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A selection of biwa in a Japanese museum
The biwa () is a Japanese short-necked fretted lute, often used in narrative storytelling. The biwa is the chosen instrument of Benten, goddess of music, eloquence, poetry, and education in Japanese Shinto.
The origin of biwa is Chinese pipa. It arrived in Japan in two forms. Since that time, the number of biwa types has more than quadrupled. Guilds supporting biwa players, particularly the biwa hoshi, helped proliferate biwa musical development for hundreds of years. Biwa h?shi performances overlapped with performances by other biwa players many years before heikyoko and continued until today. This overlap resulted in a rapid evolution of the biwa and its usage and made it one of the most popular instruments in Japan.
Yet, in spite of its popularity, the Onin War and subsequent Warring States Period disrupted biwa teaching and decreased the number of proficient users. With the abolition of Todo in the Meiji period, biwa players lost their patronage.
Furthermore, reforms stemming from the Meiji Restoration led to massive, rapid industrialization and modernization. Japan modeled its development on Europe and the US, praising everything Western and condemning everything native. Traditions identifiably Japanese became associated with terms like backwards or primitive. Such associations even extended into areas like art and music, and the biwa.
By the late 1940s, the biwa, a thoroughly Japanese tradition, was nearly completely abandoned for Western instruments; however, thanks to collaborative efforts by Japanese musicians, interest in the biwa is being revived. Japanese and foreign musicians alike have begun embracing traditional Japanese instruments, particularly the biwa, in their compositions. While blind biwa singers no longer dominate the biwa, many performers continue to use the instrument in traditional and modern ways.
The biwa came to Japan in the 7th century and it was evolved from the Chinese instrument pipa, while the pipa itself was derived from similar instruments in Western Asia. This type of biwa is called the gaku-biwa and was used in gagaku ensembles and is the most commonly known type. While the route is unclear, another type of biwa found its way to the Kyushu region, and this thin biwa (called m?s?-biwa or k?jin-biwa) was used in ceremonies and religious rites. Before long, as the Ritsury? state collapsed, the court music musicians were faced with the reconstruction and sought asylum in Buddhist temples. There they assumed the role of Buddhist monks and encountered the m?s?-biwa. They incorporated the convenient aspects of m?s?-biwa, its small size and portability, into their large and heavy gaku-biwa, and created the heike-biwa, which, as indicated by its namesake, was used primarily for recitations of The Tale of the Heike.
Through the next several centuries, players of both traditions intersected frequently and developed new music styles and new instruments. By the Kamakura period (1185-1333), the heike-biwa had emerged as a popular instrument. The heike-biwa could be described as a cross between both the gaku-biwa and m?s?-biwa. It retained the rounded shape of the gaku-biwa and was played with a large plectrum like the m?s?-biwa. The heike biwa was also small, like the m?s?-biwa (actually smaller) and was used for similar purposes.
While the modern satsuma-biwa and chikuzen-biwa both find their origin with the m?s?-biwa, the Satsuma biwa was used for moral and mental training by samurai of the Satsuma Domain during the Warring States period, and later in general performances. The Chikuzen biwa was used by Buddhist monks visiting private residences to perform memorial services, not only for Buddhist rites, but also for telling entertaining stories and news while accompanying themselves on the biwa, and this form of storytelling was thought to be spread in this way.
Not much seems to have been written about biwas from roughly the 16th century to the mid-19th century. What is known is that three main streams of biwa emerged during that time: zato (the lowest level of the state-controlled guild of blind biwa players), shifu (samurai style), and chofu (urban style). These styles emphasized (biwa-uta) -- vocalization with biwa accompaniment -- and formed the foundation for (edo-uta) styles such as shinnai and kota [Allan Marett 103]. From these styles also emerged the two principal survivors of the biwa tradition: satsuma-biwa and chikuzen-biwa [Waterhouse 156]. From roughly the Meiji Era (1868-1912) until the Pacific War, the satsuma-biwa and chikuzen-biwa were popular across Japan, and, at the beginning of the Showa Era (1925-1989), the nishiki-biwa was created and gained popularity. Of the remaining biwa traditions, only higo-biwa remains a style almost solely performed by blind persons in the post-war era. The higo-biwa is closely related to the heike-biwa and, similarly, relies on an oral-narrative tradition focusing on wars and legends.
By the middle of the Meiji period (1868-1912), improvements had been made on the instruments and easily understandable songs were composed in quantity. In the beginning of the Taisho period (1912-1926), the Satsuma biwa was modified into the Nishiki biwa which was popular among female players at the time. With this the biwa met a great period of prosperity, and the songs themselves were not just about the Tale of the Heike but songs connected to the Sino-Japanese War and the Russo-Japanese War such as "Takeo Hirose", "Hitachimaru", "203 Hill" gained popularity. However, the playing of the biwa nearly became extinct during the Meiji period as Western music and instruments became popular, until players such as Tsuruta Kinshi and others revitalized the genre with modern playing styles and collaborations with Western composers.
There are more than seven types of biwa, characterised by number of strings, sounds it could produce, type of plectrum, and their use. As the biwa does not play in tempered tuning, pitches are approximated to the nearest note.
Generally speaking, biwa is considered one of Japan`s principal traditional instruments, and, as such, it has both influenced and been influenced by other traditional instruments and compositions throughout its long history in Japan. The following section will situate the biwa in the context of traditional Japanese music.
The general term used for music in Japan is (ongaku). ? means sound or tone, and ? means music or enjoyment. Both characters together technically refer to all forms of music but, more recently, evoke images of modern (post-Pacific War) ensembles and compositions. Traditional music styles have their own designations.
Broken apart, ? means "(home) country" and, ? means "music". The characters together are thought to be an abbreviation of the term ?, which literally means "music of Japan". The term Hogaku is also derived from ?, which translates as "national music of modern times." It is usually defined as traditional Japanese Music. Japan`s Ministry of Education classifies Hogaku as a category separate from other traditional forms of music, such as Gagaku (court music) or Sh?my? (Buddhist chanting), but most ethnomusicologists view Hogaku, in a broad sense, as the form from which the others were derived [Sosnoski 34]. Outside of ethnomusicology, however, Hogaku usually refers to Japanese music from around the 17th to mid 19th Centuries [Sugiura 1]. In Hogaku, musical instruments usually serve as accompaniments to vocal performances. Song dominates hogaku, and the overwhelming majority of hogaku compositions are vocal. In this context, the biwa was one of the prominent instruments [Dean 156].
Since ? means elegance, Gagaku literally means elegant music and generally refers to musical instruments and music theory imported to Japan from China and Korea from 500-600 CE. Gagaku is divided into two main categories: Old Music and New Music. Old Music refers to music and musical compositions from before the Chinese Tang Dynasty (618-906), and New Music refers to music and compositions produced during or after Tang, including music brought from various regions in China and Korea [Randel 339] [The International Shakuhachi Society].
Gagaku was usually patronized by the imperial court or the shrines and temples. Gagaku ensembles were composed of string, wind, and percussion instruments, where string and wind instruments were more respected and percussion instruments were considered lesser instruments. Among the string instruments, the biwa seems to have been the most important instrument in gagaku orchestral performances [Garfias, Gradual Modifications of the Gagaku Tradition 16].
The two characters: ? and ?, literally mean "voice" and "clear". Sh?my? is a translation of the Sanskrit word, sabda-vidya, which means "the (linguistic) study of language". Sh?my? is a kind of chanting of Buddhist scriptures syllabically or melismatically set to melodic phrasing, usually performed by a male chorus. It is said to have come to Japan in the early 9th Century [Randel 270].
While biwa was not used in sh?my?, the style of biwa singing is closely tied to sh?my?, especially m?s? and heike style biwa singing [Matisoff 36]. Both sh?my? and m?s? are rooted in Buddhist rituals and traditions. Before arriving in Japan, sh?my? was used in Indian Buddhist. The m?s?-biwa was also rooted in Indian Buddhism, and the heike-biwa, as a predecessor to the m?s?-biwa, was the principle instrument of the biwa h?shi, who were blind Buddhist priests.
Generally speaking, biwas have four strings. That being said, modern satsuma and chikuzen biwas might have five strings. The first string is thickest and the fourth string is thinnest (the second string is the thickest on the chikuzen-biwa, and the fourth and fifth strings are the same thickness on five-stringed chikuzen and satsuma-biwas) [Minoru Miki 75]. The varying string thickness creates different timbres when stroked from different directions.
In biwa, tuning is not fixed. General tones and pitches can fluctuate up or down entire steps or microtones [Dean 157]. When singing in a chorus, biwa singers often stagger their entry and often sing through non-synchronized, heterophony accompaniment [Dean 149]. In solo performances, a biwa performer sings monophonically, with melismatic emphasis throughout the performance. These monophonic do not follow a set harmony. Instead biwa singers tend to sing with a flexible pitch without distinguishing soprano, alto, tenor, or bass roles. This singing style is complemented by the biwa, which biwa players use to produce short glissandi throughout the performance [Morton Feldman 181]. Biwa singing style tends to be nasal, particularly when singing vowels, the consonant ?, and notes containing "g" (e.g., ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, , , ). Also, biwa performers vary the volume of their voice between barely audible to very loud (rarely deafening). Since biwa performances were generally for small groups, singers did not need to project their voices as do opera singers in the Western tradition
Biwa music is based on a pentatonic scale (sometimes referred to as a five-tone or five-note scale), meaning that each octave contains five notes. This scale sometimes includes supplementary notes, but the core remains pentatonic. The rhythm in biwa performances allows for a broad flexibility of pulse. Songs are not always metered, although more modern collaborations are metered. Notes played on the biwa usually begin slow and thin and progress through gradual accelerations, increasing and decreasing tempo throughout the performance. The texture of biwa singing is often described as "sparse."
The plectrum also contributes to the texture of biwa music. Different sized plectrums produced different textures; for example, the plectrum used on a moso-biwa was much larger than that used on a gaku-biwa, producing a harsher, more vigorous sound [Morley 51]. The plectrum is also critical to creating the sawari sound, which is particularly utilized with satsuma-biwas [Rossing 181]. What the plectrum is made of also changes the texture, with ivory and plastic plectrums creating a more resilient texture to the wooden plectrum`s twangy hum [Malm 215].
Biwa usage in Japan has declined greatly since the Heian period. Outside influence, internal pressures, and socio-political turmoil redefined biwa patronage and biwa image; for example, the Onin War during the Muromachi period (1338-1573) and the subsequent Warring States period (15th-17th centuries) disrupted the cycle of tutelage for heikyoku performers. As a result, younger musicians turned to other instruments and interest in biwa music decreased. Even the biwa hoshi transitioned to other instruments such as the shamisen (a three stringed lute) [Gish 143].
Interest in the biwa revived during the Edo period (1600-1868) when Tokugawa Ieyasu unified Japan and established the Tokugawa Shogunate. Ieyasu favored biwa music and became a major patron. He helped strengthen biwa guilds (called Todo) by financing them and allowing them special privileges (142). Shamisen players and other musicians found it financially beneficial to switch to the biwa, and, as they crossed over, they brought new styles. The Edo period proved to be one of the most prolific and artistically creative periods for the biwa in its long history in Japan (143).
In 1868, the Tokugawa Shogunate collapsed, giving way to the Meiji period and the Meiji Restoration. In Meiji, the samurai class was abolished, and the Todo lost their patronage. Biwa players no longer enjoyed special privileges and were forced to support themselves. At the beginning of Meiji (1868), it was estimated that there were at least one hundred traditional court musicians in Tokyo. Yet, by the 1930s, there were only forty-six traditional court musicians in Tokyo. A quarter of these musicians died in the war. Life in Post-war Japan was difficult, and many musicians abandoned their music in favor of more sustainable livelihoods [Garfias, Gradual Modifications of the Gagaku Tradition 18].
While many styles of biwa flourished in the early 1900s (e.g., Kindai-biwa from the 1900s-1930s), the cycle of tutelage was broken yet again. Currently, there are no direct means of studying biwa in many biwa traditions [Ferranti, Relations between Music and Text in "Higo Biwa"_ The "Nagashi" Pattern as a Text-MusicSystem 150]. Even higo-biwa players, who were quite popular in the early 20th century, may no longer have a direct means of studying oral composition, as the bearers of the tradition have either died or are no longer able to play. Kindai biwa still retains a significant number of professional and amateur practitioners, but zato, heike, and moso-biwa styles have all but died out [Tokita 83].
As biwa music declined in post-Pacific War Japan, many Japanese composers and musicians found ways to revitalize interest in it. They recognized that studies in music theory and music composition in Japan almost entirely consisted in Western theory and instruction. Beginning in the late 1960s, these musicians and composers began to incorporate Japanese music and Japanese instruments into their compositions; for example, one composer, Toru Takemitsu, collaborated with Western composers and compositions to include the distinctly Asian biwa. His well-received compositions such as November Steps, which incorporates biwa heikyoku with Western orchestral performance, revitalized interest in the biwa and sparked a series of collaborative efforts by other musician in genres ranging from jpop and enza to shin-hougaku and gendaigaku [Tonai 25].
Other musicians, such as Yamashika Yoshiyuki, who is considered by most ethnomusicologists to be the last of the biwa hoshi, preserved scores of songs that were almost lost forever. Yamashika, born in the late Meiji, continued the biwa hoshi tradition until his death in 1996. Beginning in the late sixties to the late eighties, composers and historians from all over the world visited Yamashika and recorded many of his songs. Up to that time, the biwa hoshi tradition of songs was completely an oral tradition. When Yamashika died in 1996, the era of the biwa hoshi tutelage died with him, but the music and genius of that era continues thanks to his recordings [Sanger].