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Library of Congress Benjamin Banneker depicted on a 1943 mural by Maxime Seelbinder in the Recorder of Deeds Building in Washington, D.C. (2010)
Although a fire on the day of Banneker's funeral destroyed many of his papers and belongings, one of his journals and several of his remaining artifacts are presently available for public viewing. Parks, schools, streets and other tributes have commemorated Banneker throughout the years since he lived. However, many accounts of his life exaggerate or falsely attribute his works.
Benjamin Banneker was born on November 9, 1731, in Baltimore County, Maryland to Mary Banneky, a free black, and Robert, a freed slave from Guinea. There are two conflicting accounts of Banneker's family history. Banneker himself and his earliest biographers described him as having only African ancestry. None of Banneker's surviving papers describe a white ancestor or identify the name of his grandmother.
However, later biographers have contended that Banneker's mother was the child of Molly Welsh, a white indentured servant, and an African slave named Banneka. The first published description of Molly Welsh was based on interviews with her descendants that took place in 1836, long after the deaths of both Molly and Benjamin. A genealogist has noted that the name Bannaker may have had the same origin as the town of Banaka in today's Liberia, which at the time was part of the slave trade.
View of the Patapsco Valley from Ellicott City (June 2012)
Molly may have purchased Banneka to help establish a farm located near the future site of Ellicott's Mills, Maryland, west of Baltimore. One biographer has suggested that Banneka may have been a member of the Dogon people that is reputed to have had knowledge of astronomy (see: Dogon astronomical beliefs). Molly supposedly freed and married Banneka, who may have shared his knowledge of astronomy with her. Although born after Banneka's death, Benjamin may have acquired some knowledge of astronomy from Molly.
In 1737, Banneker was named at the age of 6 on the deed of his family's 100-acre (0.40 km2) farm in the Patapsco Valley in rural Baltimore County. The remainder of his early life is not well documented. As a young teenager, he may have met and befriended Peter Heinrichs, a Quaker who established a school near the Banneker farm. Quakers were leaders in the anti-slavery movement and advocates of racial equality (see Quakers in the abolition movement and Testimony of equality). Heinrichs may have shared his personal library and provided Banneker with his only classroom instruction. Banneker's formal education apparently ended when he was old enough to help on his family's farm.
In 1753 at about the age of 21, Banneker completed a wooden clock that struck on the hour. He appears to have modeled his clock from a borrowed pocket watch by carving each piece to scale. The clock purportedly continued to work until his death.
Total solar eclipse (1999)
After his father died in 1759, Banneker lived with his mother and sisters. In 1768, he signed a Baltimore County petition to move the county seat from Joppa to Baltimore. An entry for his property in a 1773 Baltimore County tax list identified Banneker as the only adult member of his household.
In 1790, Banneker prepared an ephemeris for 1791, which he hoped would be placed within a published almanac. However, he was unable to find a printer that was willing to publish and distribute the work.
Survey of the original boundaries of the District of Columbia
Biographers have stated that Banneker's duties on the survey consisted primarily of making astronomical observations at Jones Point in Alexandria, Virginia, to ascertain the location of the starting point for the survey. They have also stated that Banneker maintained a clock that he used to relate points on the ground to the positions of stars at specific times.
However, some have noted that Banneker's actual role in the survey is uncertain, as his involvement in the effort "rests on extremely meager documentation". An April 21, 1791, news report of the April 15 dedication ceremony for the first boundary stone (the south cornerstone) stated that it was Andrew Ellicott who "ascertained the precise point from which the first line of the district was to proceed". The news report did not mention Banneker's name.
Banneker left the boundary survey in April 1791 within three months of its initiation because of concerns about his health and the difficulties in completing the survey at age 59. In addition, Andrew Ellicott's younger brothers, Benjamin and Joseph Ellicott, who usually assisted Andrew, were able to join the survey at that time. Banneker therefore returned to his home near Ellicott's Mills. The Ellicotts and other members of the surveying team then laid the remaining Virginia marker stones later in 1791. The team laid the Maryland stones and completed the boundary survey in 1792.
Pemberton then asked William Waring, a Philadelphia mathematician and ephemeris calculator, and David Rittenhouse, a prominent American astronomer, surveyor and scientific instrument maker who was at the time serving as the president of the American Philosophical Society, to confirm the accuracy of Banneker's work. Waring endorsed Banneker's work, stating, "I have examined Benjamin Banneker's Almanac for 1792, and am of the Opinion that it well deserves the Acceptance and Encouragement of the Public."
Rittenhouse responded to Pemberton by stating that Banneker's ephemeris "was a very extraordinary performance, considering the Colour of the Author" and that he "had no doubt that the Calculations are sufficiently accurate for the purposes of a common Almanac. .... Every instance of Genius amongst the Negroes is worthy of attention, because their suppressors seem to lay great stress on their supposed inferior mental abilities." Banneker reportedly replied to Rittenhouse's endorsement by stating: "I am annoyed to find that the subject of my race is so much stressed. The work is either correct or it is not. In this case, I believe it to be perfect."
Pencil portrait of William Goddard
Pemberton then made arrangements for Joseph Cruckshank of Philadelphia (who had since 1770 been publishing almanacs, including some that Waring had authored) to print Banneker's almanac. Having thus secured the support of Pemberton, Rittenhouse and Waring, Banneker delivered a manuscript containing his ephemeris to William Goddard, a Baltimore printer who had published The Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland and Virginia Almanack and Ephemeris for each year from 1784 to 1790, except 1786. Goddard then agreed to print and distribute Banneker's work within an almanac and ephemeris for the year of 1792.
In their preface to Banneker's Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland and Virginia Almanack and Ephemeris, for the Year of our Lord, 1792, the editors of the work wrote that they:
... flatter themselves that a philanthropic Public, in this enlightened Era, will be induced to give their Patronage and Support to this Work, not only an Account of its intrinsic Merit, (it having met the Approbation of several of the most distinguished Astronomers in America, particularly the celebrated Mr. Rittenhouse) but from similar Motives to those which induced the Editors to give this Calculation the Preference, the ardent desire of drawing modest Merit from Obscurity, and controverting the long-established illiberal Prejudice against the Blacks.
Title page of the Baltimore edition of Banneker's 1792 almanac and ephemeris.
The title page of the Baltimore edition of Banneker's 1792 almanac and ephemeris stated that the publication contained:
the Motions of the Sun and Moon, the True Places and Aspects of the Planets, the Rising and Setting of the Sun, Place and Age of the Moon, &c. - The Lunations, Conjunctions, Eclipses, Judgment of the Weather, Festivals, and other remarkable Days; Days for holding the Supreme and Circuit Courts of the United States, as also the useful Courts in Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia. Also - several useful Tables, and valuable Receipts. - Various Selections from the Commonplace-Book of the Kentucky Philosopher, an American Sage; with interesting and entertaining Essays, in Prose and Verse -the whole comprising a greater, more pleasing, and useful Variety than any Work of the Kind and Price in North America.
Woodcut portrait of Benjamin Bannaker (Banneker) in title page of a Baltimore edition of his 1795 Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia Almanac
In addition to the information that its title page described, the almanac contained a tide table for the Chesapeake Bay region. That edition and others contained tables listing the times of high tides or the methods for calculating high water at Cape Charles and Point Lookout, Virginia, Annapolis and Baltimore, Maryland, Boston, Quebec, Nantucket, Hatteras, New York, Halifax, Philadelphia and other locations. Monthly tables in each edition listed astronomical data and weather predictions for each of the months' dates.
A Philadelphia edition of Banneker's 1795 almanac contained a lengthy account of a yellow fever epidemic that had struck that city in 1793 (see: 1793 Philadelphia yellow fever epidemic). Written by a committee whose president was the city's mayor, Matthew Clarkson, the account related the presumed origins and causes of the epidemic, as well as the extent and duration of the event.
The title page of two Baltimore editions of Banneker's 1795 almanac had woodcut portraits of him as he may have appeared. However, a biographer later concluded that the portraits were more likely portrayals of an idealized African-American youth.
The almanacs' editors prefaced the publications with adulatory references to Banneker and his race. Editions of his 1792 and 1793 almanacs contained copies of a lengthy commendation that James McHenry, a 1787 signer of the United States Constitution and self-described friend of Banneker, had written in August 1791.
The introduction to a 1795 Philadelphia edition contained a poem titled: "Addressed to Benjamin Banneker". The verse began and ended:
Fain would the muse exalt her tuneful lays, And chant in strains sublime Banneker's praise; Fain would the soar on Fame's majestic wing, Thy genius, great Banneker, to sing; Thy talents and thy greatness would I shew, Not in applausive strains to thee undue; .............. Long may thou live an evidence to shew, That Afric's sable race have talents too. And may thy genius bright its strength retain; Tho' nature to decline may still remain; And may favour us to thy latest years With thy Ephemeris call'd Banneker's. A work which ages yet unborn shall name And be the monument of lasting fame; A work which after ages shall adore, When Banneker, alas! shall be no more!
In 1796, Banneker gave a manuscript of one of his almanacs to Suzanna Mason, a member of the Ellicott family who was visiting his home. In 1836, Mason's daughter wrote a published memoir of her mother's life, letters and manuscripts. The memoir contained a copy of a poem that Mason had sent to Banneker shortly after her 1796 visit. A portion of the verse stated:
But thou, a man exhalted high, Conspicuous in the world's keen eye, On record now thy name's enrolled, And future ages will be told, There lived a man called Banneker, An African astronomer.
Brood X periodical cicada
Banneker kept a series of journals that contained his notebooks for astronomical observations, his diary and accounts of his dreams. The journals, only one of which escaped a fire on the day of his funeral, additionally contained a number of mathematical calculations and puzzles. The surviving journal described in April 1800 his recollections of the 1749, 1766 and 1783 emergences of Brood X of the seventeen-year periodical cicada, Magicicada septendecim, and stated, "... they may be expected again in they year 1800 which is Seventeen Since their third appearance to me." The journal also recorded Banneker's observations on the hives and behavior of honey bees.
Banneker's 1792 almanac contained an extract from an anonymous essay entitled "On Negro Slavery, and the Slave Trade" that the Columbian Magazine had published in 1790. After quoting a statement that David Rittenhouse had made (that Negroes "have been doomed to endless slavery by us -- merely because their bodies have been disposed to reflect or absorb the rays of light in a way different from ours"), the extract concluded:
The time, it is hoped is not very remote, when those ill-fated people, dwelling in this land of freedom, shall commence a participation with the white inhabitants, in the blessings of liberty; and experience the kindly protection of government, for the essential rights of human nature.
A Philadelphia edition of Banneker's 1793 almanac that Joseph Cruckshank published contained copies of pleas for peace that the English anti-slavery poet William Cowper and others had authored, as well as anti-slavery speeches and writings from England and America. The latter included extracts from speeches that William Pitt and Charles James Fox had given to the British House of Commons in 1792, an extract from a 1789 poem by an English Quaker, Thomas Wilkinson, and an extract from a query in Thomas Jefferson's 1787 Notes on the State of Virginia.
Cruckshank's edition of Banneker's 1793 almanac also contained a copy of "A Plan of a Peace-Office, for the United States". Although the almanac did not identify the Plan's author, writers later attributed the work to Benjamin Rush, a signer of the 1776 Declaration of Independence. The Plan proposed the appointment of a "Secretary of Peace", described the Secretary's powers and advocated federal support and promotion of the Christian religion. The Plan stated:
1. Let a Secretary of Peace be appointed to preside in this office; ....; let him be a genuine republican and a sincere Christian ....
2. Let a power be given to the Secretary to establish and maintain free schools in every city, village and township in the United States; ... Let the youth of our country be instructed in reading, writing, and arithmetic, and in the doctrines of a religion of some kind; the Christian religion should be preferred to all others; for it belongs to this religion exclusively to teach us not only to cultivate peace with all men, but to forgive--nay more, to love our very enemies ....
3. Let every family be furnished at public expense, by the Secretary of this office, with an American edition of the Bible ....
4. Let the following sentence be inscribed in letters of gold over the door of every home in the United States: The Son of Man Came into the World, Not To Destroy Men's Lives, But To Save Them.
On August 19, 1791, after departing the federal capital area, Banneker wrote a letter to Thomas Jefferson, who in 1776 had drafted the United States Declaration of Independence and in 1791 was serving as the United States Secretary of State (see: List of Secretaries of State of the United States). Quoting language in the Declaration, the letter expressed a plea for justice for African Americans.
To further support this plea, Banneker included within the letter a handwritten manuscript of an almanac for 1792 containing his ephemeris with his astronomical calculations. He subsequently placed copies of the letter and Jefferson's reply in his journal, in a Baltimore edition of his 1793 almanac and in a 1792 pamphlet that a printer distributed and sold in Philadelphia, where Joseph Cruckshank was distributing and selling a different edition of that almanac. The Universal Asylum, and Columbian Magazine also published Banneker's letter and Jefferson's reply in Philadelphia during 1792.
In the letter, Banneker accused Jefferson of criminally using fraud and violence to oppress his slaves by stating:
.... Sir, how pitiable is it to reflect, that altho you were so fully convinced of the benevolence of the Father of mankind, and of his equal and impartial distribution of those rights and privileges which he had conferred upon them, that you should at the same time counteract his mercies, in detaining by fraud and violence so numerous a part of my brethren under groaning captivity and cruel oppression, that you should at the Same time be found guilty of that most criminal act, which you professedly detested in others, with respect to your Selves.
The letter ended:
And now Sir, I Shall conclude and Subscribe my Self with the most profound respect, Your most Obedient humble Servant Benjamin Banneker
An English abolitionist, Thomas Day, had earlier written in a 1776 letter that had been published in Boston in 1784:
.... you dare to call yourselves the masters of wretches whom you have acquired by fraud, and retain by violence! .... If there be an object truly ridiculous in nature, it is an American patriot, signing resolutions of independency with the one hand, and with the other brandishing a whip over his affrighted slaves. .... There can be no prescription pleaded against truth and justice; and the continuance of the evil is so far from justifying, that it is an exageration of the crime.
Without directly responding to Banneker's accusation, Jefferson replied to Banneker's letter in a series of nuanced statements that expressed his interest in the advancement of the equality of America's black population. Jefferson's reply stated:
Philadelphia Aug. 30. 1791. Sir, I thank you sincerely for your letter of the 19th. instant and for the Almanac it contained. no body wishes more than I do to see such proofs as you exhibit, that nature has given to our black brethren, talents equal to those of the other colours of men, & that the appearance of a want of them is owing merely to the degraded condition of their existence both in Africa & America. I can add with truth that no body wishes more ardently to see a good system commenced for raising the condition both of their body & mind to what it ought to be, as fast as the imbecillity of their present existence, and other circumstance which cannot be neglected, will admit. I have taken the liberty of sending your almanac to Monsieur de Condorcet, Secretary of the Academy of sciences at Paris, and member of the Philanthropic society because I considered it as a document to which your whole colour had a right for their justification against the doubts which have been entertained of them. I am with great esteem, Sir, Your most obedt. humble servt.
When writing his letter, Banneker informed Jefferson that his 1791 work with Andrew Ellicott on the District boundary survey had affected his work on his 1792 ephemeris and almanac by stating:
.... And altho I had almost declined to make my calculation for the ensuing year, in consequence of that time which I had allotted therefor being taking up at the Federal Territory by the request of Mr. Andrew Ellicott, ....
Portrait of the Marquis de Condorcet, circa 1789-1794
On the same day that he replied to Banneker (August 30, 1791), Jefferson sent a letter to the Marquis de Condorcet that contained the following paragraph relating to Banneker's race, abilities, almanac and work with Andrew Ellicott:
I am happy to be able to inform you that we have now in the United States a negro, the son of a black man born in Africa, and of a black woman born in the United States, who is a very respectable mathematician. I procured him to be employed under one of our chief directors in laying out the new federal city on the Patowmac, & in the intervals of his leisure, while on that work, he made an Almanac for the next year, which he sent me in his own hand writing, & which I inclose to you. I have seen very elegant solutions of Geometrical problems by him. Add to this that he is a very worthy & respectable member of society. He is a free man. I shall be delighted to see these instances of moral eminence so multiplied as to prove that the want of talents observed in them is merely the effect of their degraded condition, and not proceeding from any difference in the structure of the parts on which intellect depends.
In 1809, three years after Banneker's death, Jefferson expressed a different opinion of Banneker in a letter to Joel Barlow that criticized a "diatribe" that a French abolitionist, Henri Grégoire, had written in 1808:
the whole do not amount in point of evidence, to what we know ourselves of Banneker. we know he had spherical trigonometry enough to make almanacs, but not without the suspicion of aid from Ellicot, who was his neighbor & friend, & never missed an opportunity of puffing him. I have a long letter from Banneker which shews him to have had a mind of very common stature indeed.
Banneker never married. Because of declining sales, his 1797 almanacs were the last that printers published. After selling much of his homesite to the Ellicotts and others, he probably died in his log cabin nine years later on October 19, 1806, aged 74. (Some sources state that Banneker died on Sunday, October 9, 1806, which was actually a Thursday.) His chronic alcoholism, which worsened as he aged, may have contributed to his death.
An obituary concluded:
Mr. Banneker is a prominent instance to prove that a descendant of Africa is susceptible of as great mental improvement and deep knowledge into the mysteries of nature as that of any other nation.
Interior of Benjamin Banneker Museum in Oella, Maryland. A table that Banneker used is in the background. (2017)
On the day of his funeral in 1806, a fire burned Banneker's log cabin to the ground, destroying many of his belongings and papers. In 1813, William Goodard, who had published the Baltimore edition of Banneker's 1792 almanac (Banneker's first published almanac), donated the manuscript for the almanac to the American Antiquarian Society in Worcester, Massachusetts.
A member of the Ellicott family, which had retained Banneker's only remaining journal, donated that document and other Banneker manuscripts to the Maryland Historical Society in 1987. The family also retained several items that Banneker had used after borrowing them from George Ellicott. In 1996, a descendant of George Ellicott decided to sell at auction some of the items, including a table, candlesticks and molds.
Although supporters of the planned Benjamin Banneker Historical Park and Museum in Oella, Maryland, had hoped to obtain these and several other items related to Banneker and the Ellicotts, a Virginia investment banker won most of the items with a series of bids that totaled $49,750. The purchaser stated that he expected to keep some of the items and to donate the rest to the planned African American Civil War Memorial museum in Washington, D.C.
In 1997, it was announced that the artifacts would be loaned to the Benjamin Banneker Historical Park and Museum in Oella and to the Banneker-Douglass Museum in Annapolis, Maryland. After receiving the artifacts, the Oella museum placed the table, candlesticks and candle molds into an exhibit.
^(1) Banneker, 1792b, p. 6: Sir, I freely and cheerfully acknowledge, that I am of the African race, and in that color which is natural to them of the deepest dye" (2) Banneker, 1791, pp. 2--3. "The Editors have taken the Liberty to annex a Letter from Mr. McHenry, containing Particulars respecting Benjamin, which, it is presumed, will prove more acceptable to the Reader, than anything further in the prefatory Way. -- "Baltimore, August 20, 1791. "Mssrs. Goddard and Angell, "BENJAMIN BANNEKER, a free Negro, has calculated an Almanack for the ensuing Year, 1792, ..... . "This Man is about fifty-nine years in age; he was born in Baltimore County; his father was an African, and his mother, the offspring of African parents. -- ...." (3) Latrobe, p. 6: "His father was a native African, and his mother the child of natives of Africa; so that to no admixture of the blood of the white man was he indebted for his peculiar and extraordinary abilities."
^(1) Tyson, p. 4. (2) Johnson. "For some years, Benjamin seems to have served as an indentured laborer on the Prince George's County plantation of Mary Welsh, who had dealings with the Bannaky family and in 1773 executed her dead husband's instructions to release several of her labor force including "Negro Ben, born free age 43." Walsh was surely not Banneker's grandmother, as argued by many biographers, but she did leave him a substantial legacy. He then lived alone as a tobacco farmer near the Patapsco River." (3) Heinegg, Paul (2016-12-11). "Banneker Family". Free African Americans of Maryland and Delaware. Archived from the original on 2017-06-24. Retrieved .
This indenture made this tenth day of March in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred thirty seven between Richard Gist of Baltimore County in the province of Maryland grant of the one part, Robert Bannaky and Benjamin Bannaky this now of the County and province aforementioned of the other part, Witnesseth that the deed Richard Gist for and in consideration of the sum of seven thousand pounds of tobacco whence paid to the said Richard Gist the receipt whereof he do able by these presents acquits and discharges them the said Robert Bannaky and Benjamin Bannaky his son thereon heirs and assign for over one hundred acres of land lying in the said county circumscribed by the bounds hereafter by profit being the moiety of a hundred acres of land. J. Wells Stokes" (2) Facsimile of handwritten deed conveying property from Richard Gist to Robert Bannaky and Benjamin Bannaky. In Clark, James W., Maryland Commission on Afro-American and Indian History and Culture, Annapolis, Maryland (1976-06-14). "Benjamin Banneker Homesite"(PDF). Maryland State Historical Trust: Inventory Form for State Historic Sites Survey. Annapolis, Maryland: Maryland State Archives. p. 16. Archived from the original(PDF) on 2015-08-18. Retrieved .
^ ab(1) Cerami, pp. 24-28. (2) Corrigan, p. 2: "Cerami constructs a credible narrative of Banneker's life, but fails to document his research."
^ abcdeNational Capital Planning Commission (1976). History. Boundary markers of the Nation's Capital: a proposal for their preservation & protection: a National Capital Planning Commission Bicentennial report. Washington, D.C.: National Capital Planning Commission; For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, United States Government Printing Office. pp. 3-9. OCLC3772302. Retrieved – via HathiTrust Digital Library.
^"Text of Residence Act". American Memory: A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation: U.S. Congressional Documents and Debates, 1774 - 1875: Statutes at Large, 1st Congress, 2nd Session, p. 130, July 16, 1790: Chapter 28: An Act for establishing the temporary and permanent seat of the Government of the United States. Library of Congress. Retrieved .Archived 2009-09-13 at the Wayback Machine
^Bedini, 1971, p. 103. "Curiously enough, the record of Banneker's participation rests on extremely meager documentation, consisting of a statement written in a letter by Thomas Jefferson and two statements made by Banneker himself."
^ abcBoyd, Julian P., ed. (1974). Locating the Federal District: Editorial Note: Footnote number 119. The Papers of Thomas Jefferson: 24 January-31 March 1791. 19. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. pp. 41-43. ISBN9780691185255. LCCN50007486. OCLC1045069058. Retrieved – via Google Books. Recent biographical accounts of Benjamin Banneker (1731-1806), a mulatto whose father was a native African and whose grandmother was English, have done his memory a disservice by obscuring his real achievements under a cloud of extravagant claims to scientific accomplishment that have no foundation in fact. The single notable exception is Silvio A. Bedini's The Life of Benjamin Banneker (New York, 1972), a work of painstaking research and scrupulous attention to accuracy which also benefits from the author's discovery of important and hitherto unavailable manuscript sources. However, as Bedini points out, the story of Banneker's involvement in the survey of the Federal District "rests on extremely meager documentation" (p. 104). This consists of a single mention by TJ, two brief statements by Banneker himself, and the newspaper allusion quoted above. In consequence, Bedini's otherwise reliable biography accepts the version of Banneker's role in this episode as presented in reminiscences of nineteenth-century authors. These recollections, deriving in large part from members of the Ellicott family, who were prompted by Quaker inclinations to justice and equality, have compounded the confusion. The nature of TJ's connection with Banneker is treated in the Editorial Note to the group of documents under 30 Aug. 1791, but because of the obscured record it is necessary here to attempt a clarification of the role of this modest, self-taught tobacco farmer in the laying out of the national capital. First of all, because of unwarranted claims to the contrary, it must be pointed out that there is no evidence whatever that Banneker had anything to do with the survey of the Federal City or indeed with the final establishment of the boundaries of the Federal District. All available testimony shows that he was present only during the few weeks early in 1791 when the rough preliminary survey of the ten mile square was made; that, after this was concluded and before the final survey was begun, he returned to his farm and his astronomical studies in April, accompanying Ellicott part way on his brief journey back to Philadelphia; and that thenceforth he had no connection with the mapping of the seat of government. ... In any case, Banneker's participation in the surveying of the Federal District was unquestionably brief and his role uncertain.
^(1) "New Federal City"(PDF). Columbian Centennial (744). Boston, Massachusetts: Benjamin Russell. 1791-05-07. Archived from the original(PDF) on 2016-06-30. Retrieved – via boundarystones.org. When Mr. Ellicott had ascertained the precise point from which the line of the district was to proceed, the Master of the Lodge and Dr. Stewart, assisted by others of their brethren placed the stone; ... (2) Bedini, 1971, pp. 124, 314
^Davis, Nancy M. (2001-08-26). "Andrew Ellicott: Astronomer...mathematician...surveyor". Philadelphia Connection. Lewis and Clark Trail Heritage Foundation: Philadelphia Chapter. Archived from the original on 2018-09-29. Retrieved . After the war, he (Ellicott) returned to Fountainvale, the family home in Ellicott Upper Mills, and published a series of almanacs, The United States Almanack. (The earliest known copy is dated 1782.) (2) Bedini, 1999, pp. 97, 109, 210.
^(1) Bedini, 1971, p. 165. (2) "Almanac". In Pursuit of a Vision: Two Centuries of Collecting at the American Antiquarian Society. Worcester, Massachusetts: American Antiquarian Society. 2012. Retrieved . Benjamin Banneker. Holographic manuscript of his 1792 almanac and ephemeris, with the published edition: Benjamin Banneker's Almanack. Baltimore: William Goddard and James Angell ..., both 1791. Manuscript: Gift of William Goddard, 1813. Published almanac: Gift of Samuel L. Munson, 1925.Archived 2017-08-15 at the Wayback Machine
^ abBanneker, Benjamin (1792). Benjamin Banneker's almanac, for the year of our Lord, 1793. Baltimore: Printed and sold, wholesale and retail, by William Goddard and James Angell, at their printing-office, in Market-Street. LCCN98650590. OCLC1053084527.
^ ab(1) Banneker, Benjamin (1796). Bannaker's Maryland and Virginia almanack and ephemeris, for the year of our Lord 1797. Baltimore: Printed by Christopher Jackson, for George Keatinge's wholesale and retail book store, no. 140 Market-Street. OCLC62824545. (2) Banneker, Benjamin (1796). Bannaker's Virginia, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland and Kentucky almanack and ephemeris, for the year of our Lord 1797. Baltimore: Printed by Christopher Jackson, no. 67, Market-Street, for George Keatinge's book-store. Copy right secured. OCLC62824549. (3) Banneker, Benjamin (1796). Bannaker's Virginia, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland and Kentucky almanack and ephemeris, for the year of our Lord 1797. Richmond: Printed by Samuel Pleasants, Jun. near the vendue office. By privilege. OCLC62824550. (4) Banneker, Benjamin (1796). Bannaker's Virginia and North Carolina almanack and ephemeris, for the year of our Lord 1797. Petersburg VA: Printed by William Prentis and William Y. i.e., T. Murray. OCLC62824548.
^(1) Bedini, 1971, p. 276. "The woodcut represents a representation of Banneker with a tendency to idealize his appearance. It represents a Negro male in his late youth or early middle age, of medium frame. At this time, Banneker was sixty-three years of age and his physical appearance undoubtedly reflected to some degree his past illnesses and discomfort. He was described as being relatively fleshy, which leaves no doubt that the portrait was in fact no more than an artist's conjecture of his appearance." (2) Bedini, 1999, p. 290. "The woodcut appears to have been drawn by an artist who had neither seen Banneker nor heard a description of him but who obviously intended to render an idealized portrait of a black man. It represents a Negro male of medium frame in his late youth. At this time, Banneker was in fact sixty-three years of age, suffering from arthritis or rheumatism, and his physical appearance may have reflected to some degree his past illnesses and disabilities. He was described as being relatively fleshy, with a stocky build, which leaves no doubt that the portrait was in fact no more than an artist's conception of a young male Negro youth."
^(1) Banneker, 1791, p. 2. (2) Latrobe, p. 9: "In their editorial notice, Messrs. Goddard and Angell say, "they feel gratified in the opportunity of presenting to the public, through their press, what must be considered as an extraordinary effort of genius - a complete and accurate Ephemeris for the year 1792, calculated by a sable descendant of Africa," &c. And they further say, that "they flatter themselves that a philanthropic public, in this enlightened era, will be induced to give their patronage and support to this work, not only on account of its intrinsic merits, (it having met the approbation of several of the most distinguished astronomers of America, particularly the celebrated Mr. Rittenhouse,) but from similar motives to those which induced the editors to give this calculation the preference, the ardent desire of drawing modest merit from obscurity and controverting the long established illiberal prejudice against the blacks."
^(1) Banneker, 1791, pp. 2--4.Archived 2019-03-01 at the Wayback Machine (2) McHenry, James C. (Baltimore, August 20, 1791). "A letter from Mr. James McHenry, to messrs. Goddard and Angel, containing particulars respecting Benjamin Banneker, a free negro". The American Museum, or Universal Magazine (September 1792). Philadelphia: Mathew Carey: 185-87. Archived from the original on June 7, 2015. Retrieved – via Google Books. (3) McHenry, James (Baltimore: August 10, 1791) in Allaben, pp. 70, 72Archived 2017-01-30 at the Wayback Machine. "... I consider this Negro as a fresh proof that the powers of the mind are disconnected with the colour of the skin, or, in other words, a striking contradiction to Mr Hume's doctrine, that the Negroes are naturally inferior to whites, and unsusceptible of attainments in the arts and sciences. In every civilized country, we shall find thousands of whites, liberally educated, and who have enjoyed greater opportunities for instruction than this Negro, his inferiors in those intellectual acquirements and capacities that form the most characteristic features in the human race. But the system that would assign to these degraded blacks an origin different from the whites, if it is not ready to be deserted by philosophers, must be relinquished as similar instances multiply; and that such must frequently happen cannot well be doubted, should no check impede the progress of humanity, which, meliorating the condition of slavery, necessarily leads to its final extinction.--Let, however, the issue be what it will, I cannot but wish, on this occasion, to see the Public patronage keep pace with my black friend's merit." (4) Banneker 1792a, p. 2. "Baltimore, August 20, 1791. BENJAMIN BANNEKER, a free black, is about fifty-nine years of age; he was born in Baltimore county; his father was an African, and his mother the offspring of African parents. - His father and mother having obtained their freedom, were enabled to send him to an obscure school, where he learned, when a boy, reading, writing, and arithmetic as far as double position; and to leave him, at their deaths, a few acres of land, upon which he has supported himself ever since by means of economy and constant labour, and preserved a fair reputation. To struggle incessantly against want is no ways favourable to improvement: what he had learned, however, he did not forget; for as some hours of leisure will occur in the most toilsome life, he availed himself of these, not to read and acquire knowledge from writings of genius and discovery, for of such he had none, but to digest and apply, as occasions presented, the few principles of the few rules of arithmetic he had been taught at school. This kind of mental exercise formed his chief amusement, and soon gave him a facility in calculation that was often serviceable to his neighbours, and at length attracted the attention of the Messrs. Ellicott, a family remarkable for their ingenuity and turn to the useful mechanics. It is about three years since Mr. George Ellicott lent him Mayer's Tables, Ferguson's Astronomy, Leadbeater's Lunar Tables, and some astronomic instruments, but without accompanying them with either hint or instruction, that might further his studies, or lead him to apply them to any useful result. These books and instruments, the first of the kind he had ever seen, opened a new world to Benjamin, and from thenceforward he employed his leisure in astronomical researches. He now took up the idea of the calculations for an Almanack, and actually completed an entire set for the last year, upon his original stock of arithmetic. Encouraged by this first attempt, he entered upon his calculation for 1792, which, as well as the former, he began and finished without the least information of assistance from any person, or other books than those I have mentioned; so that whatever merit is attached to his present performance, is exclusively and peculiarly his own. I have been the more careful to investigate those particulars, and to ascertain their reality, as they form an interesting fact in the History of Man; and as you may want them to gratify curiosity, I have no objection to your selecting them for your account of Benjamin." (5) Letter from James McHenry regarding Benjamin Banneker. Baltimore, April 20, 1791.InPhillips, pp. 115-116Archived 2016-05-17 at the Wayback Machine. "The following notice of Banneker is found, first published in his almanac for 1792, and republished with some abridgement in the one of 1793, from which we are making extracts. It was written by Banneker's esteemed admirer, James McHenry, who was afterward senator of Maryland, and evidently a man who appreciated intellect whether in the soul of the black or white. ..."
^(1) Bedini, 1971, p. 187. (2) Jefferson, Thomas (1787). Query XVIII: Manners. Notes on the State of Virginia.: written by Thomas Jefferson: Illustrated with a Map, including the States of Virginia, Maryland, Delaware and Pennsylvania. London: Printed for John Stockdale, Opposite Burlington-House, Piccadilly. pp. 270-273. OCLC24294019. Retrieved – via Google Books.
^(1) "A Great Man, but Flawed". The Washington Post. The Washington Post Company, Washington, D.C. 1992-10-31. p. A.21. Archived from the original on 2012-11-02. Retrieved . ... Wefald writes that when Jefferson received a letter and almanac from Benjamin Banneker, Jefferson was "honest enough to change his position." Jefferson did not say that he had changed his opinion of the intellectual abilities of blacks. In his letter to Banneker, Aug. 30, 1791, Jefferson merely said: "No body wishes more than I do to see such proofs as you exhibit, that nature has given to our black brethren, talents equal to those of the other colors of men, and that the appearance of a want of them is owing merely to the degraded condition of their existence, both in Africa & America." Closely read, Jefferson's letter is only an indication that he "wishes to see such proofs", but there is no definite indication that he changed his mind. On Banneker's abilities Jefferson was ambivalent. (2) Johnson, Richard. "Banneker, Benjamin (1731-1806)". Scientists. BlackPast.org. Archived from the original on 2014-03-09. Retrieved . Banneker sent a manuscript copy of his work to Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson along with a plea against the continuance of black slavery and received a courteous, if evasive, reply.
^(1) Allaben, pp. 67-68.Archived 2017-03-04 at the Wayback Machine "..., but that having taken up my pen in order to direct to you as a present a copy of my Almanac which I have calculated for the Succeeding year, ..... and altho I had almost declined to make my calculation for the ensuing year, in consequence of that time which I had allotted therefor being taking up at the Federal Territory by the request of Mr. Andrew Ellicott, yet finding my Self underal several engagements to printers of this State to whom I have communicated my design, on my return to my place of residence, I industrially applied my Self thereto, ...." (2) Banneker, 1792b(1), p. 9, p. 10
^"Almanac". In Pursuit of a Vision: Two Centuries of Collecting at the American Antiquarian Society. Worcester, Massachusetts: American Antiquarian Society. 2012. Retrieved . Benjamin Banneker. Holographic manuscript of his 1792 almanac and ephemeris, with the published edition: Benjamin Banneker's Almanack. Baltimore: William Goddard and James Angell ..., both 1791. Manuscript: Gift of William Goddard, 1813. Published almanac: Gift of Samuel L. Munson, 1925.Archived 2017-08-15 at the Wayback Machine
^(1) Maryland Historical Society Library Department (2014-02-06). "The Dreams of Benjamin Banneker". Underbelly. Maryland Historical Society. Archived from the original on 2018-02-19. Retrieved . The astronomical journal is the only remaining artifact written in Banneker's hand, as his cabin and most of his belongings burned down in a fire as his body was being laid in the ground in 1806. On his instruction, the astronomical journal and some other loose manuscripts were removed upon his death and left to George Ellicott (1760-1832). The journal stayed in the hands of the Ellicott family until 1844 when it was deposited here at MdHS, where it was used by John H.B. Latrobe the following year. Quaker philanthropist and MdHS member Moses Sheppard (1771-1857) had the book rebound in Russian leather in 1852, and at this date most likely combined the astronomical journal with some of Banneker's loose manuscripts as well as a day book. At some unknown date the astronomical journal left MdHS and returned to the hands of the Ellicott family. It stayed there, away from the public's eye until 1987 when Ellicott family descendant Dorothea West Fitzhugh donated it in honor of her late husband Robert Tyson Fitzhugh. In 1999 MdHS sent the journal to the Center for Conservation in Philadelphia where it was rebound, deacidified, and given full conservation treatment. (2) Tyson, pp. 2, 18.
^(1) Respers, Lisa (1996-08-01). "18th-century Banneker items to be auctioned: Museum organizers hope to buy rare artifacts". The Baltimore Sun. Archived from the original on 2017-12-26. Retrieved . A selection of rare items used by Benjamin Banneker, noted black American scientist, is to be auctioned early next month, but organizers of the planned Banneker museum and park in Baltimore County hope to raise money to buy the artifacts first. The items -- which include a William and Mary drop-leaf table, candlesticks and molds, and several documents -- are scheduled to be put on the block at Sloane's Auction House in Bethesda. Jean Walsh, a member of the Friends of Benjamin Banneker Historical Park, said the items had been in the possession of a descendant of George Ellicott, who at age 17 befriended the much older Banneker -- known as "the first black man of science." "George was interested in astronomy, and he loaned a number of things to Banneker, including the table and several books," Walsh said.... Groundbreaking is planned for September for the long-awaited Benjamin Banneker Historical Park and Museum in Oella, and Walsh and other supporters would like to exhibit the items there. Gwen Marable, president of the organization, said an attempt had been made to persuade the owner, Elizabeth Wilde of Indianapolis, to donate or sell some of the artifacts to the museum. "We want to spearhead an effort to keep these things here in Maryland," said Marable, a descendant of one of Banneker's three sisters. Samuel Hopkins -- a descendant of the Ellicott family, who were mill owners and co-founders of Ellicott City -- said he encouraged Wilde to turn the artifacts over to the museum. "I spoke to her some time ago and told her I thought it would be fine if she gave some of the stuff to the museum," Hopkins said. "I suggested to her that, if she did not give it to the society, that she might let the society make copies of the documents for display." Patrick O'Neill, who is helping to arrange the auction for Sloane's, said the items are being appraised. Appraisal of historic pieces can be difficult, though officials expect the table to sell for $10,000 to $30,000. .... According to Silvio A. Bedini, author of The Life of Benjamin Banneker, the scientist instructed his nephews to return the table and books to the Ellicott family and give them some of his effects. The day of his funeral in 1806, Banneker's log cabin burned to the ground. It is on that site where the museum and park are to be built. Bedini said the artifacts are especially valuable because they are among the few remaining privately owned Banneker items. (2) McNatt, Glenn (1996-08-25). "Banneker items close to being auctioned". The Baltimore Sun. Archived from the original on 2017-12-26. Retrieved . Elizabeth Wilde, the Ellicott family member who inherited the Banneker-related items, plans to sell more than 20 Banneker artifacts and documents next month through C. G. Sloan auction house in Bethesda. Wilde, who lives in Indianapolis, has rebuffed appeals from Banneker historians, relatives and admirers to donate the artifacts to the new Banneker museum or give the sponsoring group more time to raise money so it can buy the items itself. (3) Respers, Lisa (1996-08-29). "$50,000 donated to Banneker museum 'Friends' hope to keep rare artifacts in Md". The Baltimore Sun. Archived from the original on 2017-12-26. Retrieved . (4) "For sale: Benjamin Banneker's legacy: Artifacts on the block: Business leaders should help bring rare items home". The Baltimore Sun. 1996-09-04. Archived from the original on 2014-12-02. Retrieved .
^(1) Levine, Susan (1997-01-04). "A Banneker plan: Museums named for scientist to be lent artifacts". The Washington Post. The Washington Post Company, Washington, D.C. p. B.1. Retrieved . More than 190 years after his death, some prized possessions of renowned black scientist Benjamin Banneker soon will be coming home. The collection, which Banneker historians, relatives and admirers once feared would be dispersed forever when it was auctioned in Sep 1996, will be sent to two Maryland museums that bear his name. (2) Respers, Lisa (1997-01-04). "Museum to display Banneker artifacts: Owner will allow objects to be shown for 20 years". The Baltimore Sun. Archived from the original on 2015-04-01. Retrieved . A happy ending is in sight for the planned Benjamin Banneker Historical Park and Museum in Oella, outbid at auction last fall for valuable artifacts once owned by the noted African-American astronomer and inventor. Next week, the Virginia-based investment banker who paid $85,000 for a table, candlesticks, documents and other items is expected to sign an agreement allowing the museum to display the artifacts for 20 years. .... Items auctioned in Bethesda in September came from a descendant of the Ellicotts, a white family that forged a strong friendship with the scientist, who died in 1806. Among them: a maple and pine drop-leaf table believed to have been lent to Banneker by the Ellicott family, two candlesticks and a candle mold, a ledger from the Ellicott & Co. general store noting purchases by Banneker, and several documents and letters pertaining to Banneker and the Ellicotts. ..... Friedman, a history buff, donated the artifacts to a Civil War monument and visitors center being built by his friend Frank Smith Jr., a Washington councilman. He said the entire collection, which includes other items of Banneker's period that did not relate to him, will be part of a Black History exhibit at The Corcoran Gallery of Art in Washington. They will then be turned over to the Banneker-Douglas Museum in Annapolis, until construction of the Oella museum is completed. (3) "Banneker dream a reality Oella: Artifacts of the 'first black man of science' on display in new museum and park". The Baltimore Sun. 1998-07-02. Archived from the original on 2015-04-01. Retrieved . The artifacts donated by Mr. Friedman, including a William and Mary drop-leaf table, candlesticks and documents, will be brought to the museum next year.
^(1) Maryland Historical Society Library Department (2014-02-06). "The Dreams of Benjamin Banneker". Underbelly: African American History. Maryland Historical Society. Archived from the original on 2014-12-16. Retrieved . Over the 200 years since the death of Benjamin Banneker (1731-1806), his story has become a muddled combination of fact, inference, misinformation, hyperbole, and legend. Like many other figures throughout history, the small amount of surviving source material has nurtured the development of a degree of mythology surrounding his story. (2) Cerami, p. 142. "(Banneker) has existed in dim memory mainly on mangled ideas about his work, and even utter falsehoods that are unwise attempts to glorify a man who needs no such embellishment. ........" (3) Johnson. "(Banneker's) life and work have become enshrouded in legend and anecdote." (4) Whiteman, Maxwell. BENJAMIN BANNEKER: Surveyor and Astronomer: 1731-1806: A biographical noteInWhiteman, Maxwell (ed.). "A number of fictional accounts of Banneker are available. All of them were dependent upon the following: Proceedings of the Maryland Historical Society for 1837 and 1854 which respectively contain the accounts of Banneker by John B. H. Latrobe and Martha E. Tyson. They were subsequently reprinted as pamphlets." (5) Fasanelli, Florence D, "Benjamin Banneker's Life and Mathematics: Web of Truth? Legends as Facts; Man vs. Legend", a talk given on January 8, 2004, at the MAA/AMS meeting in Phoenix, AZ. Cited in Mahoney, John F (July 2010). "Benjamin Banneker's Inscribed Equilateral Triangle - References". Loci. Mathematical Association of America. 2. Archived from the original on 2017-12-26. Retrieved . (6) Bedini, 1999, p. 318. "In the two centuries since Banneker's death, his achievements have been forgotten or misrepresented ..... In November 1971, on the anniversary of Banneker's birthday, the secretary of the interior authorized the 10th Street Overlook outside L'Enfant Plaza in Washington to be renamed and dedicated by the mayor as Benjamin Banneker Park. Once again, the reasons presented by the speakers on the occasion and widely reported by the press had been all based on erroneous information: Banneker was hailed for his contribution after L'Enfant was dismissed and Banneker "saved the plan by reconstructing it from memory"."
^ abcShipler, David K. (1998). The Myths of America. A Country of Strangers: Blacks and Whites in America. New York: Vintage Books. pp. 196-197. ISBN0679734546. OCLC39849003. Archived from the original on 2015-06-07 – via Google Books. The Banneker story, impressive as it was, got embellished in 1987, when the public school system in Portland, Oregon, published African-American Baseline Essays, a thick stack of loose-leaf background papers for teachers, commissioned to encourage black history instruction. They have been used in Detroit, Atlanta, Fort Lauderdale, Newark, and scattered schools elsewhere, although they have been attacked for gross inaccuracy in an entire literature of detailed criticism by respected historians. ....
^ abMartel, Erich (1994-02-20). "The Egyptian Illusion". Opinions. The Washington Post. Retrieved . Teachers who want reliable information on African American history often don't know where to turn. Many have unfortunately looked to unreliable books and publications by Afrocentric writers. The African American Baseline Essays, developed by the public school system in Portland, Ore., are the most widespread Afrocentric teaching material. Educators should be aware of their crippling flaws. .... "Thomas Jefferson appointed Benjamin Banneker to survey the site for the capital, Washington, D.C." and Banneker "wrote a proposal for the establishment of a United States Department of Peace," according to the essay on African American scientists. Had the author consulted "The Life of Benjamin Banneker" by Silvio Bedini, considered the definitive biography, he would have discovered no evidence for these claims. Jefferson appointed Andrew Ellicott to conduct the survey; Ellicott made Banneker his assistant for three months in 1791. Benjamin Rush authored the Department of Peace proposal; the confusion arose among earlier biographers because the proposal appeared in Banneker's 1793 almanac.Archived 2018-09-18 at the Wayback Machine
^(1) Bedini, 1969, p. 7. "The name of Benjamin Banneker, the Afro-American self-taught mathematician and almanac-maker, occurs again and again in the several published accounts of the survey of Washington City begun in 1791, but with conflicting reports of the role which he played. Writers have implied a wide range of involvement, from the keeper of horses or supervisor of the woodcutters, to the full responsibility of not only the survey of the ten mile square but the design of the city as well. None of these accounts has described the contribution which Banneker actually made." (2) Bedini, 1971, p. 126. "Benjamin Banneker's name does not appear on any of the contemporary documents or records relating to the selection, planning, and survey of the City of Washington. An exhaustive search of the files under Public Buildings and Grounds in the U.S. National Archives and of the several collections in the Library of Congress have proved fruitless. A careful perusal of all known surviving correspondence and papers of Andrew Ellicott and of Pierre Charles L'Enfant has likewise failed to reveal mention of Banneker. This conclusively dispels the legend that after L'Enfant's dismissal and his refusal to make available his plan of the city, Ellicott was able to reconstruct it in detail from Banneker's recollection. Equally untrue are legends that Thomas Jefferson as Secretary of State invited Banneker to luncheon at the White House. Jefferson during this period was in Philadelphia, the national capital had not yet been built, and there was no White House." (3) Bedini, 1999, p. 136. "Although the exact date of Banneker's departure from the survey is not specified in Ellicott's report of expenditures, it occurred some time late in the month of April 1791, following the arrival of one of Ellicott's brothers. It was not until some ten months after Banneker's departure from the scene that L'Enfant was dismissed, by means of a letter from Jefferson dated February 27, 1792. This conclusively dispels any basis for the legend that after L'Enfant's dismissal and his refusal to make available his plan of the city, Banneker recollected the plan in detail from which Ellicott was able to reconstruct it. Equally untrue and in fact impossible is the legend that Thomas Jefferson as secretary of state invited Jefferson to luncheon at the White House. Jefferson during this period was in Philadelphia, the national capital had not yet been built, and there was no White House. (4) Murdock. "This very well-researched book also helps lay to rest some of the myths about what Banneker did and did not do during his most unusual lifetime; unfortunately, many websites and books continue to propagate these myths, probably because those authors do not understand what Banneker actually accomplished." (5) Toscano. "Some writers, in an effort to build up their hero, claim that Banneker was the designer of Washington. Other writers have asserted that Banneker's role in the survey is a myth without documentation. Neither group is correct. Bedini does a professional job of sorting out the truth from the falsehoods." (6) Cerami, pp. 142-143. (7) Bigbytes. "Benjamin Banneker Stories". dcsymbols dot com. Archived from the original on 2010-01-20. Retrieved .Archived 2003-12-06 at the Wayback Machine (8) Levine, Michael (2003-11-10). "L'Enfant designed more than D.C.: He designed a 200-year-old controversy". History: Planning Our Capital City: Get to know the District of Columbia. DCpages.com. Archived from the original on 2003-12-06. Retrieved . (9) Weatherly, Myra (2006). An Important Task. Benjamin Banneker: American Scientific Pioneer. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Compass Point Books. pp. 76-77. ISBN0756515793. LCCN2005028708. OCLC61864300. Archived from the original on 2019-08-27. Retrieved – via Google Books. The conflicts surrounding L'Enfant gave rise to an often--repeated story that involved Banneker. According to the story, Banneker, having seen the original design for the city only once, re-created it in detail after L'Enfant returned to France with the original plans. This legend has led some people to credit Banneker with a greater role in creating the capital city. However, there is no evidence that Banneker contributed anything to the design of the city or that he ever met L'Enfant. Modern historians acknowledge that the inaccurate information--the myths surrounding Banneker--resulted in his contributions to the city being overvalued. Unfortunately, those myths sometimes obscure Banneker's greatest contribution to society--the almanacs that he would publish in his later years.
^Bedini, 1999, p. 43. "Banneker's clock was by no means the first timepiece in tidewater Maryland, as occasionally has erroneously been claimed. Timepieces were well known and available from the very earliest English settlements, ...."
^Dove, Rita (1983). "Banneker". Poems & Poets. Poetry Foundation. Archived from the original on 2018-02-20. Retrieved . (2) Newton, Amanda (2012-03-04). "Analysis on "Banneker" and "Parsley"". Spotlight on Rita Dove. Blogger. Archived from the original on 2018-02-20. Retrieved . (3) "Comprehensive Biography of Rita Dove". The Rita Dove Home Page. University of Virginia. Archived from the original on 2018-02-20. Retrieved . In 1993 Rita Dove was appointed Poet Laureate of the United States and Consultant in Poetry to the Library of Congress, making her the youngest person -- and the first African-American -- to receive this highest official honor in American poetry. She held the position for two years. .... Ms. Dove taught creative writing at Arizona State University from 1981 to 1989; subsequently she joined the faculty of the University of Virginia in Charlottesville, where, since 1993, she holds the chair of Commonwealth Professor of English.
Murdock, Gail T. (2002-11-11). "Benjamin Banneker - the man and the myths". Customer review of Bedini, Silvio A. (1999). "The Life of Benjamin Banneker: The First African-American Man of Science", 2nd ed., Baltimore: Maryland Historical Society. Amazon.com. Archived from the original on 2016-03-10. Retrieved .
Williams, George Washington (1882). Banneker The Astronomer. History of the Negro Race in America from 1619 to 1880: Negroes as Slaves, as Soldiers, and as Citizens; Together with a Preliminary Consideration of the Unity of the Human Family, an Historical Sketch of Africa, and an Account of the Negro Governments of Sierra Leone and Liberia. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. pp. 386-398. LCCN09003580. OCLC6510556. Retrieved – via Google Books.