Bidar
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Bidar

Bidar
City
Bidar Fort wide.jpg
Mahumad Gawan.JPG
Barid Shahi 05.jpg
Guru Nanak Jhira Sahib gurdwara in Bidar, Jul 2017.jpg
(clockwise from top) Bidar Fort; One of the Barid Shahi tombs; Guru Nanak Jhira Sahib; Ruins of the Mahmud Gawan Madrasa
Etymology: Viduranagara (Mahabharata)
Nickname(s): 
Bidar is located in Karnataka
Bidar
Bidar
Location of Bidar in Karnataka
Coordinates (Bidar): 17°54?N 77°30?E / 17.9°N 77.5°E / 17.9; 77.5[1]
Country India
StateKarnataka
DivisionKalaburagi Division
RegionHyderabad-Karnataka
DistrictBidar district
TalukaBidar
Named forBidri
Government
 o TypeMunicipality
 o BodyCouncil
Area
 o Total43 km2 (17 sq mi)
Elevation710 m (2,330 ft)
Population
(2011)[2]
 o Total216,020
 o Estimate 
(2021)[4]
260,201
 o Rank216
 o Density5,000/km2 (13,000/sq mi)
 o Males
111,470
 o Males density2,592/km2 (6,710/sq mi)
 o Females
104,550
 o Females density2,432/km2 (6,300/sq mi)
Demonym(s)"Bidri"
Sex Ratio
 o per 1000 males937 females
 o in the age, 0-6914 f / 1000 m
Literacy Rate
 o Average87.65%
 o Male92.88%
 o Female82.08%
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
585 401/02/03
Telephone code91-(0)8482-XXXXXX
Vehicle registrationKA-38
Official languageKannada
Spoken languagesKannada, Marathi, Urdu
Websitewww.bidarcity.gov.in

Bidar is a hill top city in the north-eastern part of Karnataka state in India. It is the headquarters of the Bidar district which borders Maharashtra and Telangana. It is a rapidly urbanising city in the wider Bidar Metropolitan area. The city is well known for its many sites of architectural, historical and religious importance.

Being located at the farthest of around 700 km (430 mi) from the state capital Bengaluru, it has been neglected by the state government for a long time. However, owing to its rich heritage, the city has a prominent place on the Archaeological Map of India. Picturesquely perched on the Deccan plateau, the Bidar fort is more than 500 years old and still standing strong.[6] According to the book "Bidar Heritage" published by the state Department of Archaeology, Museums and Heritage, of the 61 monuments listed by the department, about 30 are tombs located in and around Bidar city.,[7] explaining its nickname, "City of Whispering Monuments". The heritage sites in and around Bidar have become the major attraction for film shooting in recent years with Bollywood making visits apart from kannada film industry[8]

Bidar is home for the second biggest Indian Air Force training centre in the country. The IAF Station Bidar is used for advanced jet training of prospective fighter pilots on BAe Hawk aircraft.[9]

Bidar city is known for its Bidri handicraft products, and its rich history. Bidar is also considered one of the holiest place for Sikh pilgrimage. Unlike other places in the region, Bidar is the coldest and wettest place in north Karnataka. For the year 2009-10, Bidar was ranked 22nd among the cleanest cities in India, and 5th cleanest in Karnataka.[10]SH4 passes through Bidar and the whole city is integrated with 4 lane road.

Ancient Karez System in the city have been recently discovered. The Karez (Qanat) is an underground network of aqueducts for water supply. The Bidar Karez, built in the 15th century, is more than 3 km (1.9 mi) long with 21 air vents.[11] Underground canals, built to connect underground water streams, were meant to provide drinking water to civilian settlements and the garrison inside the Bidar fort. This was necessary in a city where the soil was rocky and drilling wells was difficult.

Etymology

Bidar is believed to have got its name from Bidri works.

Legend has associated Bidar with the ancient kingdom of Vidarbha, to which references are found in early Hindu literature like Malavikagnimitra, Mahabharata, the Harivamsa, Bhagavata, and a few other Puranas.[12]:3 Its association can be seen apparently on account of the similarity in names Bidar and Vidarbha. This has been mentioned in Firishta's writings.

The traditional tales reveal that Vidura lived here; hence the place was earlier called Viduranagara and also as the place where Nala and Damayanti (Daughter of Raja Bhima, the King of Vidharba) were meeting.[13]

Bidar under the rule of the Bahmani Sultanate was known as Muhammadabad.

History

The recorded History of the city goes back to the third century B.C. when it was a part of the Mauryan Empire. After the Mauryas, Satavahanas, Kadambas, and Chalukyas of Badami and later the Rashtrakutas reigned over Bidar territory. The Chalukyas of Kalyana and Kalachuris of Kalyanis also regained the area. For a short period after Kalyani Chalukyas the area of Bidar was under the Seunas of Devagiri and Kakatiyas of Warangal.

The Delhi Sultanate invaded the area first by Allauddin Khilji, and later, Muhammed-bin-Tughluq took control of entire Deccan including Bidar. In the middle of the 14th century, the Sultan of Delhi's officers that were stationed in Deccan rebelled and this resulted in the establishment of Bahmanid Dynasty in 1347 A.D. at Gulbarga/Hasanabad (present Kalaburagi). There was frequent warfare between the Bahmanids and the Vijaynagar Kingdom.[14]

The history of the present fort at Bidar is attributed to the sultan Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah, the first sultan of the Bahmani dynasty to 1427, when he shifted his capital from Gulbarga to Bidar since it had better climatic conditions and was also a fertile and fruit-bearing land. The earliest recorded history of its existence as a small and strong fort is also traced to prince Ulugh Khan in 1322, whereafter it came under the reign of the Tughlaq dynasty.[15]

With the establishment of the Bahmanid dynasty (1347), Bidar was occupied by Sultan Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah Bahmani. During the rule of Ahmad Shah I (1422-1486), Bidar was made the capital city of Bahmani Kingdom.[16][17] The old fort was rebuilt and madrasas, mosques, palaces, and gardens were raised. Mahmud Gawan, who became the Prime Minister in 1466, was a notable figure in the history of Bidar. Bidar remained under the Barid Shahi dynasty until conquest by the Bijapur Sultanate in 1619. Aurangzeb came to Bidar after his father, Padshah (emperor) Shah Jahan, appointed him the Prince of Deccan. He wrested the Bidar Fort from the Adil Shahis after a 21-day war in 1656. With this, Bidar became a part of the Mughal dynasty for the second time.[18][19] Bidar was made a subah (imperial top-level province) in 1656, which Telangana Subah was merged into the next year.[20]

In 1724, Bidar became a part of the Asaf Jahi Kingdom of the Nizams. Third son of Asaf jah l ( Nizam l ) Mir Sa'id Muhammad Khan, Salabat Jang ruled from Bidar fort from 1751 to 1762, till his brother Mir Nizam Ali Khan Asaf Jah III imprisoned him in this fort, and was killed in Bidar fort on 16 September 1763. Mohammedabad old name of Bidar is also on his name. It was connected to Hyderabad by rail in the early 20th century.[21] After India's independence, in 1956 all Kannada speaking areas were merged to form the Mysore State and Bidar became part of the new Mysore (now Karnataka) state.[19][22][23]

Geography

Bidar is located at 17°54?N 77°30?E / 17.9°N 77.5°E / 17.9; 77.5,[24] lies at a central position in Deccan, a plateau at an elevation of 2300 ft from the sea level. It has common boundaries with Maharashtra and Telangana which is, with the districts of Nizamabad and Medak in Telangana on the East and the districts of Nanded and Osmanabad in Maharashtra on the west. On the south lies the district Gulbarga of Karnataka.[]

Geology

Laterite under the Top soil Layer

The upper crust of the plateau is of laterite, a soft porous rock with limonitic surface. This crust varies in depth from 100 ft (30 m) to 500 ft (150 m) and rests on a bed of trap, which is of much harder texture and less pervious to water. The volume of water filtered during the monsoons through the laterite stratum is arrested by the trappean bed, and a nursery of springs is formed whose natural level of effluence is the line of contact of the two strata along the base of the cliffs of the plateau. The water in course of time frets out for itself an orifice and macerates and loosens portions of its rocky channel till a rift is produced. The rift gradually dilates into a ravine, and the ravine expands into a vale.

The Karez System is built along a geological fracture. Such fractures are formed at the intersection of laterite and basalt rocks and form lineaments or springs that yield water.[25]

Soil

Bidar soils are deep (>100 cm), well-drained gravelly red clayey soils developed on plateaus of laterites. They are slightly acid to neutral (pH 6.6) in reaction with low cation exchange capacity. They are highly gravelly soils with gravel content (60 to 10%) that decrease with depth.[26]

Climate

In-Cloud Lightning over Bidar

The winter season is from November to middle of February. Bidar is one of the coldest cities (by southern standards) in Karnataka as the minimum temperature during winter nights regularly hovers around 11-12 during December, which is the coldest month with mean daily maximum temperature of 27.3 C and mean daily minimum of 13.4 C. From the middle of the February, both day and night temperatures begin to rise rapidly. May is the hottest month with mean daily maximum temperature of 38.8 C and mean daily minimum of 25.9 C. With the withdrawal of southwest monsoon in the first week of October, there is slight increase in day temperature but night temperature decreases steadily. After October, both day and night temperatures decreases progressively. The highest maximum temperature recorded at Bidar was on 8-5-1931(43.3-degree C) and the lowest minimum was on 5-1-1901(2.9-degree C, the lowest temperature ever recorded in Karnataka).[27]

Present day Bidar covers an expanse of 5448 square kilometres of land and lies between 17°35' and 18°25' North latitudes and 76°42' and 77°39' east longitudes.

Climate data for Bidar (1981-2010, extremes 1901-2011)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 35.2
(95.4)
38.8
(101.8)
41.7
(107.1)
42.8
(109.0)
43.6
(110.5)
44.0
(111.2)
36.7
(98.1)
36.1
(97.0)
36.7
(98.1)
36.7
(98.1)
36.1
(97.0)
32.8
(91.0)
44.0
(111.2)
Average high °C (°F) 29.1
(84.4)
32.2
(90.0)
35.8
(96.4)
38.1
(100.6)
38.9
(102.0)
33.7
(92.7)
29.9
(85.8)
28.9
(84.0)
30.0
(86.0)
30.2
(86.4)
29.0
(84.2)
28.0
(82.4)
32.0
(89.6)
Average low °C (°F) 16.3
(61.3)
18.4
(65.1)
21.9
(71.4)
24.4
(75.9)
25.3
(77.5)
22.9
(73.2)
21.7
(71.1)
21.3
(70.3)
21.4
(70.5)
20.4
(68.7)
17.9
(64.2)
15.8
(60.4)
20.6
(69.1)
Record low °C (°F) 6.2
(43.2)
9.4
(48.9)
10.2
(50.4)
12.6
(54.7)
14.2
(57.6)
17.2
(63.0)
15.0
(59.0)
18.3
(64.9)
16.7
(62.1)
15.0
(59.0)
11.1
(52.0)
10.0
(50.0)
6.2
(43.2)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 12.2
(0.48)
2.5
(0.10)
11.4
(0.45)
22.8
(0.90)
21.1
(0.83)
132.8
(5.23)
193.1
(7.60)
211.9
(8.34)
152.5
(6.00)
116.5
(4.59)
29.9
(1.18)
5.0
(0.20)
911.6
(35.89)
Average rainy days 0.5 0.3 0.8 2.0 2.7 7.9 10.9 12.0 8.8 5.5 1.5 0.4 53.4
Average relative humidity (%) 45 36 36 36 41 59 68 71 67 58 52 49 52
Source: India Meteorological Department[28][29]

Economy

Once a home to many cottage industries, such as cotton and oil-ginning mills,[30] there are now few industries that draw on local raw materials or skills. Even the well known form of local articrafts, bidri ware, is in a state of decline. Increasing prices of materials, especially silver, and declining sales have meant that many of the hereditary artisans are no longer employed in the production of such ware.[31] Bidar city has a large industrial area known as Kolhar industrial area.[]

Tourism

Bidar is located in India
Bidar
Bidar
Hyderabad 140 km (87 mi)
Hyderabad 140 km (87 mi)
Bangalore 700 km (430 mi)
Bangalore 700 km (430 mi)
Mumbai 600 km (370 mi)
Mumbai 600 km (370 mi)
Chennai 788 km (490 mi)
Chennai 788 km (490 mi)
Distance from major Metropolitan cities near to Bidar.

Bidar is symbolically described as City of Whispering Monuments.[32] The mountaintop city that served as the capital of medieval Deccan, has 98 monuments of which four national monuments are protected by the Archaeological Survey of India and 14 by the State Archaeology Department, Karnataka.

Bidar earned a place on the World Monument Watchlist 2014.[33] Of the 741 proposals received from 166 countries, 67 sites from 41 countries were finally selected which were announced by WMF president Bonnie Burnham in New York on 8 October 2013.[34] Along with "the historic city of Bidar", two other sites in India to figure in the list were the house of Sheikh Salim Chisti in Fatehpur Sikri and Juna Mahal in Rajasthan.

The WMF in its current watch site for "the historic city of Bidar" says ?challenges to the site include a lack of integrated conservation and maintenance, environmental pollution, and the construction of new developments and roadways that encroach on the historic fabric. Current land use regulations also threaten the economic livelihood of many of the city's residents, and it is hoped that revised, context-specific planning policies would both protect Bidar's historic assets while also supporting the future of its local population. It is hoped that Watch-listing will spur documentation and analysis of the city's conditions, followed by policy development and applied conservation interventions that will reveal and maintain Bidar's rich heritage, as well as support a robust and sustainable tourist industry.?[35]

Mahmud Gawan Madrasa

This grandiose madrasa was built by the prime-minister of the Bahmani empire, Mahmud Gawan in the late 15th century. Its only the most imposing building of the Bahmani period, but in its plan and in the general style of its architecture it is a unique monument of its kind in India. The Madrasa, a multi-disciplinary university he set up, which had a library of around 3,000 valuable manuscripts, was severely damaged when gunpowder stored inside the rooms went off during a 27-day siege of the city by Mughal king Aurangazeb in 1656. The Mahmud Gawan Madrasa is protected by the Archaeological Survey of India.[36]

Bidar Fort

Bidar Fort[37] is considered one of the most formidable forts of the country. Bidar city was distinctly planned and built. The main citadel complex housed the royal places. Mahals and Mosque. Adjoining to this on the southern side, the city was built for the people. Both the citadel complex and city had separate forts for protection the plan of the Bidar city fortification is pentagonal. There are five gateways for entry into the city fort. It is main citadel complex fort which is stronger. It is built on the brink of the plateau. Engineers and architecture of various countries were employed on its design and construction. A Museum is preset there having old armor, old sculptures. including many of the ancient stones,[38]

museum inside Bidar fort
  • Rangeen Mahal, situated in the fort, near Gumbad Darwaza, is unique because of its decoration with coloured tiles and other art work. Wood carving done there is not only precious but also unique. The walls of Mahal are adorned with mother-of-pearl of the finest quality in laid in jet-black stone. Floral patterns and calligraphic text are also depicted here. Stone carving, stucco art are other attractions of this monument. It was rebuilt during Barid Shahi period. The design of this monument represents the blend of the both Hindu and Muslim architecture. There are rooms in the basement of the Rangin Mahal.[39]
  • Tarkash Mahal is said to have been built for Turkish wife of the sultan. From the remains of the decorative work found in the ornamentation of the walls, it can be said that the Mahal was built or extended by the Barid Shahi Sultans who had kept large harem with ladies from different nationalities.The rooms were decorated with stucco work.[40]
  • Gagan Mahal was originally built by the Bahamani kings and some alterations and additions were made by the Barid Shahi rulers. It has two courts. The outer court was used by the male staff and guards. The inner court also, there are rooms on either side of the covered passage for the accommodation of the guards. The main building of the palace was for the use of the sultan and his harem.[41]
  • Takht Mahal, The Royal Palace, was built by Ahemd shah. It was the royal residence. The place was fully decorated with coloured titles and stone carvings part of which can be seen even today. It had two side royal pavilions with lofty arches and a spacious hall at the back of which was the sultan's room. The building had stately dimensions and exquisite surface decoration. The coronations of several Bahamanis and Barid Shahi sultans were held there. From the royal pavilion which is situated behind throne palace one can view the valley and low land below.
  • Solah Khamba Mosque (Solah Sutoon Ki Masjid) was built by Qubil Sultani between 1423 and 1424. The mosque derives its name from the 16 pillars that are lined in the front of the structure. Popularly known as the Zanana Masjid, this mosque is about 90 metres long and 24 metres wide. Behind the southern wall of this mosque, there is a large well. Characterised by columns, arches and domes, this mosque is one of the largest in India.[42]

Other monuments

  • Chaubara is a tall tower, facing in four directions. This is an old cylindrical tower of 22 meters, height is situated in the centre of Bidar city. It was used as a watchtower, commanding a fine view of the entire plateau from the top. A winding staircase of eight steps leads to the top of the tower, a clock is being placed on top of the tower, can be viewed from all the four directions .[43]
  • Jama Masjid, a large mosque with no minarets, located near Chaubara.[]
  • Bahmani Tombs called as "Ashtur", located near "Chaukhandi of Hazrat Khalil Ullah" around a distance of 1 km[]
  • Barid Shahi Tombs[44]
  • Chaukhandi of Hazrat Khalil Ullah[]

Religious places

Religions in Bidar District[45]
Religion Percent
Hindu
55.72%
Muslim
39.68%
Christians
2.08%
Sikh
0.07%
Buddhist
1.79%
Jain
0.04%
Other+
0.03%
Not stated
0.6%

Gurudwara Nanak Jhira Sahib

Gurudwara Nanak Jhira Saheb is known to be one of Holiest Place For Sikh Devotees in India and is believed that Saint Guru Nanak visited the place during famine in this region.[46] Papa Nashini Mandir Dargah Hazrat Shah Shamsuddin Quadri (Multani Basha) Dargah Hazrat Syed Abul Faiz Mailar Mallana Mandir Narasimha Jharna Mandir Changleri Veerabhadra Mandir

Art

The Karnataka tableau depicting Bidriware Handicraft from Bidar passes through the Rajpath during the Republic Day Parade 2011.

Bidri wares

Bidriware, one of the rarest and most intricate art forms is now unique to the city.[47] This native art form has obtained Geographical Indications (GI) registry.[48] The various art forms created by artists from Bidar city centuries ago are now major attractions in museums such as Victoria and Albert Museum, London, the National Museum in New Delhi and Indian Museum in Kolkata.[47]

The Karnataka tableau at the 2011 Republic Day Parade at Rajpath in New Delhi featured Bidriware and Bidri artisans from Bidar.

Rehaman Patel did an extensive research in Bidri Art from Gulbarga University. His book in Kannada version (2012) and English version (2017) also published on Bidri Art.

All the dignitaries & guests of XIX Commonwealth Games 2010 were presented with mementos hand crafted in Bidri art. This art form is the Union government's choice for souvenirs at the World Economic Forum in Davos. The Kingfisher company owner Vijay Mallya has a bidri dining table with floral designs made of nearly 3.5 kg silver.[49]

Transport

Rail

Bidar has connectivity with Bangalore, Hyderabad, Sainagar Shirdi, Parbhani Jn, Aurangabad, Latur, Nanded, Manmad, Mumbai, Visakhapatnam, Machilipatnam, Vijayawada and Renigunta (according to railway budget 2014-15) Construction of the Gulbarga-Bidar link is completed which was inaugurated by Prime Minister Narendra Modi.[50][51] Bidar-Hyderabad inter-city train service became operative in September 2012.[52] A Bidar-Yeshwantpur (Daily) express train[53] and Bidar-LTT Mumbai express train[54] service has been started recently. another train starting from bidar through Latur to Mumbai started, which runs on Thursday,Saturday and Sunday.

Air

Bidar Airport, also known as Bidar Air Force Station, (IATA: IXX, ICAO: VOBR) is a military airbase cum Domestic Airport in Bidar, Karnataka, India.[55]

The city is home to an air force station. Trujet operates one daily flight between Bidar to Bangalore.

Education institutions

Gnyana Sudha Vidyalaya, School Building
Swaminarayan Gurukul International School Bidar outer view1
  • Air Force school, Bidar[56]
  • B. V. Bhoomareddi College of Arts, Science & Commerce, Gumpa Road Bidar[57]
  • Bidar Institute of Medical Sciences (BRIMS)[58]
  • College of Horticulture Bidar[59]
  • Guru Nank Dev College of Engineering Bidar[60]
  • Karnatak Arts, Science and Commerce College, Bidar[61]
  • Lingraj Appa Engineering college, Chitta Bidar[62]
  • Noor Educational Trust, Bidar[63]
  • SB Patil Dental College & Hospital[64]
  • Shree Swaminarayan Gurukul International School[65]
  • The Millennium Public School Bidar[66]
  • Akkamahadevi Mahila Mahavidyalaya for women's
  • Everest degree college mailoor road bidar.
  • Future Kids School
  • Global Sainik Academy (GSA), Benakanalli Road, Bidar.
  • Global Sainik Academy (GSA), Pre-primary Branch, Kumbarwada, Bidar.
  • Global Sainik Academy (GSA), Pre-primary Branch, Shivnagar (S), Bidar.
  • Karnataka Veterinary Animal and Fisheries Sciences University
  • Kendriya Vidyalaya, Bidar
  • The Millennium Public School, Shiv nagar North, Bidar
  • Mahmud Gawan Madarsa (The ancient university)
  • Red rose public school
  • Royal degree college bidar
  • Saraswati school, Bidar
  • Seventh day Adventist high school Bidar
  • Seventh day Adventist higher - primary school bhalki
  • Shanthinikethan Instt. Of Physiotherapy
  • Vande mataram International school, Bidar.
  • Vidyaranya High school, Bidar
  • Siddharth degree collage Bidar
  • Siddharth Pu collage Bidar
  • Siddharth high school Bidar
  • Mata manikeshwari Pu sciences College Bidar
  • Panna Lal Hira Lal Pu college

and degree college Bidar

Galleries

References

Citations

  1. ^ co-ordinates represent the city limits broadly
  2. ^ a b "City/Town Summary". Bidar City Municipal Council, ? . Retrieved 2015.
  3. ^ Elevation of the CITY is not to be confused with that of TALUKA, which averages to 664m (2178ft)
  4. ^ Directorate of Economics and Statistics, B'luru, 2013
  5. ^ a b "Bidar City Census 2011 data". census2011.co.in. Retrieved 2015.
  6. ^ "Bidar fort stands the test of time". Deccan Herald. 4 January 2010. Retrieved 2015.
  7. ^ "Bidar has 30 tombs of former kings". The Hindu. 6 August 2008. Retrieved 2015.
  8. ^ "Holding fort at Bidar". The Hindu. 16 September 2011. Retrieved 2015.
  9. ^ "Two Hawks will land in Bidar on November 12". The Hindu. 11 November 2007. Retrieved 2015.
  10. ^ "India's cleanest: Where does your city stand?". News.rediff.com. 13 May 2010. Retrieved 2013.
  11. ^ "Picnic spot of Barid Shahi kings discovered in Bidar". The Hindu. 17 December 2012. Retrieved 2015.
  12. ^ Yazdani, 1947, pp. 3.
  13. ^ Karnataka Gazetteer (Second ed.). Govt. of Karnataka. 1 January 1983.
  14. ^ http://www.bidartourism.com/history.html
  15. ^ "Heritage Areas".
  16. ^ Yazdani, 1947, pp. 5.
  17. ^ Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. pp. 106-108. ISBN 978-9-38060-734-4.
  18. ^ Desai, Rishikesh Bahadur (3 March 2011). "An occasion to recall Aurangazeb's association with this historic city". The Hindu. Retrieved 2015.
  19. ^ a b "Geography and travel". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 4 December 2009. Retrieved 2009.
  20. ^ Haig, 1907, pp. 102.
  21. ^ Yazdani, 1947, pp. 20.
  22. ^ Sherwani, Haroon Khan (1969). Cultural trends in medieval India: architecture, painting, literature & language. Asia Pub. House. pp. 14-16. Retrieved 2009.
  23. ^ "Gulbarga Fort". British Library On Line gallery. Retrieved 2009.
  24. ^ "Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Bidar". Fallingrain.com. Retrieved 2013.
  25. ^ "A thrilling walk through medieval waterways". The Hindu. 2 November 2014. Retrieved 2015.
  26. ^ Characterisation of sugarcane soils of Karnataka L.C.K. Naidu, National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning. Regional Centre. Hebbal. Bangalore 560024.
  27. ^ "Bidar District Website". Bidar.nic.in. 21 October 2013. Retrieved 2013.
  28. ^ "Station: Bidar Climatological Table 1981-2010" (PDF). Climatological Normals 1981-2010. India Meteorological Department. January 2015. pp. 147-148. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  29. ^ "Extremes of Temperature & Rainfall for Indian Stations (Up to 2012)" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. December 2016. p. M91. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  30. ^ Bidar District Gazetteer, Govt. Printing Press, Bangalore, 1977.
  31. ^ Agrarian Distress in Bidar, A report by NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ADVANCED STUDIES, 1999
  32. ^ "Bidar Utsav from February 18" (Bidar [HY-GB]). Kasturi & Sons Ltd. The Hindu. 6 February 2011.
  33. ^ "Urgent need to promote tourism in Bidar" (Bidar [HY-GB]). Kasturi & Sons Ltd. The Hindu. 21 January 2015.
  34. ^ "Bidar only South Indian monument to figure in latest World Monuments Fund list" (Bidar [HY-GB]). Kasturi Sons & Ltd. The Hindu. 10 October 2013.
  35. ^ "Historic City of Bidar". World Monuments Fund.
  36. ^ Yazdani, 1995, pp. 91-93.
  37. ^ Bidar Fort
  38. ^ http://www.bidartourism.com/fort.html
  39. ^ http://www.bidartourism.com/rangeenMahal.html
  40. ^ http://www.bidartourism.com/TarkashMahal.html
  41. ^ http://www.bidartourism.com/GaganMahal.html
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