Prince-Bishopric of Chur
The Prince-Bishopric of Chur (German: Hochstift Chur, Fürstbistum Chur, Bistum Chur) was an ecclesiastical principality of the Holy Roman Empire, and had Imperial immediacy. They were the leader of the League of God's House. The Prince-Bishopric of Chur controlled contiguous land from the city of Chur, to Engadin, and to Vinschgau.
The historical State must be distinguished from the Roman Catholic Diocese of Chur which still exists.
In October 1621, Colonel Baldiron of Austria attacked the Prince-Bishopric of Chur, and the League of God's House as a whole, with 8,000 men. On November 22 of the same year, Baldiron and his soldiers captured Chur. In the ensuing peace deal, Austria took the Lower Engadine from Chur, and retained the right to station troops in Chur, and use their roads. On October 27, 1624, an army of 8,000 French and Swiss soldiers attacked the Austrians stationed at Chur, lead by the marquis de Coeuvres. Because Austria had pulled much of her garrison back during spring, the 8,000 strong army quickly overtook the Austrian skeleton garrison, and seized Chur and the surrounding land. During the time of the Transalpine campaigns of the Old Swiss Confederacy, the Prince-Bishopric of Chur took control of Valtellina, Bormio, and Chiavenna.
As an ecclesiastical state, their leader was appointed by the Pope. It is, however, known that at least once, in 1440, the Bishop-elect requested confirmation from the Archbishop of Mainz, rather than the current pope, Eugenius IV. In 1441 Heinrich von Höwen, who was already the Bishop of Constance, became the Bishop of Chur as well. On 12 January 1447, Pope Eugenius IV issued a papal bull to Emperor Frederick III, allowing him to nominate bishops for Chur, for the rest of his life.