Bismuth-212
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Bismuth-212
Main isotopes of bismuth (83Bi)
Iso­tope Decay
abun­dance half-life (t1/2) mode pro­duct
207Bi syn 31.55 y ?+ 207Pb
208Bi syn 3.68×105 y ?+ 208Pb
209Bi 100% 2.01×1019 y ? 205Tl
210Bi trace 5.012 d ?- 210Po
? 206Tl
210mBi syn 3.04×106 y IT 210Bi
? 206Tl
Standard atomic weight Ar, standard(Bi)

Bismuth (83Bi) has no stable isotopes, but does have one very long-lived isotope; thus, the standard atomic weight can be given as . Although bismuth-209 is now known to be unstable, it has classically been considered to be a "stable" isotope because it has a half-life of approximately 2.01×1019 years, which is more than a billion times the age of the universe. Besides 209Bi, the most stable bismuth radioisotopes are 210mBi with a half-life of 3.04 million years, 208Bi with a half-life of 368,000 years and 207Bi, with a half-life of 32.9 years, none of which occur in nature. All other isotopes have half-lives under 1 year, most under a day. Of naturally occurring radioisotopes, the most stable is radiogenic 210Bi with a half-life of 5.012 days.

Commercially the radioactive isotope bismuth-213 can be produced by bombarding radium with bremsstrahlung photons from a linear particle accelerator. In 1997 an antibody conjugate with Bi-213, which has a 45-minute half-life, and decays with the emission of an alpha-particle, was used to treat patients with leukemia. This isotope has also been tried in targeted alpha therapy (TAT) program, to treat a variety of cancers.[2] Bismuth-213 is also found on the decay chain of uranium-233 which is the fuel "bred" by thorium reactors.

List of isotopes

Nuclide
[n 1]
Historic
name
Z N Isotopic mass (u)
[n 2][n 3]
Half-life
[n 4]
Decay
mode

[n 5]
Daughter
isotope

[n 6]
Spin and
parity
[n 7][n 8]
Natural abundance (mole fraction)
Excitation energy[n 8] Normal proportion Range of variation
184Bi 83 101 184.00112(14)# 6.6(15) ms 3+#
184mBi 150(100)# keV 13(2) ms 10-#
185Bi 83 102 184.99763(6)# 2# ms p 184Pb 9/2-#
? (rare) 181Tl
185mBi 70(50)# keV 49(7) µs ? 181Tl 1/2+
p 184Pb
186Bi 83 103 185.99660(8) 14.8(7) ms ? 182Tl (3+)
?+ (rare) 186Pb
186mBi 270(140)# keV 9.8(4) ms ? 182Tl (10-)
?+ 186Pb
187Bi 83 104 186.993158(16) 32(3) ms ? (50%) 183Tl 9/2-#
?+ (50%) 187Pb
187m1Bi 101(20) keV 320(70) µs 1/2+#
187m2Bi 252(1) keV 7(5) µs (13/2+)
188Bi 83 105 187.99227(5) 44(3) ms ? 184Tl 3+#
?+ (rare) 188Pb
188mBi 210(140)# keV 220(40) ms ? 184Tl (10-)
?+ (rare) 188Pb
189Bi 83 106 188.98920(6) 674(11) ms ? (51%) 185Tl (9/2-)
?+ (49%) 189Pb
189m1Bi 181(6) keV 5.0(1) ms (1/2+)
189m2Bi 357(1) keV 880(50) ns (13/2+)
190Bi 83 107 189.9883(2) 6.3(1) s ? (77%) 186Tl (3+)
?+ (30%) 190Pb
190m1Bi 420(180) keV 6.2(1) s ? (70%) 186Tl (10-)
?+ (23%) 190Pb
190m2Bi 690(180) keV >500(100) ns 7+#
191Bi 83 108 190.985786(8) 12.3(3) s ? (60%) 187Tl (9/2-)
?+ (40%) 191Pb
191mBi 240(4) keV 124(5) ms ? (75%) 187Tl (1/2+)
?+ (25%) 191Pb
192Bi 83 109 191.98546(4) 34.6(9) s ?+ (82%) 192Pb (3+)
? (18%) 188Tl
192mBi 150(30) keV 39.6(4) s ?+ (90.8%) 192Pb (10-)
? (9.2%) 188Tl
193Bi 83 110 192.98296(1) 67(3) s ?+ (95%) 193Pb (9/2-)
? (5%) 189Tl
193mBi 308(7) keV 3.2(6) s ? (90%) 189Tl (1/2+)
?+ (10%) 193Pb
194Bi 83 111 193.98283(5) 95(3) s ?+ (99.54%) 194Pb (3+)
? (.46%) 190Tl
194m1Bi 110(70) keV 125(2) s ?+ 194Pb (6+, 7+)
? (rare) 190Tl
194m2Bi 230(90)# keV 115(4) s (10-)
195Bi 83 112 194.980651(6) 183(4) s ?+ (99.97%) 195Pb (9/2-)
? (.03%) 191Tl
195m1Bi 399(6) keV 87(1) s ?+ (67%) 195Pb (1/2+)
? (33%) 191Tl
195m2Bi 2311.4+X keV 750(50) ns (29/2-)
196Bi 83 113 195.980667(26) 5.1(2) min ?+ (99.99%) 196Pb (3+)
? (.00115%) 192Tl
196m1Bi 166.6(30) keV 0.6(5) s IT 196Bi (7+)
?+ 196Pb
196m2Bi 270(3) keV 4.00(5) min (10-)
197Bi 83 114 196.978864(9) 9.33(50) min ?+ (99.99%) 197Pb (9/2-)
? (10-4%) 193Tl
197m1Bi 690(110) keV 5.04(16) min ? (55%) 193Tl (1/2+)
?+ (45%) 197Pb
IT (.3%) 197Bi
197m2Bi 2129.3(4) keV 204(18) ns (23/2-)
197m3Bi 2360.4(5)+X keV 263(13) ns (29/2-)
197m4Bi 2383.1(7)+X keV 253(39) ns (29/2-)
197m5Bi 2929.5(5) keV 209(30) ns (31/2-)
198Bi 83 115 197.97921(3) 10.3(3) min ?+ 198Pb (2+, 3+)
198m1Bi 280(40) keV 11.6(3) min ?+ 198Pb (7+)
198m2Bi 530(40) keV 7.7(5) s 10-
199Bi 83 116 198.977672(13) 27(1) min ?+ 199Pb 9/2-
199m1Bi 667(4) keV 24.70(15) min ?+ (98%) 199Pb (1/2+)
IT (2%) 199Bi
? (.01%) 195Tl
199m2Bi 1947(25) keV 0.10(3) µs (25/2+)
199m3Bi ~2547.0 keV 168(13) ns 29/2-
200Bi 83 117 199.978132(26) 36.4(5) min ?+ 200Pb 7+
200m1Bi 100(70)# keV 31(2) min EC (90%) 200Pb (2+)
IT (10%) 200Bi
200m2Bi 428.20(10) keV 400(50) ms (10-)
201Bi 83 118 200.977009(16) 108(3) min ?+ (99.99%) 201Pb 9/2-
? (10-4%) 197Tl
201m1Bi 846.34(21) keV 59.1(6) min EC (92.9%) 201Pb 1/2+
IT (6.8%) 201Bi
? (.3%) 197Tl
201m2Bi 1932.2+X keV 118(28) ns (25/2+)
201m3Bi 1971.2+X keV 105(75) ns (27/2+)
201m4Bi 2739.90(20)+X keV 124(4) ns (29/2-)
202Bi 83 119 201.977742(22) 1.72(5) h ?+ 202Pb 5(+#)
? (10-5%) 198Tl
202m1Bi 615(7) keV 3.04(6) µs (10#)-
202m2Bi 2607.1(5) keV 310(50) ns (17+)
203Bi 83 120 202.976876(23) 11.76(5) h ?+ 203Pb 9/2-
? (10-5%) 199Tl
203m1Bi 1098.14(7) keV 303(5) ms IT 203Bi 1/2+
203m2Bi 2041.5(6) keV 194(30) ns 25/2+
204Bi 83 121 203.977813(28) 11.22(10) h ?+ 204Pb 6+
204m1Bi 805.5(3) keV 13.0(1) ms IT 204Bi 10-
204m2Bi 2833.4(11) keV 1.07(3) ms (17+)
205Bi 83 122 204.977389(8) 15.31(4) d ?+ 205Pb 9/2-
206Bi 83 123 205.978499(8) 6.243(3) d ?+ 206Pb 6(+)
206m1Bi 59.897(17) keV 7.7(2) µs (4+)
206m2Bi 1044.8(5) keV 890(10) µs (10-)
207Bi 83 124 206.9784707(26) 32.9(14) y ?+ 207Pb 9/2-
207mBi 2101.49(16) keV 182(6) µs 21/2+
208Bi 83 125 207.9797422(25) 3.68(4)×105 y ?+ 208Pb (5)+
208mBi 1571.1(4) keV 2.58(4) ms IT 208Bi (10)-
209Bi
[n 9][n 10]
83 126 208.9803987(16) 2.01(8)×1019 y
[n 11]
? 205Tl 9/2- 1.0000
210Bi Radium E 83 127 209.9841204(16) 5.012(5) d ?- 210Po 1- Trace[n 12]
? (1.32×10-4%) 206Tl
210mBi 271.31(11) keV 3.04(6)×106 y ? 206Tl 9-
211Bi Actinium C 83 128 210.987269(6) 2.14(2) min ? (99.72%) 207Tl 9/2- Trace[n 13]
?- (.276%) 211Po
211mBi 1257(10) keV 1.4(3) µs (25/2-)
212Bi Thorium C 83 129 211.9912857(21) 60.55(6) min ?- (64.05%) 212Po 1(-) Trace[n 14]
? (35.94%) 208Tl
?-, ? (.014%) 208Pb
212m1Bi 250(30) keV 25.0(2) min ? (67%) 208Tl (9-)
?- (33%) 212mPo
?-, ? (.3%) 208Pb
212m2Bi 2200(200)# keV 7.0(3) min >16
213Bi
[n 15][n 16]
83 130 212.994385(5) 45.59(6) min ?- (97.91%) 213Po 9/2- Trace[n 17]
? (2.09%) 209Tl
214Bi Radium C 83 131 213.998712(12) 19.9(4) min ?- (99.97%) 214Po 1- Trace[n 12]
? (.021%) 210Tl
?-, ? (.003%) 210Pb
215Bi 83 132 215.001770(16) 7.6(2) min ?- 215Po (9/2-) Trace[n 13]
215mBi 1347.5(25) keV 36.9(0.6) s IT (76.9%) 215Bi (25/2-)
?- (23.1%) 215Po
216Bi 83 133 216.006306(12) 2.17(5) min ?- 216Po (6-, 7-)
216mBi 24(19) keV 6.6(2.1) min ?- 216Po 3-#
217Bi 83 134 217.009372(19) 98.5(8) s ?- 217Po 9/2-#
217mBi 1480(40) keV 2.70(0.06) µs IT 217Bi 25/2-#
218Bi 83 135 218.014188(29) 33(1) s ?- 218Po (6-, 7-, 8-)
219Bi 83 136 219.017480(210)# 8.7(2.9) s ?- 219Po 9/2-#
220Bi 83 137 220.022350(320)# 9.5(5.7) s ?- 220Po 1-#
  1. ^ mBi – Excited nuclear isomer.
  2. ^ ( ) – Uncertainty (1σ) is given in concise form in parentheses after the corresponding last digits.
  3. ^ # – Atomic mass marked #: value and uncertainty derived not from purely experimental data, but at least partly from trends from the Mass Surface (TMS).
  4. ^ Bold half-life – nearly stable, half-life longer than age of universe.
  5. ^ Modes of decay:
  6. ^ Bold symbol as daughter – Daughter product is stable.
  7. ^ ( ) spin value – Indicates spin with weak assignment arguments.
  8. ^ a b # – Values marked # are not purely derived from experimental data, but at least partly from trends of neighboring nuclides (TNN).
  9. ^ Formerly believed to be final decay product of 4n+1 decay chain
  10. ^ Primordial radioisotope, also some is radiogenic from the extinct nuclide 237Np
  11. ^ Formerly believed to be the heaviest stable nuclide
  12. ^ a b Intermediate decay product of 238U
  13. ^ a b Intermediate decay product of 235U
  14. ^ Intermediate decay product of 232Th
  15. ^ Used in medicine such as for cancer treatment.
  16. ^ A byproduct of thorium reactors via 233U.
  17. ^ Intermediate decay product of 237Np

See also

References

  1. ^ Meija, Juris; et al. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305.
  2. ^ Imam, S (2001). "Advancements in cancer therapy with alpha-emitters: a review". International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics. 51: 271. doi:10.1016/S0360-3016(01)01585-1.

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Bismuth-212
 



 



 
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