In 1990, the genus was revised to contain 49 species; 45 of them are endemic to the Andes. The most familiar species might be the well-studied Bartsia alpina, which has a circumboreal distribution, occurring throughout northern regions of the Northern Hemisphere. There are also two African species. These two plants, B. alpina, and the many Andean species are three distinct lineages, making the genus polyphyletic.
Accepted species names include:
^Pratt, Anne (1899). The Flowering Plants, Grasses, Sedges,& Ferns of Great Britain and Their Allies, the Club Mosses, Horsetails, Etc. London: F. Warne. p. 26.
^Manitoba. "How To Control Red Bartsia". manitoba.ca. Retrieved 2015. Red bartsia (Odontites serotina) is a weed of hayland, pastures and roadsides which appeared in the Interlake region of Manitoba in the 1950s... The weed apparently was introduced into the area in crates which were shipped from West Germany into the Canadian Armed Forces Base at Gimli. The infestation started on the base and spread into surrounding farmland by way of mowed hay from red bartsia infested areas along the edges of runways.
^ abTitel, Jakub; ?íha, Pavel; Svobodová, ?árka; Malinová, Tamara; ?tech, Milan (2010-10-28). "Phylogeny, Life History Evolution and Biogeography of the Rhinanthoid Orobanchaceae". Folia Geobotanica. 45 (4): 347-367. doi:10.1007/s12224-010-9089-y. ISSN1211-9520.