Bashkir Language
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Bashkir Language
Bashkir
Native toRussia
RegionBashkortostan
EthnicityBashkirs
Native speakers
1.2 million (2010 census)[1]
Turkic
Early form
Cyrillic
Official status
Official language in
 Russia
Language codes
ba
bak
bak
Glottologbash1264[2]
Bashkir language in the Russian Empire (1897).svg
Geographic distribution of Bashkir language in the Russian Empire according to 1897 census
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Bashkir (; Bashkir: , ? ?, [b'qort t?'l?] ) is a Turkic language belonging to the Kipchak branch. It is co-official with Russian in Bashkortostan. It is spoken by approximately 1.2 million native speakers in Russia. It has three dialect groups: Southern, Eastern and Northwestern.

Speakers

Bashkirs in Russia by administrative districts (raions) in 2010

Speakers of Bashkir mostly live in the Russian republic of Bashkortostan. Many speakers also live in Tatarstan, Chelyabinsk, Orenburg, Tyumen, Sverdlovsk and Kurgan Oblasts and other regions of Russia. Minor Bashkir groups also live in Kazakhstan and other countries.

Classification

Bashkir together with Tatar belongs to the Bulgaric (Russian: -?) subgroups of the Kipchak languages. They both share the same vocalism and the vowel shifts (see below) that make both the languages stand apart from most other Kipchak and Oghuz Turkic languages.

However, Bashkir differs from Tatar in several important ways:

  • Bashkir has dental fricatives and in the place of Tatar (and other Turkic) and . Bashkir and , however, cannot begin a word (there are exceptions: zur 'big', and the particle/conjunction / ?a/?ä). The only other Turkic language with a similar feature is Turkmen. However, in Bashkir and are two independent phonemes, different from and , whereas in Turkmen and are just two main allophonic realizations of common Turkic and (there are no and phonemes in Turkmen).
  • The word-initial and morpheme-initial is turned into . An example of both features can be Tatar süz [syz] and Bashkir hü? [hy?], both meaning "word".
  • Common Turkic (Tatar ) is turned into Bashkir , e.g., Turkish a?aç [a'at?], Tatar ? a?aç [?'] and Bashkir ? a?as [?'s], all meaning "tree".
  • The word-initial in Tatar always corresponds to in Standard Bashkir, e.g., Tatar ? c?l? ['l?] and Bashkir ? y?l? [j?'l?], both meaning "warm". However, the eastern and northern dialects of Bashkir have the > /?~?/ shift.

The Bashkir orthography is more explicit. and are written with their own letters ? ? and ? ?, whereas in Tatar they are treated as positional allophones of and , written ? ? and ? ?.

Labial vowel harmony in Bashkir is written explicitly, e.g. Tatar tormm and Bashkir tormo?om, both pronounced [tormo'?om], meaning "my life".

Orthography

Trilingual sign in Ufa Airport in Bashkir, Russian and English

After the adoption of Islam, which began in the 10th century and lasted for several centuries, the Bashkirs began to use Turki as a written language. Turki was written in a variant of the Arabic script.

In 1923, a writing system based on the Arabic script was specifically created for the Bashkir language. At the same time, the Bashkir literary language was created, moving away from the older written Turkic influences. At first, it used a modified Arabic alphabet. In 1930 it was replaced with the Unified Turkic Latin Alphabet, which was in turn replaced with an adapted Cyrillic alphabet in 1939.

The modern alphabet used by Bashkir is based on the Russian alphabet, with the addition of the following letters: ? ? , ? ? , ? ? , ? ? , ? ? , ? ? , ? ? , ? ? , ? ? .

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Letters and symbols of the Bashkir Cyrillic alphabet
Cyrillic version
(Capital)
Cyrillic version
(Small)
Pronunciation Notes
? ? [?], [a]
? ? [b]
? ? [v], [w]
? ? [?]
? ? [d]
? ? [ð]
? ? [j], [], [je], [e]
? ? [jo]
? ? [?]
? ? [z]
? ? [i]
? ? [j]
? ? [k]
? ? [q]
? ? [l]
? ? [m]
? ? [n]
? ? [?]
? ? [], [o]
? ? [ø]
? ? [p]
? ? [r]
? ? [s]
? ? [?]
? ? [t]
? ? [u], [w]
? ? [y], [w]
? ? [f]
? ? [?]
? ? [h]
? ? [ts]
? ? [t?]
? ? [?]
? ? []
? ? [-]
? ? [?], [?]
? ? [?]
? ? [], [e]
? ? [æ]
? ? [ju]
? ? [j?], [ja]

Phonology

Vowels

Bashkir has nine native vowels, and three or four loaned vowels (mainly in Russian loanwords).[3]

Phonetically, the native vowels are approximately thus (with the Cyrillic letters and the usual Latin romanization in angle brackets; R+ means rounded):

Front Back
Spread Rounded Spread Rounded
Close ??i?
??ü?
[y~?]
??u?
Mid ?,??e?
[?~]
??ö?
[ø~?]
????
[~]
??o?
Open ??ä?
[æ~a]
??a?

The two mid unrounded vowels are always short, in an unstressed position they are frequently elided, as in ? ke?e [k?'] > [k] 'person', or ? q [q'] > [q] '(his) winter'.[3] Low back is rounded in the first syllable and after , but not in the last, as in ? bala [b?'l?] 'child', balalar?a [b?l?l?r'] 'to children'.[3] In Russian loans there are also , , and , written the same as the native vowels: ?, ?/?, ?, ? respectively.[3] The mid vowels may be transcribed as lowered near-high [, , , ].

Historical shifts

Historically, the Old Turkic mid vowels have raised from mid to high, whereas the Old Turkic high vowels have become the Bashkir reduced mid series. (The same shifts have also happened in Tatar.)[4]

Vowel Old Turkic Turkish Azerbaijani Kazakh Tatar Bashkir Gloss
*e *et et ?t et it it 'meat'
*söz söz söz söz süz hü? [hyð] 'word'
*o *sol sol sol sol sul hul 'left'
*i *it it it it et et 'dog'
*qïz k?z q?z q?z qëz [qz] që? [q] 'girl'
*u *qum kum qum qum qom qom 'sand'
*kül kül kül kül köl köl 'ash'

Consonants

The consonants of Bashkir[3]
Labial Labio-
velar
Dental Post-
alveolar
Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasals ??m?
??n?
??ñ?
Plosives Voiceless ??p?
??t?
??k?
??k?
*
??q?
?/??'?
*
Voiced ??b?
??d?
??g?
??g?
*
Affricates Voiceless ??ts?
*
??ç?
*
Fricatives Voiceless ??f?
*
????
??x?
??h?
Voiced ??v?
*
????
????
Sibilants Voiceless ??s?
????
Voiced ??z?
??j?
Trill ??r?
Approximants ?/?/??w?
/w~?/
??l?
??y?
Notes
^* The phonemes , , , , , , are only found in loanwords. also exist in a few native onomatopoeic words.
  • /?, ð/ are dental [?, ð], whereas /r/ is apical alveolar . The exact place of articulation of the other dental/alveolar consonants is unclear.

Grammar

A member of the Turkic language family, Bashkir is an agglutinative, SOV language.[3][5] A large part of the Bashkir vocabulary has Turkic roots; and there are many loan words in Bashkir from Russian, Arabic and Persian sources.

Declension of nouns

Case father mother child dog cat
Singular Nominative ata ? äsäy ? bala et besäy
Genitive atan?ñ ? äsäy?eñ ? balan?ñ etteñ besäy?eñ
Dative ata?a äsäygä bala?a ? etkä ? besäygä
Accusative atan? äsäy?e balan? ? ette ? besäy?e
Locative atala äsäy?ä balala ? että ? besäy?ä
Ablative atanan ? äsäy?än ? balanan ettän besäy?än
Plural Nominative atalar ? äsäy?är ? balalar ettär besäy?är
Genitive atalarñ ? äsäy?är?eñ ? balalarñ ettär?eñ besäy?är?eñ
Dative atalar?a äsäy?ärgä balalar?a ? ettärgä ? besäy?ärgä
Accusative atalar äsäy?är?e balalar ? ettär?e ? besäy?är?e
Locative atalar?a äsäy?är?ä balalar?a ? ettär?ä ? besäy?är?ä
Ablative atalar?an ? äsäy?är?än ? balalar?an ettär?än besäy?är?än

Declension of pronouns

Interrogative pronouns Personal pronouns
Case who what Singular Plural
I you (thou) he, she, it we you they
Nominative kem ? nimä min hin ul be? he? ? ular
Genitive kemdeñ ? nimäneñ mineñ hineñ ? un?ñ beeñ heeñ ? ularñ
Dative kemgä nimägä ? miñä ? hiñä u?a be?gä he?gä ular?a
Accusative kemde nimäne ? mine ? hine un? bee hee ular
Locative kemdä nimälä mindä hindä ? unda beä heä ular?a
Ablative kemdän ? nimänän minän hinän ? unan beän heän ? ular?an
Demonstrative pronouns
Case Singular Plural
this that these those
Nominative b?l o?o ?ul ? tege b?lar o?olar ?ular ? tegelär
Genitive b?n?ñ o?onoñ ?un?ñ ? tegeneñ b?larñ o?olarñ ?ularñ ? tegelär?eñ
Dative ? ba o?o?a ? ?u?a tegegä ? b?lar?a o?olar?a ? ?ular?a tegelärgä
Accusative ? b?n? o?ona ? ?un? tegene ? b?lar o?olar ? ?ular tegelär?e
Locative b?nda o?onda ?unda ? tegenda ? b?lar?a o?olar?a ? ?ular?a tegelär?ä
Ablative b?nan o?onan ?unan ? tegenän b?lar?an o?olar?an ?ular?an ? tegelär?än

References

  1. ^ Bashkir at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Bashkir". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Berta, Árpád (1998). "Tatar and Bashkir". In Johanson, Lars; Csató, Éva Á. (eds.). The Turkic languages. Routledge. pp. 283-300.
  4. ^ Johanson, Lars (1998). "The History of Turkic". In Johanson, Lars; Csató, Éva Á. (eds.). The Turkic languages. Routledge. p. 92.
  5. ^ "Overview of the Bashkir Language". Learn the Bashkir Language & Culture. Transparent Language. Retrieved 2011.

Further reading

External links


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