Bob Fosse
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Bob Fosse

Bob Fosse
Bob Fosse 1963 (cropped).jpg
Fosse in the musical Pal Joey (1963)
Born
Robert Louis Fosse

(1927-06-23)June 23, 1927
Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
DiedSeptember 23, 1987(1987-09-23) (aged 60)
Resting placeAshes scattered in the Atlantic Ocean off the shores of Napeague/Amagansett, New York[1]
40°48?N 72°36?W / 40.8°N 72.6°W / 40.8; -72.6
Occupation
  • Actor
  • choreographer
  • dancer
  • director
  • screenwriter
Years active1947-1987
Mary Ann Niles
(m. 1947; div. 1951)

(m. 1952; div. 1959)

(m. 1960; sep. 1971)
Ann Reinking (1972-1978)
ChildrenNicole Fosse

Robert Louis Fosse (; June 23, 1927 - September 23, 1987) was an American dancer, musical-theatre choreographer, actor, theatre director, and filmmaker. [2] He directed and choreographed musical works on stage and screen, including the stage musicals The Pajama Game (1954), Damn Yankees (1955), How to Succeed in Business Without Really Trying (1961), Sweet Charity (1966), Pippin (1972), and Chicago (1975). His films include Sweet Charity (1969), Cabaret (1972), Lenny (1975), and All That Jazz (1979).

Fosse's distinctive style of choreography included turned-in knees and "jazz hands." He is the only person ever to have won Oscar, Emmy, and Tony awards in the same year (1973). He was nominated for four Academy Awards, winning Best Director for Cabaret, and won the Palme D'Or in 1980 for All That Jazz. He won a record eight Tonys for his choreography, as well as one for direction for Pippin.

Early life

Fosse was born in Chicago, Illinois, on June 23, 1927, to a Norwegian American father, Cyril Kingsley Fosse, a traveling salesman for The Hershey Company,[3] and an Irish American mother Sarah Alice "Sadie" Fosse, née Stanton. He was the fifth of six children.[2][4][5]

He was drawn to dance, and took lessons. When he was 13 years old, Fosse performed professionally in Chicago with Charles Grass, under the name The Riff Brothers.[6] Recruited into the United States Navy toward the end of World War II, Fosse was placed in the variety show Tough Situation, which toured military and naval bases in the Pacific.

After the war, Fosse moved to New York City with the ambition of being the new Fred Astaire. His first stage role was in Call Me Mister, where he met his first wife and dance partner, Mary Ann Niles (1923-1987).[7] Fosse and Niles were regular performers on Your Hit Parade in its 1950-1951 season. Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis saw their act in New York's Pierre Hotel and scheduled the couple to appear on The Colgate Comedy Hour. In a 1986 interview Fosse told an interviewer, "Jerry started me doing choreography. He gave me my first job as a choreographer and I'm grateful for that."[8]

Fosse was signed to an MGM contract in 1953.[9] His early screen appearances as a dancer included Give a Girl a Break, The Affairs of Dobie Gillis and Kiss Me Kate, all released in 1953. Fosse's choreography of a short dance sequence in Kiss Me Kate and dance with Carol Haney brought him to the attention of Broadway producers.[10]

Career

1940s

During the late 1940s and early 1950s, Fosse transitioned from film to theatre. In 1948, Tony Charmoli danced in Make Mine Manhattan, but gave the part to Fosse when the show toured nationally. Charmoli also found Fosse work as a dancer on the TV shows he was working on when Fosse returned from the tour.[11]

1950s

In 1953, Fosse appeared in the M-G-M musical, Kiss Me Kate starring Howard Keel, Kathryn Grayson, and Ann Miller. Fosse played Hortensio within The Taming of the Shrew dance sequences.

In 1954, Fosse choreographed his first musical, The Pajama Game, followed by George Abbott's Damn Yankees in 1955. It was while working on Damn Yankees that he first met rising star Gwen Verdon, whom he married in 1960. For her work in Damn Yankees, Verdon won her first Tony Award for Best Actress in a Musical in 1956.[12] She had previously won a Tony for Best Performance by a Featured Actress in a musical for Can-Can (1954). In 1957, Fosse choreographed New Girl in Town, also directed by Abbott, and Verdon won her second Tony Award for Best Actress in a Musical in 1958.[12]

In 1957, Fosse choreographed the film version of The Pajama Game starring Doris Day. The next year, Fosse appeared in and choreographed the film version of Damn Yankees, in which Verdon reprised her stage triumph as the character Lola. Fosse and Verdon were partners in the mambo number "Who's Got the Pain".

1960s

In 1960, Fosse directed and choreographed the musical Redhead.[13] For his work on Redhead, Fosse won the Tony Award for Best Choreography while Verdon won her third Tony Award for Best Actress in a Musical. Redhead won the Tony Award for best musical.[14] Fosse's next feature was supposed to be the musical The Conquering Hero based on a book by Larry Gelbart, but he was replaced as director/choreographer.

In 1961, Fosse choreographed the satirical Broadway musical How to Succeed in Business Without Really Trying starring Robert Morse. The story revolves around an ambitious man, J. Pierrepont Finch (Morse), who, with the help of the book How to Succeed in Business Without Really Trying, rises from window washer to chairman of the board of the World Wide Wicket Company. The musical was an instant hit.[15][16]

He choreographed and directed Verdon in Sweet Charity in 1966.[17]

Fosse directed five feature films. His first, Sweet Charity (1969) starring Shirley MacLaine, is an adaptation of the Broadway musical he had directed and choreographed.

1970s

In 1972, Fosse directed his second theatrical film, Cabaret starring Liza Minnelli, Michael York and Joel Grey. The film is based on the 1966 musical of the same name. In the traditional manner of musical theater, called an "integrated musical", every significant character in the stage version sings to express his or her own emotion and to advance the plot. In the film version, the musical numbers are entirely diegetic. The film focuses on a young romance between Sally Bowles (Minnelli), who performs at the Kit Kat Klub, and a young British idealist played by York. The story set at the backdrop of the rise of Nazi Germany. The film was an immediate success among audiences and critics alike. The film went on to win eight Academy Awards, including Best Director. Fosse won that award over Francis Ford Coppola, who had been nominated for The Godfather, starring Marlon Brando. Liza Minnelli and Joel Grey both won Oscars for their roles in Cabaret.[18]

In 1973, Fosse's work on Pippin won him the Tony Award for Best Direction of a Musical.[19] He was director and choreographer of Chicago in 1975, which also starred Verdon.[20]

In 1974, Fosse directed Lenny, a biographical movie about comedian Lenny Bruce starring Dustin Hoffman. Fosse was again nominated for Best Director, Hoffman also received a nomination for Best Actor.

Fosse performed a song and dance in Stanley Donen's 1974 film version of The Little Prince. According to AllMusic, "Bob Fosse stops the show with a slithery dance routine."[21] In 1977, Fosse had a small role in the romantic comedy Thieves.[22]

In 1979, Fosse co-wrote and directed a semi-autobiographical film All That Jazz (1979), starring Roy Scheider, which portrayed the life of a womanizing, drug-addicted choreographer and director in the midst of triumph and failure. Ann Reinking appears in the film as the protagonist's lover, protégée and domestic partner. All That Jazz won four Academy Awards, earning Fosse his third Oscar nomination for Best Director. It also won the Palme d'Or at the 1980 Cannes Film Festival. In 1980, Fosse commissioned documentary research for a follow-up feature exploring the motivations of people who become performers.

1980s

Fosse's final film, Star 80 (1983), was a biographical movie about Dorothy Stratten, a Playboy Playmate who was murdered. The film is based on a Pulitzer Prize-winning article. The film was screened out of competition at the 34th Berlin International Film Festival.[23]

In 1986, Fosse wrote, choreographed and directed the Broadway production of Big Deal, which was nominated for five Tony awards, winning for best choreography.

Fosse began work on a film about gossip columnist Walter Winchell that would have starred Robert De Niro as Winchell. The Winchell script was written by Michael Herr. Fosse died before starting the Winchell project.

Innovations

Notable distinctions of Fosse's style included the use of turned-in knees, the "Fosse Amoeba", sideways shuffling, rolled shoulders and jazz hands.[24] With Astaire as an influence, Fosse used props such as bowler hats, canes and chairs. His trademark use of hats was influenced by his own self-consciousness, according to Martin Gottfried in his biography of Fosse, "His baldness was the reason that he wore hats, and was doubtless why he put hats on his dancers."[15] Fosse used gloves in his performances because he did not like his hands. Some of his most popular numbers include "Steam Heat" (The Pajama Game) and "Big Spender" (Sweet Charity). The "Rich Man's Frug" scene in Sweet Charity is another example of his signature style.

For Damn Yankees, Fosse was inspired by the "father of theatrical jazz dance", Jack Cole.[15] In 1957, Verdon and Fosse studied with Sanford Meisner to develop a better acting technique. According to Michael Joosten, Fosse once said: "The time to sing is when your emotional level is too high to just speak anymore, and the time to dance is when your emotions are just too strong to only sing about how you 'feel.'"[25] In Redhead, Fosse used one of the first ballet sequences in a show that contained five different styles of dance: Fosse's jazz, a cancan, a gypsy dance, a march and an old-fashioned English music hall number. During Pippin, Fosse made the first television commercial for a Broadway show.[10]

Personal life

Fosse married dance partner Mary Ann Niles (1923-1987) on May 3, 1947, in Detroit.[26] In 1952, a year after he divorced Niles, he married dancer Joan McCracken in New York City;[27] this marriage lasted until 1959, when it also ended in divorce.[28]

His third wife was dancer and actress Gwen Verdon, whom he met choreographing the Damn Yankees, in which she starred.[29] In 1963, they had a daughter, Nicole Fosse, who later became a dancer and actress. Fosse's extramarital affairs put a strain on the marriage and by 1971 they were separated, although they remained legally married until his death in 1987. Verdon never remarried.[15][30][31]

Fosse met dancer Ann Reinking during the run of Pippin in 1972. According to Reinking, their romantic relationship ended "toward the end of the run of Dancin" (1978).[32]

During rehearsals for The Conquering Hero in 1961 Fosse was revealed to have epilepsy when he suffered a seizure onstage.[15]

Death

Fosse died of a heart attack on September 23, 1987, at George Washington University Hospital while the revival of Sweet Charity was opening at the nearby National Theatre.[2] He had collapsed in Verdon's arms near the Willard Hotel.[33]

As he had requested, Verdon and Nicole Fosse scattered his ashes in the Atlantic Ocean off Quogue, Long Island, where Fosse had been living with his girlfriend of four years.[1]

Work

Theatre

Year Title Role Venue Ref.
1947 Call Me Mister Performer - Chorus National Tour
1948 Make Mine Manhattan Performer National Tour
1950 Dance Me a Song Performer - Dancer Royale Theatre, Broadway [34]
1951 Billion Dollar Baby Actor - Champ Watson Alvin Theatre, Broadway [35]
1952 Pal Joey Actor - Joey Evans (understudy) Broadhurst Theatre, Broadway
1954 The Pajama Game Choreographer
1955 Damn Yankees Choreographer Adelphi Theatre, Broadway
1956 Bells Are Ringing Co-choreographer Alvin Theatre, Broadway
1958 New Girl in Town Choreographer 46th Street Theatre, Broadway
1959 Redhead Director, Choreographer
1961 The Conquering Hero Choreographer (uncredited) ANTA Theatre, Broadway
1961 How to Succeed in Business Without Really Trying Choreographer 46th Street Theatre, Broadway
1962 Little Me Co-director, Co-choreographer Lunt-Fontanne Theatre, Broadway
1963 Pal Joey Joey Evans New York City Center, Broadway
1965 Pleasures and Palaces Director, Choreographer Fisher Theatre, Detroit [36]
1966 Sweet Charity Director, Choreographer Palace Theatre, Broadway
1972 Pippin Book (uncredited), Director, Choreographer Minskoff Theatre, Broadway
1972 Liza Director, Choreographer Winter Garden Theatre, Broadway [37]
1975 Chicago Book; Director, Choreographer 46th Street Theatre, Broadway
1978 Dancin' Director, Choreographer Ambassador Theatre, Broadway
1986 Big Deal Director, Choreographer Broadway Theatre, Broadway

Film

Year Title Director Writer Choreographer Actor Role Ref.
1953 The Affairs of Dobie Gillis Yes Charlie Trask
1953 Kiss Me Kate Yes Hortensio
1953 Give a Girl a Break Yes Bob Dowdy
1955 My Sister Eileen Yes Frank
1957 The Pajama Game Yes
1958 Damn Yankees Yes Yes Mambo Dancer (uncredited)
1969 Sweet Charity Yes Yes
1972 Cabaret Yes Yes
1974 The Little Prince Yes Yes Actor - The Snake
1974 Lenny Yes Yes The Interviewer (voice, uncredited)
1977 Thieves Yes Mr. Day
1979 All That Jazz Yes Yes Yes
1983 Star 80 Yes Yes

Television

Year Title Role Notes Ref.
1959 Startime Director Episode: The Wonderful World of Entertainment
1972 Liza with a Z Director Television special

Awards and nominations

At the 1973 Academy Awards, Fosse won the Academy Award for Best Director for Cabaret. That same year he won Tony Awards for directing and choreographing Pippin and Primetime Emmy Awards for producing, choreographing and directing Liza Minnelli's television special Liza with a Z. Fosse was the only person to win all three major industry awards in the same year.

Year Award Category Work Result
1972 Academy Award Best Director Cabaret Won
1974 Lenny Nominated
1979 All That Jazz Nominated
Best Original Screenplay Nominated
1955 Tony Award Best Choreography The Pajama Game Won
1956 Damn Yankees Won
1957 Bells are Ringing Nominated
1958 New Girl in Town Nominated
1959 Redhead Won
1963 Best Direction of a Musical Little Me Nominated
Best Choreography Won
1964 Best Actor in a Musical Pal Joey Nominated
1966 Best Direction of a Musical Sweet Charity Nominated
Best Choreography Won
1973 Best Direction of a Musical Pippin Won
Best Choreography Won
1976 Best Book of a Musical Chicago Nominated
Best Direction of a Musical Nominated
Best Choreography Nominated
1978 Best Direction of a Musical Dancin' Nominated
Best Choreography Won
1986 Best Book of a Musical Big Deal Nominated
Best Direction of a Musical Nominated
Best Choreography Won
1973 Primetime Emmy Award Outstanding Variety, Music or Comedy Liza with a Z Won
Outstanding Directorial Achievement in Comedy, Variety or Music Won
Outstanding Choreography Won
1973 Golden Globe Award Best Director - Motion Picture Cabaret Nominated
1975 Best Director - Motion Picture Lenny Nominated
1973 British Academy Film Award Best Direction Cabaret Won
1973 Drama Desk Award Outstanding Director Pippin Won
Outstanding Choreography Won
1978 Outstanding Choreography Dancin' Won
1986 Director of a Musical Sweet Charity Nominated
1986 Director of a Musical Big Deal Nominated
Outstanding Choreography Won
1975 Cannes Film Festival Palme d'Or Lenny Nominated
1979 All That Jazz Won
1973 Directors Guild of America Award Outstanding Directorial Achievement in Motion Pictures Cabaret Nominated
1973 Outstanding Directorial Achievement in Musical/Variety Liza with a Z Won
1980 Outstanding Directorial Achievement in Motion Pictures All That Jazz Nominated

Legacy

Fosse was inducted into the National Museum of Dance in Saratoga Springs, New York on April 27, 2007. The Los Angeles Dance Awards, founded in 1994, were called the "Fosse Awards", and are now called the American Choreography Awards. The Bob Fosse-Gwen Verdon Fellowship was established by their daughter, Nicole Fosse, in 2003 at the Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater.

Reinking and Verdon kept Fosse's unique choreography alive after his death. Reinking played the role of Roxie Hart in the New York revival of Chicago, which opened in 1996. She choreographed the dances in Fosse style for that revival. In 1999, Verdon served as artistic consultant on a Broadway musical designed to showcase examples of classic Fosse choreography. Called simply Fosse, the three-act musical revue was conceived and directed by Richard Maltby, Jr. and Reinking, and choreographed by Reinking and Chet Walker. Verdon and Fosse's daughter, Nicole, received a special thanks credit. The show won a Tony for best musical.[38]

Fosse/Verdon is an 8-part American miniseries starring Sam Rockwell as Fosse and Michelle Williams as Verdon. The series, which tells the story of the couple's troubled personal and professional relationship, is based on the biography Fosse by Sam Wasson. It premiered in eight parts on April 9, 2019, on FX. At the 71st Primetime Emmy Awards, Fosse/Verdon received seventeen nominations, including Outstanding Limited Series and acting nominations for Rockwell, Williams, and Qualley. Williams won the Emmy for Outstanding Actress in a Limited Series.

References

  1. ^ a b Gottfried 2003, pp. 449-50.
  2. ^ a b c McQuiston, John T. (September 24, 1987). "Bob Fosse, Director and Choreographer, Dies". The New York Times. Robert Louis Fosse was born in Chicago on June 23, 1927, the son of a vaudeville entertainer. He began performing on the vaudeville circuit as a child, and by the age of 13 he was a seasoned veteran of many burlesque shows. ...
  3. ^ Gottfried 2003, p. 11.
  4. ^ "Hardcover in Brief". The Washington Post. November 18, 1990. Archived from the original on November 2, 2012. Retrieved 2008.
  5. ^ Garraty, John Arthur; Carnes, Mark C. (1999). American National Biography. ISBN 9780195127874.
  6. ^ Winkler, Kevin (March 22, 2018). "Big Deal". Oxford Scholarship Online. 1. doi:10.1093/oso/9780199336791.001.0001. ISBN 978-0-19-933679-1.
  7. ^ Wasson, Sam (2013). Fosse. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 44. ISBN 978-0-547-55329-0.
  8. ^ "Showbiz Today Jerry Lewis Roasted". givethechanceakid. 1986.
  9. ^ "Choreographer and Director Bob Fosse Dies". Los Angeles Times.
  10. ^ a b "Bob Fosse Biography" PBS; accessed January 27, 2010
  11. ^ Barnes, Mike (August 10, 2020). "Tony Charmoli, Emmy-Winning Choreographer for Mitzi Gaynor and Shirley MacLaine, Dies at 99". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 2020.
  12. ^ a b "Gwen Verdon Awards" ibdb.com, retrieved April 27, 2019
  13. ^ 'Redhead' PBS, accessed January 27, 2010
  14. ^ "'Redhead' Broadway" Playbill, accessed January 12, 2016
  15. ^ a b c d e Gottfried, Martin (1998). All His Jazz: The Life and Death of Bob Fosse. Da Capo Press. pp. 49, 65, 81, 85, 104, 116, 124-125, 130, 139. ISBN 978-0-306-81284-2.)
  16. ^ "That's Dancin: Fosse on Broadway, How To Succeed in Business Without Really Trying" PBS.
  17. ^ "'Sweet Charity' Broadway". Playbill, accessed January 12, 2016
  18. ^ "'Cabaret' Awards" Turner Classic Movies, accessed April 20, 2016
  19. ^ "'Pippin' Broadway" Playbill, accessed January 12, 2016
  20. ^ "'Chicago' Broadway" Archived December 20, 2015, at the Wayback Machine Playbill, accessed January 12, 2016
  21. ^ Brenner, Paul. [The Little Prince at AllMovie] accessed January 12, 2016
  22. ^ Eder, Richard (February 12, 1977). "Movie Review. 'Thieves'". The New York Times. Archived from the original on August 21, 2014.
  23. ^ "Berlinale: 1984 Programme". berlinale.de. Retrieved 2011.
  24. ^ Cutcher, Jenai (May 1, 2005). Bob Fosse. The Rosen Publishing Group. pp. 21, 27. ISBN 978-1-4042-0640-3.
  25. ^ Joosten, Michael (September 4, 2009). Dance and Choreography. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 4. ISBN 978-1-4358-5261-7. Retrieved 2017.
  26. ^ Michigan, Marriage Records, 1867-1952
  27. ^ New York City, Marriage Indexes, 1907-1995
  28. ^ Sagolla, Lisa Jo. The girl who fell down: a biography of Joan McCracken (2003), UPNE; ISBN 1-55553-573-9, p. 204: "They were wed in a simple civil ceremony by New York's deputy chief clerk at 3:30 pm on December 30, 1952."
  29. ^ Fosse/Verdon, Episode 2 "Who's Got the Pain?"
  30. ^ Berkvist, Robert (October 19, 2000). "Gwen Verdon, Redhead Who High-Kicked Her Way to Stardom, Dies at 75". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009.
  31. ^ Pacheo, Patrick (November 3, 2000). "Remembering Gwen Verdon - Bob Fosse's inspiration was perhaps Broadway's greatest dancer". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 2009.
  32. ^ Pacheco, Patrick. "Every Step She Takes" Los Angeles Times, May 3, 1998
  33. ^ Hall, Charles and Stevenson, Douglas. "Bob Fosse Dies After Collapsing on D.C. Street" The Washington Post, September 24, 1987
  34. ^ https://www.ibdb.com/broadway-production/dance-me-a-song-1855
  35. ^ IBDb profile: Max Goberman; accessed November 21, 2017.
  36. ^ Suskin, Steven. "Frank Loesser" Show Tunes : The Songs, Shows, and Careers of Broadway's Major Composers (2010), (books.google.com), Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-988615-6, p.242
  37. ^ "Liza with a 'Z". The Internet Movie Database. 2008. Retrieved 2009.
  38. ^ "Fosse". Internet Broadway Database.

Further reading

External links


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