Biu-Mandara
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Biu%E2%80%93Mandara
Biu-Mandara
Central Chadic
Geographic
distribution
Nigeria, Chad, Cameroon
Linguistic classificationAfro-Asiatic
Subdivisions
  • South
  • Hurza
  • North
Glottologbium1280[1]
Main Chadic-speaking peoples in Nigeria.

The Biu-Mandara or Central Chadic languages of the Afro-Asiatic family are spoken in Nigeria, Chad and Cameroon. The most widely spoken is Kamwe, with 300,000 speakers.

A reconstruction of Proto-Central Chadic has been proposed by Gravina (2014).[2]

Languages

Gravina (2014)

Gravina (2014) classifies Central Chadic as follows, as part of a reconstruction of the proto-language. Letters and numbers in parentheses correspond to branches in previous classifications. The greatest changes are breaking up and reassigning the languages of the old Mafa branch (A.5) and Mandage (Kotoko) branch (B.1).[3]

Jilbe was not classified, as no sources were available.

Blench (2006)

The branches of Biu-Mandara traditionally go by either names or letters and numbers in an outline format. Blench (2006) organizes them as follows:[5]

Newman (1977)

Central Chadic classification per Newman (1977):

Newman 1977

Names and locations (Nigeria)

Below is a list of language names, populations, and locations (in Nigeria only) from Blench (2019).[6]

Branch Code Primary locations
Distributions of Biu-Mandara branches in Nigeria[6]
Tera A1 Gombi LGA, Adamawa State and Biu LGA, Borno State
Bata A8 Mubi LGA, Adamawa State
Higi A3 Michika LGA, Adamawa State
Mandara A4 Gwoza LGA, Borno State and Michika LGA, Adamawa State

South

Language Branch Cluster Dialects Alternate spellings Own name for language Endonym(s) Other names (location-based) Other names for language Exonym(s) Speakers Location(s) Notes
Daba Daba Daba A single village, less than 1,000. Mostly in Cameroun Adamawa State, Mubi LGA. Between Mubi and Bahuli
Mafa Mafa Mafa (Mofa) in Nigeria. Cameroon dialects divided into West, Central and Eastern. Mofa Matakam (not recommended) 2,000 (1963), 136,000 in Cameroon (1982 SIL) Borno State, Gwoza LGA; mainly in Cameroon
Sakun Sukur Sakun, Gemasakun Gmà Sákún Sugur Adikummu Sukur 5,000 (1952); 10,000 (1973 SIL). 7 villages Adamawa State, Madgali LGA
Ga'anda cluster Tera Ga'anda Tl?ka'andata pl. Ka'and?ca Kan Mokar [name of the place where the rolling pot stopped] 7,600 (1952); 10,000 (1973 SIL);_4. Six villages Adamawa State, Gombi LGA
Kan Tera Ga'anda Gabin Tl?kan?a pl. Kanca 12 villages
F?rtata Tera Ga'anda Tl?f?rtata pl. F?rtaca 5 villages
Boga Tera Boka 5 villages Adamawa State, Gombi LGA
Hwana Tera Hona, Hwona 6,604 (1952 W&B); 20,000 (1973 SIL), estimate more than 20,000 (Blench 1987) Adamawa State, Gombi LGA, Guyuk and 30 other villages
Jara Tera Jera 4,000 (SIL) Borno State, Biu LGA; Bauchi State, Ako LGA Also refers to the languages of the Jarawan Bantu group including: the Jarawa cluster, Mbárù, Gùra, Rúhû, Gubi, Dulbu, Lábr, Kulung, and Gwa
Tera cluster Tera Tera 46,000 (SIL); 50,000 (Newman 1970) Borno State, Biu LGA; Gombe State, Gombi LGA, Kwami district, Ako LGA, Yamaltu and Ako districts, Dukku LGA, Funakaye district
Nyimatli Tera Tera Wuyo-?al?iya-Wa?e; Deba-Zambuk-Hina-Kalshingi-Kwadon [orthography based on this cluster] Yamaltu, Nimalto, Nyemathi Gombe State, Ako, Gombe, Kwami, Funakai, Yamaltu LGAs; Borno State, ?ayo LGA
Pidlimdi Tera Tera Hinna, Hina, Gh?na Borno State, Biu LGA
Bura Kokura Tera Tera Borno State, Biu LGA
Boga Tera, Eastern Boka Adamawa State, Gombi LGA
Bata cluster Bata Bata
Bwatye Bata Bata Mulyen (Mwulyin), Dong, Opalo, Wa-Duku Gboare, Bwatiye Kwaa-?waare ?waare Bachama 11,250 (1952) 20,000 (1963) Adamawa State, Numan and Guyuk LGAs, Kaduna State, north east of Kaduna town. Bacama fishermen migrate long distances down the Benue River, with camps as far as the Benue/Niger confluence.
Bata Bata Bata Koboci, Kobotschi (Koboc?, Wadi, Zumu (Jimo), Malabu, Bata of Ribaw, Bata of Demsa, Bata of Garoua, Jirai Batta, Gbwata 26,400 (1952), est. 2,000 in Cameroon; 39,000 total (1971 Welmers) Adamawa State, Numan, Song, Fufore and Mubi LGAs; also in Cameroon
Fali cluster Bata Fali Fali of Mubi, Fali of Muchella Vimtim, Yimtim 4 principal villages. Estimate of more than 20,000 (1990) Adamawa State, Mubi LGA
Vin Bata Fali Uroovin Uvin Vimtim Vimtim town, north of Mubi
Huli Bata Fali Bahuli Urahuli Huli, Hul Bahuli town, northeast of Mubi
Madzarin Bata Fali Ura Madzarin Madzarin Muchella Muchella town, northeast of Mubi
?ween Bata Fali Uram?ween Cum?ween Bagira Bagira town, northeast of Mubi
Gudu Bata Gutu, Gudo 1,200 (LA 1971) Adamawa State, Song LGA, 120 km. west of Song. Approximately 5 villages.
Gu?e Bata Gude, Goudé Mubi Cheke, Tcheke, Mapuda, Shede, Tchade, Mapodi, Mudaye, Mocigin, Motchekin 28,000 (1952), est. 20,000 in Cameroon Adamawa State, Mubi LGA; Borno State, Askira-Uba LGA; and in Cameroon
Holma Bata Holma Da Holmaci Bali Holma 4 speakers (Blench, 1987). The language has almost vanished and has been replaced by Fulfulde. Adamawa State. Spoken north of Sorau on the Cameroon border
Ngwaba Bata Gombi, Goba Fewer than 1000 Adamawa State, Gombi LGA, at Fachi and Gudumiya
Nzanyi Bata Paka, Rogede (R?gudede), Nggwoli, Hoode, Maiha, Magara, Dede, Mutidi; and Lovi in Cameroon Njanyi, Njai, Njei, Zany, Nzangi, Zani, Njeny, Jeng, Njegn, Njeng, Nzang? sg., Nzanyi pl. Jenge, Jeng, Mzangyim, Kobochi, Kobotshi 1.B Wur Nzanyi 14,000 in Nigeria (1952), 9,000 in Cameroon. Nigeria: Adamawa State, Maiha LGA. Cameroon: West of Dourbeye near Nigerian border in Doumo region, Mayo-Oulo Subdivision, Mayo-Louti Division, North Province.
Ziziliv?kan Bata Ziliv? ÀmZírív Fali of Jilbu 'a few hundred' in Cameroon Adamawa State, Mubi LGA, Jilbu town; and in Cameroon

North

Language Branch Cluster Dialects Alternate spellings Own name for language Endonym(s) Other names (location-based) Other names for language Exonym(s) Speakers Location(s) Notes
Huba Bura Luwa H?ba Huba Huba Chobba Kilba 32,000 (1952); 100,000 (1980 UBS) Adamawa State, Hong, Maiha, Mubi and Gombi LGAs
Margi Bura Central: Margi babal = 'Margi of the Plain' around Lasa, Margi Dz?r?u = 'Margi near the Hill öu' around Gulak; Gwàrà; Mlgwí (Mulgwe, Molgheu); Wúrgà (Urga); South Margi is counted as a separate language and is more closely related to Huba Marghi, Margyi Màrgí Màrgí For Margi, Margi South and Putai: 135,000 (1955); 200,000 (1987 UBS) Borno State, Askira-Uba and Damboa LGAs; Adamawa State, Madagali, Mubi and Michika LGAs
Nggwahyi Bura Ngwaxi, Ngwohi One village Borno State, Askira-Uba LGA
Putai Bura Margi West Margi Putai = 'West Margi', Margi of Minthla Language dying out, but ethnic population large Borno State, Damboa LGA
Margi South Bura Wamdiu, Hildi Margi ti nt?m For Margi, Margi South and Putai: 135,000 (1955) Borno State, Askira-Uba LGA; Adamawa State, Mubi and Michika LGAs Hoffmann (1963) relates the language of Margi South to Huba rather than to Margi.
Bura-Pabir Bura Bura Pela (Hill Bura), Bura Hyil Hawul (Plains Bura) Bourrah, Burra, Babir, Babur Mya Bura Two peoples with one language: the Bura and the Pabir Kwojeffa, Huve, Huviya 72,200 (1952 W&B), 250,000 (1987 UBS) Borno State, Biu and Askira-Uba LGAs
Cibak Bura Chibak, Chibuk, Chibbuk, Chibbak, Kyibaku, Kibaku Cíbk, Kikuk 20,000 (1973 SIL) Borno State, Damboa LGA, south of Damboa town
Kamwe Higi Nkafa, Dakwa (Bazza), S?na, Wula, Futu, Tili Pte, Kapsiki (Pts?k?) in Cameroon V?c?mwe Higi, Hiji, Kapsiki 64,000 (1952); 180,000 (1973 SIL) est. 23,000 in Cameroon Adamawa State, Michika LGA and into Cameroon
Mukta Higi Kamwe Mukta Mukta village Adamawa State
Kirya-Konz?l cluster Higi Kirya-Konz?l Fali Adamawa State, Michika LGA.
Kirya Higi Kirya-Konz?l myá Kákíryà ndá Kákìryà pl. Kákìryà Fali of Kiriya 7,000 est. 2007. Kirya: 13 villages
Konz?l Higi Kirya-Konz?l myá Kónzl ndá Kónzl pl. Kónzl Fali of Mijilu 9000 est. 2007. Konz?l: 15 villages
Cinene Mandara Cinene Cinene 3200 (Kim 2001) Borno State, Gwoza LGA, east of Gwoza town in the mountains. 5 villages.
Dghwe?e Mandara Dghwede, Hude, Johode, Dehoxde, Tghuade, Toghwede, Traude Dghwé?è Azaghvana, Wa'a, Zaghvana 19,000 (1963), 7,900 (TR 1970), 30,000 (1980 UBS) Borno State, Gwoza LGA
Guduf-Cikide cluster Mandara Guduf-Cikide Afkabiye (Lamang) 21,300 (1963) Borno State, Gwoza LGA, east of Gwoza town in the mountains. Six main villages.
Guduf Mandara Guduf-Cikide Guduf, Cikide (Chikide) K?dupaxa ?uxe, Gbuwhe, Lat?ghwa (Lamang), Lipedeke (Lamang). Also applied to Dghwede.
Gava Mandara Guduf-Cikide Gawa K?dupaxa Linggava, Ney Laxaya, Yaghwatadaxa, Yawotataxa, Yawotatacha, Yaxmare, Wakura
Cikide Mandara Guduf-Cikide Cikide Cikide
Gvoko Mandara G?voko Ngoshe Ndaghang, Ngweshe Ndhang, Nggweshe Ngoshe Sama 2,500 (1963); 4,300 (1973 SIL); estimated more than 20,000 (1990) Borno State, Gwoza LGA; Adamawa State, Michika LGA
Lamang cluster Mandara Lamang Laamang Waha 15,000 (TR 1970), 40,000 (1963)
Zaladva Mandara Lamang Zaladeva (Alataghwa), Dzuu?a (Dzuuba), L?ghva (Lughva), Gwózà Wakane (Gwozo) Z?l?dv? Lamang North Borno State, Gwoza LGA
Ghumbagha Mandara Lamang Hkàlà (X?dkala, Hidkala, Hitkala), Waga (Wagga, Woga, Waha) Lamang Central Borno State, Gwoza LGA; Adamawa State, Michika LGA;
Ghudavan Mandara Lamang Ghudeven, Ghud?v?n Lamang South Borno State, Gwoza LGA; Adamawa State, Michika LGA; and in Cameroon
Glavda Mandara Ngoshe (Ngweshe) Galavda, Glanda, Gelebda, G?l?vd? Wakura 20,000 (1963); 2,800 in Cameroon (1982 SIL) Borno State, Gwoza LGA; also in Cameroon
Hdi Mandara Hidé, Hide, Xide, Xedi X?di Gra, Tur, Turu, Tourou, Ftour Borno State, Gwoza LGA; Adamawa State, Michika LGA; and in Cameroon
Vemgo-Mabas cluster Mandara Vemgo-Mabas
Vemgo Mandara Vemgo-Mabas Borno State, Gwoza LGA; Adamawa State, Michika LGA; and in Cameroon
Mabas Mandara Vemgo-Mabas A single village on the Nigeria/Cameroon frontier Adamawa State, Michika LGA. 10 km. S.E. of Madagali
Wandala cluster Mandara Wandala Mandara, Ndara 19,300 in Nigeria (1970); 23,500 in Cameroon (1982 SIL) Borno State. Bama, Gwoza LGAs.
Wandala Mandara Wandala Wandala Mandara Used as a vehicular language in this locality of Nigeria and Cameroon
Mura Mandara Wandala Mura Mora, Kirdi Mora An archaic form of Wandala spoken by non-Islamized populations Uncertain if Mura is spoken in Nigeria
Malgwa Mandara Wandala Gwanje M?lgwa Malgo, Gamargu, Gamergu 10,000 (TR 1970) Borno State, Damboa, Gwoza and Konduga LGAs
Afa Mandage Afade, Affade, Afadee Afa Kotoko, Mogari Twelve villages in Nigeria, estimate Fewer than 20,000 (1990) Borno State, Ngala LGA; and in Cameroon
Jilbe Mandage Jilbe ? 100 speakers (Tourneux p.c. 1999) Borno State, a single village on the Nigeria Cameroon border, south of Dikwa
Yedina Yedina Yedina, Kuri (not in Nigeria) Yídnà Buduma 20,000 in Chad; 25,000 total (1987 SIL) Borno State, islands of Lake Chad and mostly in Chad

Numerals

Comparison of numerals in individual languages:[7]

Classification Language 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
A, A.1, Eastern Boga (Boka) ?rtà cp m?kk?n fwà ?urm?n tyxx mwut fwotfwà (2 x 4) hàhìrta (10 - 1) kum
A, A.1, Eastern Ga'anda ar?ta (r? is a trill) sur?r?i mahkn fwà rm?n m?ca mwùt(n) fw?tfwà (2 x 4) wnh?har?tà (10 - 1) ? kum
A, A.1, Eastern Hwana (Hwona) tìtal su?urì maxn fa?à tuf(ù) mki m(u) (w)ùvwà (2 x 4) wùtàrè (10 - 1) ? ?umdì?i / kum
A, A.1, Western Tera (1) dà / da r?p / rap kúnú? / kunun? vàt / vat qúrmún / qurmun ?jò? / njo? mút / mut ms? / myaasi m?m / mu?dlam à? / ?wan?
A, A.1, Western Tera (2) da rab kunuk fad ?urmun njo? mut miyasi milam ?wan
A, A.2 Nggwahyi (Ngwaxi) t makùr? fwr? tufù nkw mur?fà ncis m?ða kuma
A, A.2, 1 Bura (Bura-Pabir) (1) ntàn? sù?à màkr fwàr ntìfù nkwà mùrfà cìsù ùmðlà kùmà
A, A.2, 1 Bura (Bura-Pabir) (2) nta? su?à makùr? fwar? ntufù kwà murfà nc?sù ?ðà kuma
A, A.2, 1 Cibak (Bura-Pabir) t / patù / dukù sudæ? makùr? fwò?u tufù kwà mur?fwæ? ntsisù m?ðæ kuma
A, A.2, 1 Putai (West Margi) duku / t / du?u su?à / f? makùr fu / fwo?u tufù kwa / kw mu?uf? / muf cisù / nc?sù ?ðà / mð kuma / kum?
A, A.2, 2 Huba (Kilba) dzà? m?tlù màkr / màk?rù fò?ù tùfù kwà mfà cìsù dlà kùmà / kùm
A, A.2, 2 Central Marghi ta? / pa?u / t?t?kù mù / sà? makùr? fwo?ù nt?fù kwà mfù ntsisù ?ðù kumu
A, A.3 Bana (1) tán bák máhkán cíf kwá? brfà? ds mís m
A, A.3 Bana (2) kw?ti? bak? mahkan fa cif? kwa? mb?rf d?gh?s m?sli? m
A, A.3 Hya (Higi Ghye) pað? / tan? ?a mà?k? fwa wcivi kway mbùr?ùfy tù?ùzi wti mùy
A, A.3 Kafa (1) ?ìkkòó ?ùttòó kèèmó áwùddò ?ùùtt?òó ?írìttòó ?ábààttòó ?ímìttòó jììt'ijòó àà?ìròó
A, A.3 Kafa (2) ?ikko ?utto keemo ?auddo ?uut?t?o ?iritto ?abaatto ?imitto jiit'ijo ?aa?iro
A, A.3 Kafa (3) ?ikko ?utto keemo auddo uuo ?iritto ?abaatto ?imitto yiit't'io aa?iro
A, A.3 Kwame (Fali of Kiria) ?utàn / tan?y ?wuku? màkun(u) fwa?ù? (w)c?fu? ?kwa? mbùrùf tù?ùsù? ?w?ti(?yì) ?wùm(ù)
A, A.3 Psikye (Kapsiki) kwete bake mahekene w?fa?e mc?fe ?kwa?e mberefa?e de?hese mesli me?e
A, A.4, Lamang Hadi (Hdi) tèkw hìs hkn fwá? hùtáf mkú? ndfá? tás tmbáy / timbe ?wà?
A, A.4, Lamang Lamang tíuwá / tálá ?ésá kná ùfá?á táfá m?kwá / m?kuwá lfá?á tásá tmbáyá ?wá?á
A, A.4, Lamang Vemgo-Mabas pál / tékw hés xkn úfá? xútáf ku lfà? tàs tmbàj wà?
A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Glavda Cinene pàlà bù?à xkr?à ùfà?à ?k?àxà ù?ifà tsà vaslambà?à klawà
A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Glavda Dghwede t?t?kwì, tekwè micè x?kùrè fi?ì ði?i kwe wu?ìfi te / t?x?se t?mb ?wàa
A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Glavda Glavda páll bwa xk?r? ufá? ?kwax u?if txs vaslamba? klàáwá
A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Glavda Guduf-Gava tek?è / kitak?è mitsè x?k?r?è ùfè ?k?axè ù?ifè t?sè vaslambà?è kul?kè
A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Glavda Gvoko palò / tekò xecò x?k?arò fwa?ò ?a?ò ?koyò ntfaò tasò tmbayò
A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Mandara Wandala (Malgwa) pálle búwa kyé ufá?e iibé unkwé vúye tiise máslmane k?láwa
A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Podoko Podoko kut?ra s?ra mak?ra ufa?a zlama m?kuwa mafa za met?r?ce j?ma
A, A.5 Cuvok (Tchouvok) (1) ámtà átèw máákàr fá? ?ám máákwà táslà táákàr t kùràw
A, A.5 Cuvok (Tchouvok) (2) amta, mta ?tw maakar fa? ?am makwa tas?la tsaakar ty? kuraw
A, A.5 Dugwor bek s?la makar m?fa? zlam mukwa tsela tsaamakar tseu? kurow
A, A.5 Zulgo-Gemzek ilík súla màk?r ?fá? zl?m ndílík t?s?lá tsàmàkr tswí? kúrwá
A, A.5 North Giziga ?là cêw mà:kàr m?fà? ?òm mérkê? tà:rnà dà:?àfà? n?òltêr krô
A, A.5 South Giziga plá cúw máakr mfá? ?úm mérké? tàrnà dàaàfá? (2 x 4) ? n?òltír kúrú
A, A.5 Mada ftek séla mahka? wfaàë zzlaèm mokkoà slaasélaà slalahkaàr oàboèlmboè dzmoèkw
A, A.5 Mafa stá? cew / cecew makár fá? zlám mokwa tsára? tsamaka? coe kula
A, A.5 Matal (1) dì / t?kùl? slà màkr ùfà? ù mùk m?f m?tì?ì? làdà kùlù
A, A.5 Matal (2) dìì / tékùlá slà mákr úfà? ùw mkwá mdf mtì? ládá kùlù
A, A.5 Mbuko k?rtek tsew maaka? fu?o ?ara mb?rka tsuw?e dz?maaka? d?su?o kuro
A, A.5 Mefele mtá cécèw màhkár fwà? ?àm mòkwá tslà? táhkàr t dùmbók
A, A.5 Merey ntê súlò màkàr fà? ?àm m?kô tàslà tsà:mà:kàr krôw
A, A.5 Mofu-Gudur te? / ték (counting), pál (enumation) t?sew máakar m?fa? ?am maakwáw maasála daaafa? ?am-leték / ?am-lete? kúráw
A, A.5 North Mofu nettey suho makar fá? ?àm mukó taaslá tsamakà? ts kuro
A, A.5 Moloko bl tw màká? ùfá? / mfá? m mk s ?áláká? hlmb k
A, A.5 Muyang bílì? t màhkr f ?àm mk ?dskl? áláxkr ?mblmb? kr?
A, A.5 Ouldeme (Wuzlam) l brt?âw / t?âw m?kár mfá? ?àm m?k? ssl? frfá? ál?ìt k?l?
A, A.5 Vame (Pelasla) ?ìl t?âw máàn fú:?àw ?á:rà márkà t?í?à ?í:r táhk dm
A, A.6 Sukur (1) klí bák ma?ken fwá? ?ám mkwà má?áf tkz míçí / mí?í ?wàn
A, A.6 Sukur (2) tá.í bák' má:kn fwá? ?ám mkkwà má?af tkk?z mi wà?
A, A.7 Buwal t?l bk mxkt? ft? dzn kx lt? dzmxkt? (5 + 3) dzft? (5 + 4) wm
A, A.7 Daba takan s?ray maka? fa? je?in koh cesire? c?fa?c?fa? (4 + 4) d?rfatakan (10 - 1) ?u? ta ta
A, A.7 Gavar tt? bk mxkt? ft? dzn kx lít? dzmxkt? (5 + 3) dzft? (5 + 4) wm
A, A.7 Mbedam nt b?k m?xk mf d?n ?kw?x di?li? dm?xk (5 + 3) ts?f (5 + 4) w?m
A, A.7 Mina (Hina) ?tá sulo? mahka? mfá? dz?bu? ?kú dìsùlù? fá?fá? (2 x 4) varkanta ?
A, A.8 Bacama (Bachama) hi?ò k?pe ?wkun fw?t tuf tukwltaka (5 + 1) tukòluk?pe (5 + 2) fwfw?t (2 x 4) mbi?ò (10 - 1) bw
A, A.8 Fali (Fali of Mucella) tn / ?ar?m? bek / buk màxk(u) fw tuf yiw mbùr?fu? tù?us ?ùm
A, A.8 Gude tèen / rû? brá?y màkk ?fwá? tf kùwà mf ts ìllí? pu?
A, A.8 Gudu (Gudo) ? boe?k m?:kn fwád tùf kw? m?skàt? frfw?d (2 x 4) ?tpn
A, A.8 Jimi (Mwulyen) hí?ò / tn búk / bík mwàkn / maxkn fwad / fwát' túhf / tf túkwàldèáká / brf túkwàló?pé / ts fwáfwà? (2 x 4) / mì?í? táàmbí?ò / pó?
A, A.8 Nzanyi buk md?f?l fw?t tuf kw?x mskat fw?fwa?è (2 x 4) t?m?e?è pu
A, A.8 Zizilivakan l?m sul màxku fw?y mùxtyup kwa? mbùrfì? tìs mðì ?umù
B, B.1, Buduma Buduma (Yedina) tté ?àknn hí?áy híì hràkk tùlwár wósk hílí?ár hákkán
B, B.1, Kotoko Proper, North Afade srj? s ?àrk ?ì?í vn?rk (2 x 3) kàtùl vìy (2 x 4) ?kàn
B, B.1, Kotoko Proper, North Mpade pál ?òkúrò è ?éns? ?éskót? túlùr < Kanuri jìlì?à?è (2 x 4) jìàtálà kán
B, B.1, Kotoko Proper, South Lagwan sdia, tkú ?s?á k?r e í v?nk?r / v?nk?r (2 x 3) kátul vá?e (2 x 4) di?i?én ?kan
B, B.2 Mbara kítáy, ?ów mòk ùhú pú?ú í?ím ?írá mì?zàk / mù?izàk mìsílày / mùsílày wá:?á dò:?ò / dòk
B, B.2 Musgu kítáy, ?áw súlú pú?ú ?ím ?à:rà mì?zàk / mù?zàk mìtwìs / mìtìs tíklá dò:?ò
C Gidar tákà súlà hókù pó?ò ?ré bùhúl dòdòpórò (2 x 4) ? váyták (10 - 1) ? kláù

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Biu-Mandara". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ Gravina, Richard. 2014. Proto-Central Chadic Lexicon. Webonary.
  3. ^ Gravina, R. (2014). The phonology of Proto-Central Chadic: the reconstruction of the phonology and lexicon of Proto-Central Chadic, and the linguistic history of the Central Chadic languages (Doctoral dissertation, LOT: Utrecht).
  4. ^ Languages are closer to each other than are those of the northern branch
  5. ^ Blench, 2006. The Afro-Asiatic Languages: Classification and Reference List (ms)
  6. ^ a b Blench, Roger (2019). An Atlas of Nigerian Languages (4th ed.). Cambridge: Kay Williamson Educational Foundation.
  7. ^ Chan, Eugene (2019). "The Afro-Asiatic Language Phylum". Numeral Systems of the World's Languages.

References


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