Bal%C5%A1i%C4%87 Noble Family
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Bal%C5%A1i%C4%87 Noble Family

Bal?i?

Balsha
CoatOfArmsOfTheBalsics.png
CountryZetacoa.jpg Lordship of Zeta (1355-1421)
 Serbian Empire (1355-71)
 Republic of Venice (1380s)
Serbia Serbian Despotate (1405-21)
Foundedbefore 1355, by Bal?a I
Final rulerBal?a III (1403-1421)
Titlesgospodar (lord)
autokrator (self-ruler)
Estate(s)the Zeta and the coastlands (southern Montenegro,
northern Albania)
Dissolution1421 (possessions passed to
Despot Stefan)

The Bal?i? (Serbian Cyrillic: , pl. Bal?i?i / ?; also Ba?i?i; Latin: Balsich; Albanian: Balsha) was a noble family that ruled "Zeta and the coastlands" (southern Montenegro and northern Albania), from 1362 to 1421, during and after the fall of the Serbian Empire. Bal?a, the founder, was a petty nobleman who held only one village during the rule of Emperor Du?an the Mighty (r. 1331-1355), and only after the death of the emperor, his three sons gained power in Lower Zeta after acquiring the lands of gospodin ?arko (fl. 1336-1360) under unclear circumstances, and they then expanded into Upper Zeta by murdering voivode and ?elnik ?ura? Iliji? (r. 1326-1362+). Nevertheless, they were acknowledged as oblastni gospodari of Zeta in edicts of Emperor Uro? the Weak (r. 1355-1371). The family is known to have seized control through trickery, such as against the Dukagjini family, and many people were deported or murdered.[] After the death of Uro? (1371), the family feuded with the Mrnjav?evi?i, who controlled Macedonia. In 1421, Bal?a III, on his death, passed the rule of Zeta to his uncle, Despot Stefan the Tall.

History

Origin

The Bal?i? family was first mentioned in a charter of Emperor Stefan Uro? V, dated 29 September 1360. Due to sources having nothing reliable to say about their ancestors, there has been speculation on their origin, which some deem unknown.[1][2][3] Apart from Mavro Orbini's tale, there are really no other accounts on their origin.[4] In oral tradition, they descended via Grand Prince Vukan Nemanji?.[5] There exist fragmental assertions that they descended from "Emperor Nemanja".[4] The oldest mention of a Bal?i? is from 1304, when Serbian Queen Helen of Anjou sent a letter in Slavic through her trustee Matija Bal?i? from Bar (Mata de Balsich de Antibaro) to Ragusa.[6] A theory is that this Bal?i? married a female member of the Nemanji? royal family, and thus established the noble family of Bal?i?.[7] There has been various opinions about the family's origin.[8]

Karl Hopf (1832-1873) considered "unquestionably part of the Serb tribe".[9]Ivan Stepanovich Yastrebov (1839-1894), Russian Consul in Shkodër and Prizren, when speaking of the Bal?i?i, connected their name to the Roman town of Balletium (Bale?) located near modern Shkodër.[10] According to ?edomilj Mijatovi? (1842-1934), the Bal?i? family had ultimate origin in the House of Baux from Provence (southeastern France); from that family sprung an Italian family (del Balzo), and from them the Bal?i?i, and from them a Romanian family.[11] Serbian historian Vladimir ?orovi? (1885-1941) concluded, based on their name, that they had Roman (Vlach) origin.[12] Croatian ethnologist Milan ?ufflay (1879-1931) mentioned them as of "Romanian and Vlach origin".[9] Croatian linguist Petar Skok considered them to have been of Vlach origin, and Serbian historian Milena Geci? supported his theory.[11] Giuseppe Gelcich theorized on the origin in his La Zedda e la dinastia dei Bal?idi: studi storici documentati (1899). The theory asserting them as descendants of the Frankish nobleman Bertrand III of Baux, a companion of Charles d'Anjou is regarded as highly improbable.[13][according to whom?] German linguist Gustav Weigand (1860-1930) supported a mixed Albanian-Aromanian origin after he noted that the family name was included in a list of early Albanian surnames in Romania.[13]

In modern scholarship John Van Antwerp Fine Jr.,[14]Donald Nicol,[15] Peter Bartl[16] view the origin of the Bal?i? family as Serbian. According to Noel Malcolm, the Balsi?i were a Serbo-Albanian family,[13] while Robert Elsie mentions them as of "probably Slavic origin".[17] Sauro Gelichi considers them Serbian-Montenegrin.[18] Ines Angjeli Murzaku says that the family had an Albanian origin.[19] Edgar Hösch mentions the Thopias and Bal?i?i as native Albanian families that gained political power after 1355.[20] Alexandru Madgearu mentions the Bal?i? as a noble Albanian family, however he states that their Albanian origin is unclear, due to the debate over the family's origin as either Serbian or Vlach.[21] Wayne E. Lee, Matthew Lubin, Eduard Ndreca, Michael L. Galaty, Mentor Mustafa and Robert Schon mention the families of Balsha (Bal?i?), along with Dukagjin, Topia and Kastrati, as local Albanian lords which held fragmented power in north of Albania.[22]

According to Sarajevo University historian Mehmed Hod?i?, who studied the works of Konstantin Jire?ek, Vladimir Jovojovic, and Dragoje Zivkovic, the Bal?i?s originated from Shkodër and from Slavized Vlachs and that they rose to military nobility on military merit.[23]

Early history

rough borders of the Serbian provincial lords during the fall of the Serbian Empire, 1373-1395 (Zeta in grey)

Zeta [Zoomed].

According to Mavro Orbini (writing in 1601), Bal?a, the eponymous founder, was a petty nobleman that held only one village in the area of Lake Skadar during the rule of Emperor Du?an the Mighty (r. 1331-1355). Only after the death of the emperor, Bal?a and his three sons gained power in Lower Zeta after acquiring the lands of gospodin ?arko (fl. 1336-1360) and by murdering voivode and ?elnik ?ura? Iliji? (r. 1326-1362+), the holders of Lower and Upper Zeta, respectively.[24] Bal?a dies the same year, and his sons, the Bal?i? brothers, continue in ruling the province spanning Podgorica, Budva, Bar and Skadar.[24]

The Bal?i?i managed to elevate themselves from petty nobility to provincial lords.[25]

Heads

Family tree

Simplified family tree:

References

  1. ^ Rudi? 2006, p. 99: "? ? ? " ,, " ? ? ? , ? . ? ?, ?, ? . ?. , ?, ? ?, 150"
  2. ^ Veselinovi?-Lju?i? 2008, p. 91: " ? ? ?, ? . ?, ? ? ?, ..."
  3. ^ Vladimir Nikolic-Zemunski (1927). Istorija cara Stevana Du?ana. Narodna prosveta. p. 238.
  4. ^ a b Fajfric, 44. Oblasni gospodari: "O njihovom poreklu se zna veoma malo, tako da osim navoda koje je ostavio Mavro Orbin drugih podataka skoro i da nema. Postoje neki fragmentarni navodi koji ukazuju da je rodona?elnik ove porodice, Bal?a, zapravo rod od "cara Nemanje" te da je dr?ao oblast Bojane (u susedstvu Skadra), no to je sve veoma nesigurno."
  5. ^ Gleichen, Lord Edward (1923), Yugoslavia, Hodder and Stoughton, limited, p. 108
  6. ^ ? 1886, p. 151, "? ? ? ? ? 1304 ("). 2. ? ? ... ,,Regina misit unam suam literan slavonicam per Mata de Balsich de Antibaro". Monumenta Serbica, GT.".
  7. ^ ? 1886, p. 210, "1266 ? 1300 , ? ? , , ; 2. , , ? ? , ? ? ....
  8. ^ Soulis 1984, p. 254, "Various opinions have been expressed concerning the national origin of the Bal?i?i family".
  9. ^ a b Slijep?evi? 1974, p. 43: " ? ? ? ? » ?».34) ?: »? ? ? ?;"
  10. ^ Akademia e Shkencave e RPS të Shqipërisë 1985, p. 323: "Whereas JS Jastrebov, when speaking of the Balshaj of Shkodra calls then Balesium, Balezza, Balezum, Balezo and adds that the Greeks in Dukel74 called them Barizi."
  11. ^ a b Rudi? 2006, p. 99.
  12. ^ ?orovi? 2001, , IX.
  13. ^ a b c Malcolm, Noel (1998). Kosovo: a short history. Macmillan. pp. 62, 368. ISBN 978-0-333-66612-8. Retrieved 2012.
  14. ^ Fine 2006, pp. 292, 389.
  15. ^ Nicol 2010, p. 173.
  16. ^ Bartl, Peter (2001) [1995], Albanci : od srednjeg veka do danas (in Serbian), translated by Ljubinka Milenkovi?, Belgrade: Clio, p. 31, ISBN 9788671020176, OCLC 51036121, retrieved 2012, ? () ? ?.
  17. ^ Elsie, Robert (2012), A biographical dictionary of Albanian history, London: I.B. Tauris, p. 27, ISBN 9781780764313, OCLC 801605743
  18. ^ Sauro Gelichi (1 September 2006). The Archaeology of an abandoned town. The 2005 Project in Stari Bar. All'Insegna del Giglio. pp. 57-. ISBN 978-88-7814-468-2.
  19. ^ Catholicism, Culture, Conversion: The History of the Jesuits in Albania (1841-1946). Pontifical Oriental Institute (original from the University of California). 2006. p. 46.
  20. ^ Edgar Hösch (1972). The Balkans: a short history from Greek times to the present day. Crane, Russak. p. 86.
  21. ^ Alexandru Madgearu (2008). The Wars of the Balkan Peninsula: Their Medieval Origins. Scarecrow Press. p. 83.
  22. ^ Lee, Wayne E.; Lubin, Matthew; Ndreca, Eduard; et al. (L. Galaty, Michael; Mustafa, Mentor; Robert, Schon) (2013). "4: Archival Historical Research". Light and Shadow: Isolation and Interaction in the Shala Valley of Northern Albania. ISD LLC. p. 46. ISBN 1938770919.
  23. ^ Hod?i?, Mehmed. BAL?I?I U ZETI: OD OBLASNE VLASTELE DO GOSPODARA (BAL?I? FAMILY IN ZETA: FROM THE AREA NOBILITY TO MASTER) ("Many historians have raised many puzzles, many dilemmas, and therefore assumptions, among many historians. Of course, the name of Balsa's mayor contributed to this. 5 Constantin Jire?ek refers to his non-Slavic origin and that it occurs only in Montenegro, Serbia and Moldova.6 The name of the founder of this family has given various speculations about Bal?i?'s ethnicity. The name is based on Romanesque names, followed by Slavic ones, such as Slavic and personal names of members of this family.7Dragoje Zivkovic believes that the Bal?i?s originated from the Slavized Vlachs and that they rose to military nobility on military merit. He states that the seat of their founder Balsha (died 1362) was in Shkoder.8 Albanian historians, however, consider the Balsici to be of Albanian origin, and are named after the ancient Albanian town of Balletium (Balshi)." ed.). University of Sarajevo (Univerzitet u Sarajevu, Filozofski fakultet). p. 68. Retrieved 2020.
  24. ^ a b Fajfri?, ch. 44, Oblasni gospodari: "Bal?a o kojem ?emo sada govoriti be?e veoma siroma?an zetski vlastelin i za ?ivota cara Stefana dr?ao je samo jedno selo. Ali kad je umro car, a kako njegov sin Uro? nije bio valjan vladar, po?eo je s nekoliko svojih prijatelja i sa svojim sinovima Stracimirom, ?ur?em i Bal?om da zauzima Donju Zetu." "Posle toga krenuo je sa svojim ljudima na osvajanje Gornje Zete, koju je dr?ao ?ura? Iliji? i njegovi ro?aci. ?ura?a ubi?e Bal?ini sinovi, neke njegove ro?ake zarobi?e, a ostali napusti?e zemlju. I tako su Bal?ini sinovi zagospodarili i Gornjom Zetom" "Isto tako pali su u njihove ruke Duka?ini koji su imali mnogo poseda u Zeti. Neke su poubijali, a druge bacili u tamnicu. Pri osvajanju ovih i drugih pokrajina vi?e su se slu?ili lukavstvom i prevarama nego silom oru?ja"
  25. ^ Recueil de travaux de l'Institut des études byzantines: Volume 21 1982, " ? ?, ? ? ?, ? ? , ? ? ? ? ..."

Sources

Books
Journals
  • ? (1886). ? ?. 65-66.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)

External links


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