View of Bar from Dobra Voda
|Founded||6th century as Antipargal |
|o Mayor||Du?an Rai?evi? (DPS)|
|o Town and municipality||598 km2 (231 sq mi)|
|o Density||67.0/km2 (174/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|o Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
|Area code||+382 30|
|ISO 3166-2 code||ME-02|
Bar (Montenegrin Cyrillic: , Serbo-Croatian pronunciation: [bâr], Albanian: Tivar) is a coastal town and seaport in southern Montenegro. It is the capital of the Bar Municipality and a center for tourism. According to the 2011 census, the city proper had 17,649 inhabitants, while the total population of Bar Municipality was 42,068.
Bar is a shortened form of Antivari, which is derived from the town's location across the Adriatic Sea from Bari, Italy. Variations are in Italian, Antivari / Antibari; in Turkish, Bar; in Albanian, Tivari or Tivar; in Greek, , Thivárion, ?, Antivárion; in Latin, Antibarium.
Local archaeological findings date to the Neolithic era. It is assumed that Bar was mentioned as the reconstructed Roman castle, Antipargal, in the 6th century. The name Antibarium was quoted for the first time in the 10th century.
In the 6th and 7th centuries, Slavs occupied the Balkans. Duklja, a Slavic, or Serbian state, was mentioned in the 10th century. Jovan Vladimir (ruler 1000 - 1016), of Skadarska Krajina is the first ruler of Duklja whose history is known. Stefan Vojislav (ruler 1018 - 1043), the eponymous founder of the Vojislavljevi? dynasty, defeated the Byzantines in a battle on a hill near Bar. He made Bar his seat of power. Vojislav then expanded the area under his rule. Mihailo I of Duklja (ruler 1050 - 1081), Vojislav's son, established the Archdiocese of Antivari. He continued to fight the Byzantines in order to secure the town's independence. This led to a union of states known as the Serbian Grand Principality. From 1101 to 1166, the principality was ruled by the Vukanovi? dynasty. However, for much of this time, Bar was under Byzantine rule. In 1183, Stefan Nemanja conquered and destroy Bar who remains under Serbian control until death of Du?an(1355).
From 1443 to 1571, the region was ruled by the Venice who called it Antivari, and it was part of the Albania Veneta. It was a town with its own coat of arms, flag, statute and mint. In 1571, the Ottomans captured Antivari and held the town until 1878. The archdiocese was preserved. One of the archbishops during this period was Andrija Zmajevi?. The Ottomans ceded Antivari to Montenegro at the Treaty of Berlin. Montenegro renamed the town Bar, although virtually everyone else, including their powerful neighbours, Italy and Austria-Hungary, continued to name it Antivari.
Guglielmo Marconi, the Italian scientist and pioneer in wireless telegraphy, using Nikola Tesla's patented technology, made a radio connection between Antivari and Bari on 30 August 1904. In 1908, the first railroad in this part of the Balkans was put into operation there.
On 8 August 1914 Austria-Hungary responded to Montenegro's declaration of war by sending their protected cruisers SMS Zenta and SMS Szigetvár accompanied by the destroyer SMS Uskoke and torpedo boat 72F to conduct an unopposed bombardment of the port of Antivari, targeting its wireless station and harbour facilities. They was driven away by coastal batteries and destroy only wireless station. The Austrians declared a formal bockade of the Montenegrin coastline on August 10. On August 16, SMS Zenta and an accompanying destroyer were ambushed and trapped off Antivari by a very large French fleet (over twelve battleships), and in the subsequent battle of Antivari the Zenta was sunk with considerable loss of life. The destroyer escaped. On the 18 September following, the Austro-Hungarian coastal battleship SMS Budapest with supporting warships bombarded Antivari, the port and facilities, causing major damage, and on October 17-18 the destroyers SMS Scharfschutze, SMS Streiter and SMS Ulan bombarded Antivari's harbour. On November 18 the destroyer SMS Uskoke also conducted a brief bombardment. The Austrians made their largest raid to date on the evening and night of 1-2 March 1915 when their destroyers SMS Csikós, SMS Streiter, and SMS Ulan covered a raid by three torpedo-boats into Antivari harbour. The latter destroyed the main wharf and stocks of food and ammunitions along the waterfront, and captured the Montenegrin royal yacht Rumija, which was later torpedoed. The destruction of the wharves prevented larger ships from unloading supplies at the port restricting Allied shipments of food and munitions to the Montenegrin army. The Allies realised that with the Austro-Hungarian naval base of Cattaro close by there was little they could do.
In World War II, on 13 July 1941, an uprising against the Italian occupying forces in Bar took place. In 1945, about 2,000 Albanians were killed in Bar by Yugoslav Communist Partisans, all of these Albanians were Men causing the families of those men to flee to Albania, causing a large Albanian community of Bar to disappear. The massacre of Albanian men did not stop there, as the Montenegrin government also tried to massacre the men of Kraja, luckily enough the Albanian men had not arrived to the city of Bar, as the knew it was a trap. Bar was largely destroyed in World War II and rebuilt into a modern city.
In 1979, there was an earthquake that devastated Bar. It has since been rebuilt.
Bar is located on the coastal western border of Montenegro on the shore of the Adriatic Sea. It is approximately 53 kilometres (33 mi) from Podgorica, the capital of Montenegro.To the east is the largest lake in the Balkans, Lake Skadar. To the west, across the sea, is Italy.
Bar has a wind blowing from the south about 88 days a year, mostly during the winter. The southern wind is very soft and warm but raises the waves in the sea. The temperature is as in July - about 28 °C (82 °F). There are approximately 2160 sunny hours a year. In winter the temperature drops down to 10 °C (50 °F). In the Köppen climate classification, Bar has a mediterranean climate (Csa) close to a humid subtropical climate (Cfa). There is only one summer month with less than 40 millimetres (1.6 in) precipitation. Winters are cool and rainy, with an average high of 12.3 °C (54.1 °F) in January and a low of 4.3 °C (39.7 °F). Snow is very rare occurrence in Bar, it usually snows once in a few years. The highest recorded snowfall occurred during January 2000, when 9 centimetres (3.5 in) was measured. Summers are generally warmer, drier and sunnier than the winter months. During summer, the highest temperatures are around 27 to 28 °C (81 to 82 °F) and the lowest 18 °C (64 °F). Precipitation is low during the summer months, although rainfall can still occur, with July averaging 4.5 days with measurable precipitation. Spring and fall are transitional seasons that feature mild weather that can often be wet and unpredictable. There are, on average, 2523 hours of sunshine per year, ranging from a low of 111.6 hours in December to a high of 350.3 hours in July.
|Climate data for Bar, Montenegro|
|Average high °C (°F)||12.3
|Daily mean °C (°F)||8.3
|Average low °C (°F)||4.3
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||155.6
|Average precipitation days||13||13||12||12||9||7||5||5||7||9||14||14||120|
|Average relative humidity (%)||65||64||67||71||73||72||68||69||70||68||69||68||69|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||120.9||124.2||170.9||198.9||259.7||297.4||351.5||317.3||252.1||198.8||124.6||111.6||2,527.9|
|Source: Hydrological and Meteorological Service of Montenegro|
The coastal part of Bar supports maquis shrubland with oak, holm oak, laurel, myrtle, Spanish broom, oleander, hawthorn, sloe, thorn, butcher's broom and asparagus. To the north and the mountains, there are oak and beech forests. Citrus fruits including tangerine, orange and lemon grow in the Bar area as do pomegranates, olives, grapevines and figs. Ginkgo biloba grows in the park of King Nikola's palace.
Skadar Lake is rich in bird life including the pelican. Game animals are found in Ostros, Rumija, Lisinj, Sutorman and Sozina and include rabbit, badger, fox, wolf and boar. At the Bar sea shore one finds various kinds of shells, snails, echinodermata, cephalopoda and crayfish.
Bar is the administrative centre of Bar Municipality, which includes the town of Sutomore and other small coastal towns. A census in 2011 recorded 42,048 people in the Bar Municipality. Bar city had 17,727 inhabitants. Bar's population has been growing from 6,742 in 1981, to 10,971 in 1991, 13,719 in 2003 and 17,727 in 2011.
The municipality of Bar is divided into 12 communes (mjesna zajednica), consisting of 83 settlements:
|Bar I||central business district|
|Bar II||Polje, Burtai?i, ?eluga, part of Rena;|
|Bar III||part of Bjeli?i, Sokolana, Stara Ambulanta, Zgrade Prvoborca;|
|Bar IV||Popovi?i, part of Bjeli?i, Ahmetov Brijeg, Vuleti?a Brijeg, part of Rena and Trsanj|
|Bar V||Susta?, Zupci, Marovi?i, Tu?emili|
|?u?anj||?ukotrlica, Novi Pristan, Zeleni Pojas, Ilino, ?u?anj, Carevi?i, Viti?i and Paladini|
|Sutomore||Brca, Zelen, Obala ?eljezni?ke Kolonije, Miro?ica I, Turke, Pobr?e, Gorelac, Miljevci, Sozina, Zankovi?i, Suvi Potok, Miro?ica II, Zgrade, Bjelila, Papani, Haj-Nehaj, Zagra?e, Mi?i?i, ?urmani and ?anj|
|Stari Bar (Old Bar)||Stari Bar, Baukovo, Belveder, Velembusi, Gretva, Brbot, Tur?ini, Menke, Mikuli?i, Podgrad, Bartula, Rap, Gornja Poda and Donja Poda, Tomba, Gornje Zaljevo and Donje Zaljevo|
|Mrko(je)vi?i||Pe?urice, Dobra Voda, Grdovi?i, Pelinkovi?i, Dabezi?i, Velje Selo, Kunje, Velja Gorana and Mala Gorana|
|Krajina||Arbne?, Veliki Ostros, Mali Ostros, Marti?i, Runji, Ko?tanjica, Bobovi?te, Ckla, Tejani|
|?estan||Livari, Gornja i Donja Briska, Gornji Muri?i, Donji Muri?i, Besa, Pin?i?i, Bapsulj, ?estan|
|Crmnica||Virpazar, Orahovo, Bra?eni, Mikovi?i, Zabes, Boljevi?i, Sotoni?i, Bukovik, Ma?uge, Dupilo, Popratnica, Komarno, Trnovo, Gornji Br?eli, Donji Br?eli, Brijege, Ovto?i?i, Tomi?i, Utrg, Godinje, Seo?a, Krnjice, Limljani, Gluhi Do|
Ethnic composition of the municipality in 2011:
The main religion in Bar is Orthodox Christianity. However, there are churches from both the Eastern Orthodox and Catholic traditions as well as mosques built by Ottomans in the Islamic tradition. Bar is the birthplace of Saint Jovan Vladimir. In 1089, the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Bar, was founded and included most of Montenegro and Serbia.
Churches and monasteries dating to the era of the Bal?i? family (14th and 15th centuries) are located on the islands of Lake Skadar including Be?ka, Mora?nik and Star?evo. This area is called the Holy Land of Montenegro.
The economy of Bar relies upon the Port of Bar, the Belgrade-Bar railway and the Sozina tunnel. The Port of Bar is the most recognizable feature of the city. It occupies 3,100 m (10,170.60 ft) of seacoast, land area of 800 ha and aquatorium of 200ha. It is capable of reloading 5 million tons of goods annually. In 1976, the Belgrade - Bar railway was opened. It made the Adriatic coast accessible to tourists, and transport to the Port of Bar. The food company, Primorka has been operating in Bar for more than 50 years. It produces olive oil and pomegranate juice. There are 95,000 olive trees, about 80,000 citrus trees (lemon, orange, tangerine and grapefruit) in the municipal area. The centre for subtropical cultures, founded in 1937, is the oldest scientific institution in Montenegro. Tourism is also a major part of Bar's economy.
Bar has a ferry line to Bari, Italy which is operated by Montenegro Lines. In season, ferries also go to Ancona, Italy. Bar is well connected with inland Montenegro, as well as with the rest of the Montenegrin coast. The Sozina tunnel, completed in 2006, shortened the road connection with Podgorica to around 50 km (31 mi). Bar is connected to other coastal towns by the Adriatic motorway, which extends from Ulcinj to Herceg Novi, and on to Croatia. Bar is also the final station of the Belgrade-Bar railway, which connects Bar with Podgorica, northern Montenegro and Serbia. Podgorica Airport is about 40 km (25 mi) from Bar. There are regular flights to Belgrade, Budapest, Zürich, Frankfurt, Ljubljana, London, Paris, Rome and Vienna.
Although there are some stony beaches in Bar itself, many tourists choose destinations in other small towns in the Bar municipality, including Sutomore, with its long sandy beach. The natural area around Bar is mostly untouched and is rich in vegetation. The Bar municipality stretches to the southern shore of Skadar lake and encompasses Krajina region. This area is visited for its leisure activities and hiking. Smaller settlements near Bar, such as Dobra Voda, Sutomore and ?anj, are a destination for sunbathing, as they incorporate long sandy beaches.
The Bar municipality has over 44 kilometres (27 miles) of sea coast. There are twenty beaches stretching over 9 kilometres (6 miles). In the north is ?anj, which has a 1,100-metre (3,600-foot) sandy beach. A boat takes tourists from ?anj to the Kralji?ina Pla?a. It lies below a natural wall of sedimentary rock. Further south is 300-metre-long (980-foot) Maljevik Beach. The beach at Sutomore, 1,200 metres (3,900 feet) long, has entertainments, activities and restaurants. Near the medieval monastery complex of Ratac is Crvena Pla?a, named after the colour of its fine sand. The beach is surrounded by a pine forest and located about a hundred m from the main road to Bar. Just north of the Bar central business district is the 1,200-metre-long (3,900-foot) ?ukotrlica Beach. It is a gravel beach, surrounded by a pine forest and varied Mediterranean vegetation. The Bar Gradska Pla?a is located in front of King Nikola's palace. It is 750 metres (2,460 feet) long, part pebble and part sand. 10 kilometres (6 miles) south of central Bar is the 380-metre-long (1,250-foot) Veliki Pijesak. It is surrounded by tourist facilities, restaurants and discothèques. On the border of the Bar and Ulcinj municipalities, in the village of Bu?at, is the Val Maslina with its nearby olive groves. There are also beaches on the shore of Lake Skadar including the sandy Muri?i village beach and Pje?a?ac.
Bar has over fifty sports clubs, and associations including a chess club. There are numerous sports facilities in the Bar hotels and schools. In the centre of town, most of the facilities are in the Sports and Recreation Centre. Water sports such as diving are common. Sports tourism is promoted because of the proximity to the sea and lake. Bar hosted the 2010 FIBA Europe Under-16 Championship and the 2010 Men's u18 European Handball Championship.