|Province of the Rashidun, Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphates|
|Historical era||Middle Ages|
o Tulunid control
Bilad al-Sham (Arabic: ? , romanized: Bil?d al-m) was a Rashidun, Umayyad and then Abbasid Caliphate province in what is now the Levant. It incorporated former Byzantine territories of the Diocese of the East, organized soon after the Muslim conquest of the Levant in the mid-7th century, which was completed at the decisive Battle of Yarmouk. The term "Bilad al-Sham" means "land to the north", literally "land on the left-hand" relative to someone in the Hejaz facing east (? , Bil?d al-Yaman, correspondingly means "land of the right hand"). Today, Bilaad al-Sham represents the countries of Palestine, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria
The name given to the Levant by the Arab conquerors was al-Sh?m (Arabic: , "The North"). The population of the region did not become predominantly Muslim and Arab in identity until nearly a millennium after the conquest. Following the Muslim conquest, Mu'awiya ibn Abi Sufyan (602-680 CE) of the Banu Umayya clan governed the Syrian region for twenty years, and developed the province as his family's power base. Relying on Syrian military support, Mu'awiya emerged as the victor in the First Fitna (656-661) and established the Umayyad Caliphate (661). During the Umayyad period, al-Sham was divided into five junds or military districts. The initial districts were Jund al-Urdunn (? , "military district of the Jordan"), Jund Dimashq (? , "military district of Damascus"), Jund Hims (? ?, "military district of Homs"), Jund Filastin (? ?, "military district of Palestine"), and later, Jund Qinnasrin (? ?, "military district of Qinnasrin") was carved out of the northern part of Jund Hims. Under the Umayyads, the city of Damascus was the capital of the Caliphate and Syria formed the Caliphate's metropolitan province; likewise, the elite Syrian army, the Ahl al-Sham ( ), formed the main pillar of the Umayyad government. Syria became much less important under the Abbasid Caliphate, which succeeded the Umayyads in 750. The Abbasids moved the capital first to Kufa, and then to Baghdad and Samarra, all of which were in Iraq, which consequently became their most important province. The mainly Arab Syrians were marginalized by Iranian and Turkish forces who rose to power under the Abbasids, a trend which also expressed itself on a cultural level. Under Harun al-Rashid (r. 786-809), the northern parts of Jund Qinnasrin were detached to form a new jund, called al-Awasim (), which served as a second line of defence against Byzantine attacks, behind the actual frontier zone of the Thughur. From 878 until 905, Syria came under the effective control of the Tulunids of Egypt, but Abbasid control was re-established soon thereafter. It lasted until the 940s, when the province was partitioned between the Hamdanid Emirate of Aleppo in the north and Ikhshidid-controlled Egypt in the south. In the 960s the Byzantine Empire under Nikephoros II Phokas conquered much of northern Syria, and Aleppo became a Byzantine tributary, while the southern provinces passed to the Fatimid Caliphate after its conquest of Egypt in 969. The division of Syria into northern and southern parts would persist, despite political changes, until the Mamluk conquest in the late 13th century.
To the Arabs, this same territory, which the Romans considered Arabian, formed part of what they called Bilad al-Sham, which was their own name for Syria. From the classical perspective however Syria, including Palestine, formed no more than the western fringes of what was reckoned to be Arabia between the first line of cities and the coast. Since there is no clear dividing line between what are called today the Syrian and Arabian deserts, which actually form one stretch of arid tableland, the classical concept of what actually constituted Syria had more to its credit geographically than the vaguer Arab concept of Syria as Bilad al-Sham. Under the Romans, there was actually a province of Syria, with its capital at Antioch, which carried the name of the territory. Otherwise, down the centuries, Syria like Arabia and Mesopotamia was no more than a geographic expression. In Islamic times, the Arab geographers used the name arabicized as Suriyah, to denote one special region of Bilad al-Sham, which was the middle section of the valley of the Orontes river, in the vicinity of the towns of Homs and Hama. They also noted that it was an old name for the whole of Bilad al-Sham which had gone out of use. As a geographic expression, however, the name Syria survived in its original classical sense in Byzantine and Western European usage, and also in the Syriac literature of some of the Eastern Christian churches, from which it occasionally found its way into Christian Arabic usage. It was only in the nineteenth century that the use of the name was revived in its modern Arabic form, frequently as Suriyya rather than the older Suriyah, to denote the whole of Bilad al-Sham: first of all in the Christian Arabic literature of the period, and under the influence of Western Europe. By the end of that century it had already replaced the name of Bilad al-Sham even in Muslim Arabic usage.