruled from Hu? by the Nguy?n Dynasty since 1802. The French government, which took control of the region in the late 19th century, split Vietnam into three areas: the protectorates of Annam and Tonkin and the colony of Cochinchina. The Nguy?n Dynasty was given nominal rule of Annam.
At the age of nine, Prince Nguy?n Phúc V?nh Th?y was sent to France to be educated at the Lycée Condorcet and, later, the Paris Institute of Political Studies. On 8 January 1926, he was made the emperor after his father's death and took the era name B?o i ("Protector of Grandeur" or "Keeper of Greatness"). He did not yet ascend to the throne and returned to France to continue his studies.
On 20 March 1934, age 20, at the imperial city of Hu?, B?o i married Marie-Thérèse Nguy?n H?u Th? Lan (died 15 September 1963, Chabrignac, France), a commoner from a wealthy Vietnamese Roman Catholic family. She was subsequently given the name Nam Phng (Direction of South). The couple had five children: Crown Prince B?o Long (4 January 1936 - 28 July 2007), Princess Phng Mai (born 1 August 1937), Princess Phng Liên (born 3 November 1938), Princess Phuong Dung (born 5 February 1942), and Prince B?o Th?ng (9 December 1943 - 15 March 2017). She was granted the title of Empress in 1945.
|Nguy?n H?u Th? Lan||Empress Nam Phng||Crowned Prince B?o Long
Prince B?o Th?ng
Princess Phng Mai
Princess Phng Dung
Princess Phng Liên
|The emperor's first wife|
|Lê Th? Phi Ánh||Consort Ánh||Prince B?o Ân
Princess Phng Minh
|a distant cousin, whom he married c. 1935|
|Lý L? Hà||Mistress|
|Hoàng Ti?u Lan/ Jenny Wong||Mistress||She is a Chinese women from HongKong|
|Bùi M?ng ?i?p||Consort||Princess Phng Th?o
Prince B?o Hoàng
Prince B?o S?n
|Christiane Bloch-Carcenac||Patrick-Edouard Bloch||during the period of 1957-1970|
|Monique Baudot||Imperial Princess
Empress Thái Phng
|a French citizen whom he married in 1972|
In 1940, during the second World War, coinciding with their ally Nazi Germany's invasion of France, Imperial Japan took over French Indochina. While they did not eject the French colonial administration, the occupation authorities directed policy from behind the scenes in a parallel of Vichy France.
The Japanese promised not to interfere with the court at Hu?, but in 1945, after ousting the French, coerced B?o i into declaring Vietnamese independence from France as a member of Japan's "Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere"; the country then became the Empire of Vietnam. The Japanese had a Vietnamese pretender, Prince Cng , waiting to take power in case the new emperor's "elimination" was required. Japan surrendered to the Allies in August 1945, and the Viet Minh under the leadership of H? Chí Minh aimed to take power in a free Vietnam. Due to his popular political stand against the French and the 1945 famine, H? was able to persuade B?o i to abdicate on 25 August 1945, handing power over to the Vi?t Minh - an event which greatly enhanced H?'s legitimacy in the eyes of the Vietnamese people. B?o i was appointed the "supreme advisor" to H?'s Democratic Republic of Vietnam in Hanoi, which asserted its independence on 2 September 1945, but was ousted by the French in November 1946.
As Vietnam descended into armed conflict - rival factions clashed with each other and also with the remaining French - B?o i left Vietnam after nearly a year as Supreme Advisor to Ho Chi Minh's Government, living in both Hong Kong and China. The French persuaded him to return in 1949 to serve as "head of state" (qu?c trng), not as "emperor" (Hoàng ). He soon returned to France, however, and showed little interest in the affairs of his own country when his own personal interests were not directly involved.
The communist victory in China in 1949 led to a revival of the fortunes of the Vi?t Minh. The United States extended diplomatic recognition to B?o i's government in March 1950, soon after communist nations recognized H?'s government. The outbreak of the Korean War in June led to U.S. military aid and active support of the French war effort in Indochina, now seen as anti-communist rather than colonialist.
But the war between the French colonial forces and the Vi?t Minh continued, ending in 1954 shortly after a major victory for the Vi?t Minh at ?i?n Biên Ph?. The 1954 peace deal between the French and the Vi?t Minh, known as the Geneva Accords, involved a partition of the country into northern and southern zones. B?o i moved to Paris, but remained "Head of State" of South Vietnam, appointing Ngô ?ình Di?m as his prime minister.
In 1955, Di?m called for a referendum to remove B?o i and establish a republic with Di?m as president. The campaign leading up to the referendum was punctuated by personal attacks against the former emperor, whose supporters had no way to refute them since campaigning for B?o i was forbidden.
In any case, the 23 October referendum was widely condemned as being fraudulent, with the official results showing an implausible result of 98.9% in favor of a republic, while there was also evidence of widespread ballot box stuffing: the number of votes for a republic exceeded the total number of registered voters by 155,025 in Saigon, while the total number of votes exceeded the total number of registered voters by 449,084, and the number of votes for a republic exceeded the total number of registered voters by 386,067.
In 1957, during his visit to Alsace region, he met Christiane Bloch-Carcenac with whom he had an affair for several years. This relationship gave birth to his last child, Patrick Edward Bloch, who still lives in Alsace in France.
In 1972, B?o i issued a public statement from exile, appealing to the Vietnamese people for national reconciliation, stating, "The time has come to put an end to the fratricidal war and to recover at last peace and accord". At times, B?o i maintained residence in southern France, and in particular, in Monaco, where he sailed often on his private yacht, one of the largest in Monte Carlo harbor. He still reportedly held great influence among local political figures in the Qu?ng Tr? and Th?a Thiên provinces of Hu?. The Communist government of North Vietnam sent representatives to France hoping that B?o i would become a member of a coalition government which might reunite Vietnam, in the hope of attracting his supporters in the regions wherein he still held influence.
As a result of these meetings, B?o i publicly spoke out against the presence of American troops on the territory of South Vietnam, and he criticized President Nguy?n V?n Thi?u's regime in South Vietnam. He called for all political factions to create a free, neutral, peace-loving government which would resolve the tense situation that had taken form in the country.
In 1982, B?o i, his wife Monique, and other members of the former imperial family of Vietnam visited the United States. His agenda was to oversee and bless Buddhist and Caodaiist religious ceremonies, in the Californian and Texan Vietnamese-American communities.
Throughout B?o i's life in both Vietnam and in France, he remained unpopular among the Vietnamese populace as he was considered a political puppet for the French colonialist regime, for lacking any form of political power, and for his cooperation with the French and for his pro-French ideals. The former emperor clarified, however, that his reign was always a constant battle and a balance between preserving the monarchy and the integrity of the nation versus fealty to the French authorities. Ultimately, power devolved away from his person and into ideological camps and in the face of Diem's underestimated influences on factions within the empire.
B?o i died in a military hospital in Paris, France, on 30 July 1997. He was interred in the Cimetière de Passy. After his death, his eldest son, Crown Prince B?o Long, inherited the position of head of the Nguy?n Dynasty. Crown Prince Bao Long died on 28 July 2007 and his younger brother B?o Th?ng succeeded him as head of the Nguyen dynasty, followed in turn by prince B?o Ân in 2017.
The last cash coin ever produced in the world bears the name of B?o i in Chinese characters. There are three types of this coin. Large cast piece with 10 v?n inscription on the reverse, medium cast piece with no reverse inscription, and small struck piece. All were issued in 1933.
B?o iBorn: 22 October 1913 Died: 30 July 1997
| Emperor of Vietnam
8 January 1926 - 25 August 1945
Nguy?n V?n Xuân
| Head of State
13 June 1949 - 30 April 1955
Ngô ?ình Di?m
|Titles in pretence|
|Loss of title
|-- TITULAR --
Emperor of Vietnam
25 August 1945 - 30 July 1997