Ban of Croatia
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Ban of Croatia
Ban of Croatia
px60
The heraldic standard of the Croatian ban in the 19th century
Reports toKing of Croatia
Croatian Parliament
SeatBanski dvori, Zagreb, Croatia
Term lengthNo fixed term length
Formationc. 949
First holderPribina
Final holderIvan ?uba?i?
Abolished10 April 1941
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Ban of Croatia (Croatian: Hrvatski ban, Hungarian: horvát bán) was the title of local rulers or office holders and after 1102, viceroys of Croatia. From the earliest periods of the Croatian state, some provinces were ruled by bans as a ruler's representative (viceroy) and supreme military commander. In the 18th century, Croatian bans eventually became the chief government officials in Croatia. They were at the head of the Ban's Government, effectively the first prime ministers of Croatia. The institution of ban persisted until the first half of the 20th century, when it was officially superseded in function by that of a parliamentary prime minister.

Origin of title

South Slavic ban (Croatian pronunciation: [bâ:n], with a long [a]), is directly attested in 10th-century Constantine Porphyrogenitus' book De Administrando Imperio as (?)?, in a chapter dedicated to Croats and the organisation of their state, describing how their ban "has under his rule Krbava, Lika and Gacka."[1]

Bans during the Trpimirovi? dynasty

References from the earliest periods are scarce, but history recalls that the first known Croatian ban is Pribina from the 10th century. In the early Middle Ages, the ban was the royal district governor of Lika, Gacka and Krbava. Later, the meaning of the title was elevated to that of provincial governor in the Kingdom of Croatia. King Demetrius Zvonimir was originally a ban serving under King Peter Kre?imir IV.

Name
(Birth-Death)
Term start Term end Notes Monarch
(Reign)
Pribina
c. 949
c. 969
The first historically attested Ban of Croatia. Pribina deposed of King Miroslav during a civil war in the Croatian Kingdom, and replaced him with Michael Kre?imir. He ruled over the Gacka, Krbava and Lika counties, according to De Administrando Imperio. He is also possibly referred to in a charter as potens banus, meaning "powerful ban".[2]
Miroslav
(945-949)
Michael Kre?imir II
(949-969)
Godemir
c. 969
c. 995
Also called Godimir. He is mentioned to have served kings Michael Kre?imir and Stephen Dr?islav[3] in a charter of King Peter Kre?imir IV the Great from 1068.[4]
Stephen Dr?islav
(969-997)
Gvarda
c. 995
c. 1000
Mentioned in a charter of King Peter Kre?imir IV the Great from 1068.
Svetoslav Suronja
(997-1000)
Bo?eteh
c. 1000
c. 1030
Mentioned in a charter of King Peter Kre?imir IV the Great from 1068.
Kre?imir III
(1000-1030)
Gojslav
(1000-1020)
Stephen Praska
c. 1035
c. 1058
According to the chronicle of Archdeacon Goricensis John, he was named as ban by King Stephen I around 1035 (after his military expeditions to the east), thus succeeding Bo?eteh as Croatian ban.[5][6][7] He eventually attained a Byzantine imperial title of protospatharios somewhere between 1035 and 1042, which governed his influence over the Dalmatian theme.
Stephen I
(1030-1058)
Goj?o
c. 1059
c. 1069
He was most likely the brother of King Peter Kre?imir IV the Great, who was rumored to have murdered his other brother called Gojslav.[8] According to some historians, Goj?o and Gojslav are the same person.
Peter Kre?imir IV
(1058-1074)
Demetrius Zvonimir
c. 1070
c. 1075
During the reign of Peter Kre?imir IV (Zvonimir's relative), Demetrius Zvonimir ruled in Slavonia, specifically the land between the rivers Drava and Sava, with the title of ban.[9] Croatian charters at the time were issued in the names of both King Peter Kre?imir and Ban Zvonimir.[10] At the beginning of 1075, Peter Kre?imir IV the Great named Demetrius Zvonimir "Duke of Croatia by the grace of God." This title made him not only the ruler of northern Dalmatia, but also the chief advisor of the king and his heir. In that same year, Normans from southern Italy invaded Croatia and captured a certain Croatian ruler whose name is not known, possibly King Peter Kre?imir, who died soon after and was succeeded by Demetrius Zvonimir.[11]
Petar Sva?i? (?)
c. 1075
c. 1091
Ban of Croatia according to a later addenda to Supetar Cartulary. A number of historians consider the claim spurious.
Demetrius Zvonimir
(1075-1089)
Stephen II
(1089-1091)

Croatian bans after 1102

After the Croats elected King Coloman of Hungary as King of Croatia 1102, the title of ban acquired the meaning of viceroy. Bans were appointed by the Hungarian king as his representatives in Kingdom of Croatia, heads of the parliament (sabor) and also as supreme commander of Croatian Army.

Croatia was governed by the viceregal ban as a whole from 1102 until 1225, when it was split into two separate regions of Slavonia and Croatia. Two different bans were occasionally appointed until 1476, when the institution of a single ban was resumed. Most bans were native nobles but some were also of Hungarian ancestry.

Most notable bans from this period were Pavao ?ubi? and Peter Berislavi?.

Bans of Croatia, Slavonia and Dalmatia

Portrait Name
(Birth-Death)
Term start Term end Notes Monarch
(Reign)
Ugra 1102 1105 Coloman
Kálmán Thuróczy.jpg
(1102-1116)
Sergije 1105
Klaudije 1116 1117 Stephen II
Stefan II w?gierski.jpg
(1116-1131)
Aleksije c. 1130 c. 1141 Béla II
II Bela KK.jpg
(1131-1141)
Belo?
(1083-1163)
1142 c. 1158 Géza II
Géza II.jpg
(1141-1162)
Apa 1158
Belo?
(1083-1163)
1163 Stephen III
III Istvan koronazasa KK.jpg
(1162-1172)
Ampudije 1164 c. 1180
Mauro 1181 Béla III
Bela3.jpg
(1172-1196)
Denis c. 1180 c. 1183 Ban only in the littoral part
Suban 1183 1185
Kalán
(c. 1152-1218)
1190 1193
Dominic Miskolc 1194 c. 1195
Andrija 1198 1199 Emeric
Emeric of Hungary.jpg
(1196-1204)
Nicholas I of Transylvania 1199 1200
Benedict Osl 1199 1200
Martin Hont-Pázmány 1202
Hipolit 1204
Mercurius Gutkeled 1205 1206 Ladislaus III
III.László.jpg
(1204-1205)
Stephen Mihaljev 1206 1207 Andrew II
Andrew II of Hungary th.jpg
(1205-1235)
Bánk Bár-Kalán 1208 1209
Tomo 1209
Berthold 1209 1211
Michael Ka?i? 1212
Martin Hont-Pázmány 1213
Julius I Kán 1213
Simon Ka?i? 1212 1214
Ohuz 1214
Ivan 1215 1216 Ban only in Slavonia
Pontius of Cross 1217
Bánk Bár-Kalán 1217 1218
Julius I Kán 1218 1219
Ernej 1220 1221
Ohuz 1219 1220
Solomon Atyusz c. 1222 c. 1225

Bans of Croatia and Dalmatia

From 1225 to 1476, there were parallel Bans of Croatia and Dalmatia and of "Whole Slavonia". The following is the list of the former, the latter are listed at the article Ban of Slavonia. During the period of separate titles of ban, several persons held both titles, which is indicated in the notes.

After the death of King Louis I of Hungary, his daughter Mary succeeded to the throne, which led to kings Charles III and Ladislaus of Naples claiming the Kingdom of Hungary. A war erupted between forces loyal to Mary, and later to her husband and successor Sigismund of Luxembourg, and those loyal to Ladislaus.

During this time, Sigismund appointed Nicholas II Garai (who was also count palatine) the Ban of Croatia and Dalmatia in 1392, Butko Kurjakovi? in 1394, and then again Garai in the period from 1394 to 1397. Nicholas II Garai was also at the time the Ban of Slavonia, succeeded by Ladislav Gr?eva?ki (1402-1404), Paul Beseny? (1404), Pavao Pe? (1404-1406), Hermann II of Celje (1406-1408).

Ladislaus in turn appointed his own bans. In 1409, this dynastic struggle was resolved when Ladislaus sold his rights over Dalmatia to the Republic of Venice.

Portrait Name
(Birth-Death)
Term start Term end Notes Monarch
(Reign)
Vojni? 1225 Andrew II
Andrew II of Hungary th.jpg
(1205-1235)
Valegin 1226
Stephen IV Baboni? 1243 1249 Béla IV
Kk ivb.jpg
(1235-1270)
Butko of Podgorje 1259
Stephen of Klis 1263 1266
Nicholas of Gacka 1275 Son of Amadeus Aba Ladislaus IV
Kun L szl Thuroczy.jpg
(1272-1290)
Paul I ?ubi? of Bribir.JPG Pavao I ?ubi? 1278 1312
Andrew III
III Andras Thuroczy.jpg
(1290-1301)
Charles I
Chronicon Pictum I Karoly Robert.jpg
(1301-1342)
Money issued by Paul I ?ubi? of Bribir.jpg Mladen II ?ubi? 1312 1322
Stephen I Lackfi 1350 1352 Louis I
Nuremberg Chronicles f 235r 2 Ladislaus rex.jpg
(1342-1383)
Ivan ?uz 1356 1358
Nicholas Szécsi 1358 1366
Kónya Szécsényi 1366 1367
Emeric I Lackfi 1368
Simon Mauritius of Pok 1369 1371
Charles III of Naples (head).jpg Charles of Durazzo 1371 1376
Szécsi Miklós seal.jpg Nicholas Szécsi 1377 1380 Second term
Seal of Emeric I Bebek.jpg Emeric I Bebek 1380 1383
Lackfi István nádor lovas szobra (Kalmár Katalin, 2000). -Keszthely, 2016 Hungary.jpg Stephen II Lackfi 1383 1384 Mary
Mária Thuróczy.jpg
(1382-1395)
Thomas of St George 1384 1385
Ivan Pali?na Zagreba?ka katedrala.jpg Ivan Pali?na 1385 1386 Co-ruled with relative Ivan Anjou Horvat (1385-1387). Also at the time the Ban of Slavonia.
Ladislaus Lackfi 1387
Denis of Lu?enec 1387 1389
Ivan Pali?na Zagreba?ka katedrala.jpg Ivan Pali?na 1389 Second term. Also at the time the Ban of Slavonia.
Butko Kurjakovi? 1394
Nicholas II Garai 1395 1397 Charles II
Kis Karoly TK.jpg
(1385-1386)
Herman II, Count of Celje.jpg Hermann II of Celje 1406 1407 Also at the time the Ban of Slavonia. Sigismund
Sigismund (Chronica Hungarorum).jpg
(1387-1437)
Karlo Kurjakovi? 1408 1409
Ivan Kurjakovi? 1410 1411
Pavao Kurjakovi? 1410 1411 Co-ruled with Ivan Kurjakovi?.
Peter Alben 1412 1413
John Alben 1414 1419
Albert Ungh 1419 1426
Crkva Gospe Trsatske 1.jpg Nikola IV Frankopan 1426 1432 Son of Ban Ivan Frankopan
Ivan VI Frankopan 1434 1436
Stephen III Frankopan 1434 1437 Co-ruled with Ivan Frankopan
Peter Talovac 1438 1453 Albert I
Albrecht II. von Habsburg.jpg
(1437-1439)
Vladislaus I
Jagelló Ulászló.jpg
(1440-1444)
Ladislaus V
VLaszlo.gif
(1444-1457)
Portrait of László Hunydi 18. c..jpg Ladislaus Hunyad 1453
Pavao ?piran?i? 1459 1463
Matthias I
Matei Corvin Johannes de Thurocz f137.jpg
(1458-1490)
Stephen Frankopan 1463
Epitaf Nikole Ilockog crkva sv Ivana Kapistrana Ilok 221208.jpg Nicholas of Ilok 1457 1463 Also at the time the Ban of Slavonia (1457-1463)
Emeric Zápolya 1464 1465 Also at the time the Ban of Slavonia
John Thuz 1466 1467 Also at the time the Ban of Slavonia
Magyar Balázs.jpg Blaise Magyar 1470 1472 Also at the time the Ban of Slavonia
Damjan Horvat 1472 1473 Also at the time the Ban of Slavonia

Bans of Croatia, Slavonia and Dalmatia

From 1476 onwards, the titles of Ban of Dalmatia and Croatia, and Ban of "Whole Slavonia" are again united in the single title of Ban of Croatia, Slavonia and Dalmatia.

Portrait Name
(Birth-Death)
Term start Term end Notes Monarch
(Reign)
Andrew Bánffy 1476 1477 Matthias I
Matei Corvin Johannes de Thurocz f137.jpg
(1458-1490)
Ladislaus of Egervár 1477 1481
Magyar Balázs.jpg Blaise Magyar 1482
Matthias Gereb 1483 1489 Known for the Battle of Una.
Ladislaus of Egervár 1489 1493
Vladislaus II
Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary.jpg
(1490-1516)
John Both 1493
Mirko Deren?in 1493 Known for the Battle of Krbava field.
Ladislaus Kanizsai 1493 1495
Baldassare Estense 004.jpg John Corvinus 1495 1498
George Kanizsai 1498 1499
Baldassare Estense 004.jpg John Corvinus 1499 1504
Andrew Both 1505 1507
Marko Mi?ljenovi? 1506 1507
John Ernuszt 1508 1509
George Kanizsai 1508 1509
Andrew Both 1510 1511
Emeric Perényi 1512 1513
Petar Berislavic 200807.jpg Peter Berislavi? 1513 1520 Known for the Battle of Dubica.
Louis II
Hans Krell 001.jpg
(1516-1526)
Ivan Karlovi? 1521 1524
John Tahy 1525
Batthyány Ferenc horvát bán.jpg Ferenc Batthyány 1525 1527
Frankopan Zagreb.JPG Christoph I Frankopan
(1482-1527)
1527 Grandson of Ban Stephen Frankopan

Habsburg-era bans

The title of ban persisted in Croatia after 1527 when the country became part of the Habsburg Monarchy, and continued all the way until 1918.

Among the most distinguished bans in Croatian history were the three members of Zrinski family Nikola ?ubi? Zrinski and his great-grandsons Nikola Zrinski and Petar Zrinski. Also there are two notable Erd?dys: Toma Erd?dy, great warrior and statesman, and Ivan Erd?dy, to whom Croatia owes much for protecting her rights against the Hungarian nobility, his most widely known saying in Latin is Regnum regno non praescribit leges (A kingdom may not proscribe laws to another kingdom.)

In the 18th century, Croatian bans eventually became chief government officials in Croatia. They were at the head of Ban's Government, effectively the first prime ministers of Croatia. The most known bans of that era were Josip Jela?i?, Ivan Ma?urani? and Josip ?ok?evi?.

Bans in the Habsburg Monarchy

The Habsburg dynasty ruled Kingdom of Croatia and Kingdom of Slavonia between 1527 and 1918.

Portrait Name
(Birth-Death)
Term start Term end Notes Monarch
(Reign)
Frankopan Zagreb.JPG Christoph I Frankopan
(1482-1527)
1526 1527 Ferdinand I
Hans Bocksberger der Aeltere 001.jpg
(1526-1564)
Ivan Karlovi?
(c. 1485-1531)
1527 1531
Simon Erd?dy
(c. 1489-1543)
1530 1534
Louis Pekry 1532 1537
Nádasdy Tamás1.jpg Thomas Nádasdy
(1498-1562)
1537 1539
Petar II. Keglevi? (1478-1554).JPG Peter Keglevi?
(1478-c. 1554)
1537 1542
Nikola Zrinski.jpg Nikola ?ubi? Zrinski
(1508-c. 1566)
1542 1556
Péter Erd?dy
(1508-c. 1566)
1557 1567
Franjo Frankopan Slunjski.jpg Francis I Frankapan of Slunj 1567 1572 Maximilian II
Nicolas Neufchâtel 002.jpg
(1563-1576)
Juraj kardinal Dra?kovi? (1525-1587) Glasoviti Hrvati 1886.png Juraj Dra?kovi?
(1525-1587)
1567 1576
Ga?par Alapi?
(?-1584)
1575 1577
Kristóf Ungnad 1578 1583 Rudolf II
Martino Rota - Emperor Rudolf II in Armour - WGA20140.jpg
(1572-1608)
Nadgrobna plo?a bana Tome Baka?a Erdödyja ZG Katedrala.jpg Thomas Erd?dy
(1558-1624)
1583 1595
Ga?par Stankova?ki 1595 1596
Draskovits János bán.jpg Ivan II Dra?kovi?
(1550-1613)
1595 1607
Nadgrobna plo?a bana Tome Baka?a Erdödyja ZG Katedrala.jpg Thomas Erd?dy
(1558-1624)
1608 1615 Matthias II
Lucas van Valckenborch - Emperor Matthias as Archduke, with baton.jpg
(1608-1618)
Benedict Thuroczy
1615 1616
Nikola XI Frankopan
(1584-1647)
1617 1622
Zrínyi György Pollák.jpg Juraj V Zrinski
(1599-1626)
1622 1626 Ferdinand II
Kaiser Ferdinand II. 1614.jpg
(1618-1637)
Sigismund Erd?dy
(1596-1639)
1627 1639

Ivan III. Dra?kovi?.jpg

Ivan III Dra?kovi?
(1595-1648)
1640 1646 Ferdinand III
Luycx Ferdinand III Habsburg.jpg
(1625-1657)

Jan Thomas Portrait of Miklós Zrínyi.jpg

Nikola Zrinski
(1620-1664)
1647 1664
Zrínyi Péter Widemann.jpg Peter Zrinski
(1621-1671)
1665 1670 Leopold I
Leopold I of Habsburg.jpg
(1657-1705)
Miklós Erd?dy
(1630-1693)
1670 1693
Batthyány Ádám országbíró.jpg Adam II. Batthyány
(1662-1703)
1693 1703
Pálffy János V.jpg Ivan Pálffy
(1664-1751)
1704 1732 Joseph I
Joseph I Holy Roman Emperor 002.jpg
(1705-1711)
Ivan Draskovic.JPG Ivan V Dra?kovi?
(1660-1733)
1732 1733 Charles III
Martin van Meytens (attrib.) - Porträt Kaiser Karl VI.jpg
(1711-1740)
Count József Esterházy.JPG Josef Esterházy
(1682-1748)
1733 1741
György Branyng 1741 1742 Maria Theresa
Kaiserin Maria Theresia (HRR).jpg
(1740-1780)
Batthyány Károly.jpg Karl Josef Batthyány
(1697-1772)
16 March 1743 6 July 1756
Nádasdy-Nádasd-Fogáras, Franz Graf.jpg Ferenc Nádasdy
(1708-1783)
1756 1783
Esterházy Ferenc (1715-1785).jpg Ferenc Eszterházy
(1715-1785)
1783 1785 Joseph II
JosephusImperator.png
(1780-1790)
Balassa Ferenc.jpg Ferenc Balassa
(1736-1807)
1785 1790
Erd?dy János.jpg Ivan Erd?dy
(1733-1806)
1790 1806 Leopold II
Johann Daniel Donat, Emperor Leopold II in the Regalia of the Golden Fleece (1806).png
(1790-1792)
Ignjat Gyulay.jpg Ignác Gyulay
(1763-1831)
1806 1831 Francis II
HGM Kupelwieser Porträt Kaiser Franz I.jpg
(1792-1835)
Vlasic szobor dombóvár.jpg Franjo Vla?i?
(1766-1840)
10 February 1832 16 May 1840 Ferdinand V
Ferdinand I of Austria large.jpg
(1835-1848)
Juraj-Haulik 1856.jpg Juraj Haulik
(1788-1869)
1840 16 June 1842 Acting ban
Franz Graf Hallerkeoe.jpg Franz Haller
(1796-1875)
16 June 1842 1845
Juraj-Haulik 1856.jpg Juraj Haulik
(1788-1869)
1845 23 March 1848 Acting ban

Bans during the Revolutions of 1848

Croatia was a Habsburg crown territory during the Revolutions of 1848 and up until 1867.[12]

Portrait Name
(Birth-Death)
Term start Term end Notes Monarch
(Reign)
Ivan Zasche, Portret bana Josipa Jelacica.jpg Josip Jela?i?
(1801-1859)
23 March 1848 19 May 1859 Franz Joseph I
László Portrait of Franz Joseph I 1899.jpg
(1848-1916)
Johann Baptist Graf Coronini-Cronberg (1794-1880).jpg Johann Baptist Coronini-Cronberg
(1794-1880)
28 July 1859 19 June 1860
Joseph Freiherr von Sokcsevits 1863.png Josip ?ok?evi?
(1811-1896)
19 June 1860 27 June 1867

Bans in Austria-Hungary

Croatia was returned to Hungarian control in 1867 when the Habsburg Empire was reconstituted as the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary. Between then and 1918 the following bans were appointed:

Portrait Name
(Birth-Death)
Term start Term end Notes Monarch
(Reign)
Rauch Levin portrait.jpg Levin Rauch
(1819-1890)
27 June 1867 26 January 1871 Member of the Unionist Party that advocated for more integration of Croatia into Hungary. Notable for securing victory of the Unionist Party through changing the election law and terrorising those who were able to vote.[13] Franz Joseph I
László Portrait of Franz Joseph I 1899.jpg
(1848-1916)
Bedekovich Kálmán.jpg Koloman Bedekovi?
(1818-1889)
26 January 1871 12 February 1872 Bedekovi? was the leader of the Unionist Party and fought against Croatia's autonomy from Hungary. Dissatisfaction with the obstruction of parliament led to the Rakovica Revolt. Early elections were subsequently called for in 1872. The failure of Bedekovi? to convene the previous parliament resulted in him being removed from the post of ban and replaced with the first non-noble ban, Ivan Ma?urani?.
Antun Vakanovi?.jpg Antun Vakanovi?
(1808-1894)
17 February 1872 20 September 1873 Acting ban
Ivan Mazuranic crop.jpg Ivan Ma?urani?
(1814-1890)
20 September 1873 21 February 1880 Ma?urani? was the first Croatian ban not to hail from old nobility, as he was born a commoner. He was a member of the People's Party. He accomplished the transition of Croatian lands from a semi-feudal legal and economic system to a modern civil society similar to those emerging in other countries in Central Europe.
Ladislav Peja?evi? portret.JPG Ladislav Peja?evi?
(1824-1901)
21 February 1880 4 September 1883 As the reincorporation of the Military Frontier into the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia was proclaimed on 15 July 1881, Peja?evi? was given the task to follow it through. On 1 August 1881, he took over the administration of the former Frontier. On 24 August 1883, he quit after the Council of Ministers in Vienna concluded that bilingual Hungarian official emblems, installed by Hungarian officials in Croatia-Slavonia, were not allowed to be removed from the official buildings and were to stay along the Croatian ones.
Hermann Ramberg
(1820-1899)
4 September 1883 1 December 1883 Acting ban
Khuen-Héderváry 1883.jpg Karoly Khuen-Héderváry
(1849-1918)
4 December 1883 27 June 1903 Khuen's reign was marked by strong Magyarization. After a series of riots broke out against him in 1903, Khuen was relieved of his duty and appointed prime minister of Hungary.
Teodor Peja?evi? (Crn?i?).jpg Teodor Peja?evi?
(1855-1928)
1 July 1903 26 June 1907 At the beginning of the 20th century, he was faced with a new direction of Croatian policy marked by political alliance between Croats and Serbs in Austria-Hungary for mutual benefit. A Croat-Serb Coalition was formed in 1905, and it governed the Croatian lands from 1906 until the dissolution of the Dual Monarchy in 1918. As Peja?evi? supported the ruling Coalition in its resistance towards the Hungarian request in 1907 to make the Hungarian language an official language on railways in Croatia, he was forced to resign.
Aleksandar Rakodczay.jpg Aleksandar Rakodczaj
(1848-1924)
26 June 1907 8 January 1908
Barun Pavao Rauch 1908 Th. Mayerhofer.png Pavao Rauch
(1865-1933)
8 January 1908 5 February 1910 From the very beginning of Rauch's rule, the Croato-Serbian Coalition announced that it would refuse to co-operate in any manner with the new unionist ban.[14] After the Croatian Parliament had been disbanded on 12 March 1908, because of its refusal to co-operate and the insults it directed at the ban, Pavao Rauch ruled through decrees and civil servants. Despite all opposition predictions, Rauch remained in power for two years. On 5 February 1910, he received the king's letter of dismissal.
Nikola Toma?i?.JPG Nikola Toma?i?
(1864-1918)
5 February 1910 19 January 1912
Slavko Cuvaj portret.png Slavko Cuvaj
(1851-1931)
19 January 1912 21 July 1913 He was appointed in January 1912, when anti-Habsburg sentiments were on the rise in Croatia, often manifesting in sympathies for Serbia and calls for creation of a Yugoslav state. Cuvaj tried to curb those trends by series of decrees directed at curbing the freedom of the press, limiting rights of assembly and local autonomy. This created a backlash in the form of strikes and demonstrations. Some young radicals even engaged in terrorism. Cuvaj himself was target of two assassination attempts in 1912.
Ivan ?krlec lomni?ki.jpg Ivan Skerlecz
(1873-1951)
27 November 1913 29 June 1917 Skerlecz managed to reconvene the Croatian Parliament in Zagreb by 1915. The Croats made further demands for local authority, as well as unification of Croatia-Slavonia with Dalmatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Charles IV
Theodor Mayerhofer Kaiser Karl I von österreich 1917.jpg
(1916-1919)
Antun Mihalovich.jpg Antun Mihalovi?
(1868-1949)
29 June 1917 20 January 1919

Croatian bans in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia

Ban was also the title of the governor of each province (banovina) of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia between 1929 and 1941. The weight of the title was far less than that of a medieval ban's feudal office. Most of Croatian territory was divided between the Sava and Littoral Banovina, but also some parts were outside this provinces.

In 1939 Banovina of Croatia was created with Cvetkovi?-Ma?ek agreement as a unit of limited autonomy. It consisted of the Sava and Littoral Banovinas along with smaller parts of Vrbas, Zeta, Drina and Danube Banovina's. Ivan ?uba?i? was appointed for the Ban of Banovina of Croatia until the collapse of Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1941. ?uba?i? was also the last person who held the position of Croatian Ban.

Bans of Croatian lands within the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes

Following a brief period of self-rule at the end of World War I, Croatia was incorporated into the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes in 1918, under the Kara?or?evi? dynasty.

Portrait Name
(Birth-Death)
Term start Term end Notes Monarch
(Reign)
Ban Pale?ek 1919..jpg Ivan Pale?ek 20 January 1919 24 November 1919 Peter I
Peter I Karadjordjevic of Serbia.jpg
(1918-1921)
Tomislav Tomljenovi?.jpg Tomislav Tomljenovi? 24 November 1919 22 February 1920
Matko Laginja (1852-1930).jpg Matko Laginja 22 February 1920 11 December 1920
Teodor Bo?njak.png Teodor Bo?njak 23 December 1920 3 July 1921
Tomislav Tomljenovi?.jpg Tomislav Tomljenovi? 2 March 1921 2 March 1921

Bans of the Sava Banovina

In 1929, the new Constitution of the Kingdom renamed it Kingdom of Yugoslavia and split up the country into banovinas.

Portrait Name
(Birth-Death)
Term start Term end Notes Monarch
(Reign)
Josip Silovi? 3 October 1929 1931 Alexander I
Kralj aleksandar1.jpg
(1921-1934)
Ivo Perovi? 1931 1935
Marko Kostren?i?.jpg Marko Kostren?i? 1935 1936 Peter II
Peter II Karadordevic.jpg
(1934-1941)
Viktor Ru?i? 1936 1938
Stanoje Milad?i? 1938 26 August 1939

Bans of the Littoral Banovina

Portrait Name
(Birth-Death)
Term start Term end Notes Monarch
(Reign)
Ivo Tartaglia.jpg Ivo Tartaglia 1929 1932 Alexander I
Kralj aleksandar1.jpg
(1921-1934)
Josip Jablanovi? 1932 1935
Mirko Bui? 1935 26 August 1939 Peter II
Peter II Karadordevic.jpg
(1934-1941)

Bans of the Banovina of Croatia

In 1939, the Banovina of Croatia was created with Cvetkovi?-Ma?ek agreement as a unit of limited autonomy within Kingdom of Yugoslavia. It consisted of the Sava and Littoral Banovinas along with smaller parts of Vrbas, Zeta, Drina and Danube Banovinas.

Portrait Name
(Birth-Death)
Term start Term end Notes Monarch
(Reign)
Aj 10 03 01 subasic s.jpg Ivan ?uba?i?
(1892 -1955)
26 August 1939 10 April 1941 Last person to hold the title of ban. Peter II
Peter II Karadordevic.jpg
(1934-1941)

See also

References

  1. ^ De Administrando Imperio 30/90-117[permanent dead link], " ? , "
  2. ^ Pribina | Proleksis enciklopedija
  3. ^ hr:s:Povijest Hrvatske I. (R. Horvat)/Nasljednici kralja Tomislava
  4. ^ Comperimus namque in gestis proaui nosti Cresimiri maioris... Stipi?i?, J. i M. ?am?alovi?, ur. Codex Diplomaticus Regni Croatiae, Dalmatiae et Slavoniae, sv. 1. Zagreb: Izdava?ki zavod JAZU, 1967., pp. 105.
  5. ^ Ra?ki, Documenta, 472.
  6. ^ Comperimus namque in gestis proaui nosti Cresimiri maioris... Stipi?i?, J. i M. ?am?alovi?, ur. Codex Diplomaticus Regni Croatiae, Dalmatiae et Slavoniae, sv. 1. Zagreb: Izdava?ki zavod JAZU, 1967, pp. 105.
  7. ^ R. Horvat - Povijest Hrvatske I.
  8. ^ Tomislav Raukar, Hrvatsko srednjovjekovlje, ?kolska Knjiga, Zagreb, 1997 pp. 47-48
  9. ^ "Monumenta antiquissima". Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. Retrieved .
  10. ^ John Van Antwerp Fine: The Early Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century, 1991, p. 279
  11. ^ Neven Budak: Prva stolje?a Hrvatske, Hrvatska sveu?ili?na naklada, Zagreb 1994, p. 31-33
  12. ^ http://www.encarta.com.au/encyclopedia_761577939_6/Croatia.html[permanent dead link]
  13. ^ Sirotkovi?, Hodimir; Margeti?, Lujo (1988). Povijest dr?ava i prava naroda SFR Jugoslavije (in Croatian). ?kolska knjiga. p. 148. ISBN 9788603991802.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  14. ^ Mira Kolar: "The Activities of Vice-Roy Pavao Rauch In Croatia"

External links


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