Border Barrier
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Border Barrier

A border barrier is a separation barrier that runs along or near an international border. Such barriers are typically constructed for border control purposes such as curbing illegal immigration, human trafficking, and smuggling.[1][2] Some such barriers are constructed for defence or security reasons. In cases of a disputed or unclear border, erecting a barrier can serve as a de facto unilateral consolidation of a territorial claim that can supersede formal delimitation. A border barrier does not usually indicate the location of the actual border, and is usually constructed unilaterally by a country, without the agreement or cooperation of the other country.

Examples of border walls include the ancient Great Wall of China, a series of walls separating China from nomadic empires to the north. The construction of border barriers increased in the early 2000s; half of all the border barriers built since World War II which ended in 1945, were built after 2000.[3]

List of current barriers

Border Barriers in the World

Note: The table can be sorted alphabetically or chronologically using the Sort both.gif icon.

Name Countries affected Built and maintained by Date built Length (km) Type References
Argentina-Paraguay Argentina and Paraguay Argentina 2014 1.3 Anti-illegal immigration [4]
Austrian border barrier Austria, Italy, and Slovenia Austria 2015 15 Anti-illegal immigration [5]
Belize-Guatemala Belize and Guatemala Belize Proposed, agreed N/A Disputed territory and anti-illegal immigration
Botswana-Zimbabwe Botswana and Zimbabwe Botswana 2003 500 Protection of livestock and anti-illegal immigration [6]
Brunei-Malaysia Brunei and the city of Limbang, Malaysia Brunei 2005 20 Anti-illegal immigration
Bulgaria-Turkey barrier Bulgaria and Turkey Bulgaria 2014 30 Anti-illegal immigration [7]
Calais border barrier United Kingdom and France United Kingdom and France 2016 1 [8]
Ceuta border fence Spain and Morocco Spain 2001 8 Anti-illegal immigration
China-Hong Kong Hong Kong and China Hong Kong early 1960s 32 Anti-illegal immigration
China-Macau Macau and China Macau Anti-illegal immigration
Costa Rica-Nicaragua Costa Rica and Nicaragua Costa Rica Proposed N/A Anti-illegal immigration
Green Line (Cyprus) Cyprus and Northern Cyprus Cyprus and the United Nations 1964 180 Buffer Zone
Chinese-Korean border fence China and North Korea China 2011 1,416 Anti-illegal immigration [9]
Denmark-Germany border fence Denmark and Germany Denmark 2019 70 Wildlife control [10]
Dominican-Haiti border fence Dominican Republic and Haiti Dominican Republic Announced 2021 N/A Anti-illegal immigration and crime [11]
Egypt-Gaza barrier Egypt and Gaza Strip Egypt 1979, subterranean barrier under construction 3.1 Anti-terrorism and anti-illegal immigration [12]
Estonia-Russia barrier Estonia and Russia Estonia 2018 110 Against Russian intrusion, illegal trade and illegal immigration [13]
Greece-Turkey border Greece and Turkey Greece 2012 200 Anti-illegal immigration [14][15][16][17]
North Macedonia-Greece barrier North Macedonia and Greece North Macedonia 2015 30 Anti-illegal immigration [18]
Malaysia-Thailand border Thailand and Malaysia Thailand Proposed 650 Anti-terrorism
Melilla border fence Spain and Morocco Spain 1998 11 Anti-illegal immigration
Hungary-Serbia barrier Hungary and Serbia Hungary 2015 175 Anti-illegal immigration [19][20][21][22][23]
Hungary-Croatia barrier Hungary and Croatia Hungary 2015 41 Anti-illegal immigration
Hungary-Slovenia barrier Hungary and Slovenia Hungary 2015 Anti-illegal immigration [24][25][26][27]
India-Bangladesh barrier India and Bangladesh India Under construction 3,268 Anti-illegal immigration
India-Myanmar barrier India and Myanmar India Under construction 1,624 Anti-drug smuggling and anti-terrorism
India-Pakistan barrier India and Pakistan India 2004 550 Anti-terrorism [28]
Iran-Pakistan barrier Iran and Pakistan Iran Under construction 959 Anti-terrorism and Anti-drug smuggling [29][30][31]
Kazakhstan-Uzbekistan barrier Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan Kazakhstan 2006 45 Anti-drug smuggling
Korean Demilitarized Zone North Korea and South Korea North Korea and United Nations Command 1953 248 Conflict zone
Kruger National Park South Africa and Mozambique South Africa 1975 120 Anti-illegal immigration
South Africa-Zimbabwe Border South Africa and Zimbabwe South Africa 2000s 225 Anti-illegal immigration, anti-drug smuggling, anti-weapon smuggling [32][33][34][35]
Kuwait-Iraq barrier Kuwait and Iraq Kuwait 1991 193 Conflict zone
Latvia-Russia border fence Latvia and Russia Latvia 2015 90 Anti-illegal immigration [36]
Libya-Tunisia barrier Libya and Tunisia Tunisia TBA 460 Anti-terrorism, Anti-illegal immigration
Lithuania-Kaliningrad border fence Lithuania and Russia Lithuania 2017 130 Anti-smuggling, anti-illegal immigration, anti-invasion [37]
Moroccan Western Sahara Wall Morocco and Western Sahara Morocco 1980 2,700 Conflict zone [38][39]
Norway-Russia border barrier Norway and Russia Norway 2016 200 Anti-illegal immigration [40]
Pakistan-Afghanistan barrier Pakistan and Afghanistan Pakistan 2021 2,670 Anti-terrorism, anti-illegal immigration, anti drug smuggling [41][42]
Saudi-Yemen barrier Saudi Arabia and Yemen Saudi Arabia 2004 75 Anti-illegal immigration
Saudi-Iraq barrier Saudi Arabia and Iraq Saudi Arabia 2014 900 Anti-illegal immigration and conflict zone [43][44][45]
Slovenia-Croatia barrier Slovenia and Croatia Slovenia 2016 220 Anti-illegal immigration [46][47][48]
Serbia-North Macedonia barrier Serbia and North Macedonia Serbia 2020 240 Anti-illegal immigration [49]
Turkey-Syria border barrier Turkey and Syria Turkey 2018 828 Anti-terrorism, anti-illegal immigration and smuggling [50]
Turkey-Iran border barrier Turkey and Iran Turkey 2019 144 Anti-terrorism, anti-illegal immigration and smuggling
Turkmen-Uzbekistan barrier Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan Turkmenistan 2001 1,700 Anti-illegal immigration
Ukraine-Russia barrier Ukraine and Russia Ukraine Under construction 2,000 Anti Weapon Smuggling and Conflict zone
United Arab Emirates-Oman barrier United Arab Emirates and Oman United Arab Emirates 2018 410 Anti-illegal immigration
Mexico-United States barrier United States and Mexico United States Partially Constructed 1,000 Anti-illegal immigration and smuggling [51][52][53][54][55][56][57][58][59][60]
Uzbek-Afghanistan barrier Uzbekistan and Afghanistan Uzbekistan 2001 209 Anti-illegal immigration
Uzbek-Kyrgyzstan barrier Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan Uzbekistan 1999 870 Conflict zone
Israel-West Bank barrier Israel and Palestine Israel Partially Completed 708 Anti-terrorism (disputed territory) [61]
Israel-Egypt barrier Israel and Egypt Israel 2013 245 Anti-illegal immigration
Israel-Lebanon barrier Israel and Lebanon Israel 2018 11 Conflict zone
Israel-Gaza barrier Israel and Gaza Strip Israel 1994 N/A Anti-terrorism

Border barriers in history

Map of the Roman Empire, along with locations of limes
The extent of the Ming dynasty and its walls, which formed most of what is called the Great Wall of China today

Antiquity

Middle Ages

Early modern period

Defunct barriers in modern times

Other

See also

References

  1. ^ "Return of the Fence: Immigration crisis spurs renewed calls for border barrier". Fox News. 2014-07-09. Retrieved .
  2. ^ "Border Barrier". Frontline. Retrieved .
  3. ^ Friedman, Uri (19 May 2016). "A World of Walls". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2016.
  4. ^ "A Wall Divides Latin America -- but Not the One You're Thinking of".
  5. ^ "Mikl-Leitner baut "Grenz-Zaun"". Oe24.at. 2015-01-12. Retrieved .
  6. ^ Phillips, Barnaby (2004-03-30). "Zimbabwe crisis spills over border". BBC News. Retrieved 2010.
  7. ^ Caroline Mortimer. Bulgaria builds final part of razor wire fence to keep out refugees. The Independent. 4 August 2015.
  8. ^ McAuley, James (29 September 2016). "France and Britain just beat Donald Trump to building a border wall". Washington Post. Retrieved 2016.
  9. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on August 20, 2012. Retrieved 2012.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  10. ^ Bolongari, Kait (28 January 2019). "Denmark building wild boar fence along border with Germany". Politico.
  11. ^ "Dominican Republic to construct fence along border with Haiti". news.yahoo.com. Reuters. February 27, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  12. ^ Fraser, Christian (9 December 2009). "Egypt starts building steel wall on Gaza Strip border". BBC. Retrieved 2017.
  13. ^ Estonia 'plans Russia border fence' amid Ukraine tensions. BBC News. 28 August 2015
  14. ^ Danae Leivada. Why Greece Shut The Shortest, Safest Route For Migrants And Refugees. The Huffington Post. Published on 09/24/2015.
  15. ^ "TURKEY - Greece to put up anti-migrant wall on Turkish border". Hurriyetdailynews.com. 2011-01-02. Retrieved .
  16. ^ ? / theInsider (2010-03-14). " ? ? ? ?!". Theinsider.gr. Retrieved .
  17. ^ "Frontex signs seat agreement with Greece". Archived from the original on March 16, 2012. Retrieved 2013.
  18. ^ Yannis Behrakis. Police, migrants clash on Macedonia border; soldiers build fence Archived 2015-12-02 at the Wayback Machine. Reuters. November 28, 2015.
  19. ^ "Hungary to fence off border with Serbia to stop migrants". Reuters. 2015-06-17. Archived from the original on 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2015.
  20. ^ "Reinforcement of temporary border barrier starts on the Hungarian-Serbian border". Retrieved 2017.
  21. ^ Hungary's PM plans 'more massive' fence to keep out migrants. theguardian.com. 26 August 2016.
  22. ^ "Hungary Completes 2nd Border Fence Meant to Stop Migrants". Fox News (from the Associated Press). April 28, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  23. ^ "Hungary Completes Second Fence to Keep Out Migrants". Deutsche Welle. April 28, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  24. ^ A szlovén határnál is készül drótakadály Archived 2017-09-01 at the Wayback Machine Híradó, September 24, 2015 (in Hungarian)
  25. ^ Tekercsekben áll a lebontott drótakadály a magyar-szlovén határon Archived 2015-10-12 at the Wayback Machine Blikk, September 26, 2015 (in Hungarian)
  26. ^ It is possible every time that Hungary starts to build the fence on the Romanian border. nol.hu, 05 March, 2016.
  27. ^ "Elfogott migránsok száma - dátum szerinti lekérdezés". A Magyar Rend?rség hivatalos honlapja (in Hungarian). Archived from the original on 2017-09-03. Retrieved .
  28. ^ "BSF activates 'laser walls' along India-Pakistan border".
  29. ^ "Debate on Iran border wall disallowed". dawn.com. May 27, 2007. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved .
  30. ^ "BAE Systems to deliver 145 M777 Ultra Light Howitzers to the Indian Army". Archived from the original on November 18, 2012. Retrieved 2013.
  31. ^ "South Asia | World's barriers: Pakistan-Iran". BBC News. 2009-11-05. Retrieved .
  32. ^ "RSA - Mozambique Border Fence". Home.telkomsa.net. Retrieved .
  33. ^ Monteiro, Tania (1990-01-27). "'Hundreds killed' by South Africa's border fence". New Scientist. Retrieved .
  34. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on May 23, 2012. Retrieved 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  35. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on January 24, 2009. Retrieved 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  36. ^ Jeremy Bender. A nation bordering Russia is building a fence along a third of its border. Business Insider. Published on December 16, 2015.
  37. ^ Lithuania builds Russian border fence as Nato boosts Baltic defences. The Irish Times. January 18, 2017.
  38. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on October 27, 2007. Retrieved 2007.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  39. ^ United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. "UNHCR - Western Sahara Atlas Map - June 2006". Unhcr.org. Retrieved .
  40. ^ Osborne, Samuel (25 August 2016). "Norway to build border fence with Russia to keep out refugees". The Independent.
  41. ^ "Pakistan doing all it can in terror war - Musharraf". Turkish weekly. February 28, 2006. Archived from the original on October 9, 2006. Retrieved . WASHINGTON (Reuters) - Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf said on Monday his country was doing all it could in the U.S.-led war against terrorism and offered to fence and mine its border with Afghanistan to stem Taliban infiltration. "I have been telling Karzai and the United States, 'Let us fence the border and let us mine it.' Today I say it again. Let us mine their entire border. Let us fence it. It's not difficult", Musharraf said, referring to Afghan President Hamid Karzai.
  42. ^ Plett, Barbara (March 1, 2006). "Musharraf interview: Full transcript". BBC News. Retrieved . Now the other thing that I've said: if he thinks everyone is crossing from here, I've been saying let us fence the border and let us also mine the border. We are experts at mining, they should mine the border on their side. We will fence it on our side. If that is all right I am for it, so that they are not allowed to go across at all. And then let us see what is happening in Afghanistan. Why don't they agree to this, I've said this openly many times before, they don't do it, for whatever are their reasons. I know how effective the fence, the Indian fence which is about 1,800 kilometres, and they are fencing the Kashmir mountains also, it is so difficult. Why are they doing that, are they mad, they are spending billions of rupees. Because it is effective. Let's fence this border so that this blame game is killed once for ever.
  43. ^ Theodoulou, Michael (6 April 2006). "Saudis plan to fence off border with chaos". Timesonline.co.uk. Archived from the original on 29 September 2006.
  44. ^ Spencer, Richard (2015-01-14). "Revealed: Saudi Arabia's 'Great Wall' to keep out Isil". Telegraph. Retrieved .
  45. ^ [1][dead link]
  46. ^ Surk, Barbara (11 November 2015). "Slovenia Starts Building Border Fence to Stem Flow of Migrants". New York Times. Retrieved 2015.
  47. ^ "40 kilometres of new fences will be built in Slovenia in 2019" (in Slovenian). 24ur.com. Retrieved 2019.
  48. ^ "One third of south border in fences" (in Slovenian). 24ur. Retrieved 2020.
  49. ^ "RFE: Serbia builds wire fence on border with North Macedonia". rs.n1info.com/. N1. Retrieved 2020.
  50. ^ "Turkey-Syria border wall to be completed by spring - Turkey News".
  51. ^ "Trump-O-Meter: | PolitiFact". politifact.com. Retrieved .
  52. ^ Davis, Julie Hirschfeld (2017-01-25). "Trump Orders Mexican Border Wall to Be Built and Plans to Block Syrian Refugees". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved .
  53. ^ Kerns, Jen (2018-02-03). "New polling proves President Trump is right -- 'Americans are #Dreamers, too'". The Hill. News Communication. 61 percent think that current border security is inadequate, and ... 54 percent support a physical barrier
  54. ^ De Pinto, Jennifer; Backus, Fred; Khanna, Kabir; Salvanto, Anthony (20 January 2018). "Most Americans support DACA, but oppose border wall - CBS News poll". CBS. Most Americans ... oppose building a border wall, but seven in 10 Republicans support it.
  55. ^ Salvanto, Anthony; De Pinto, Jennifer (21 December 2018). "Most Americans don't support building the wall". CBS. 59 percent of Americans oppose building a wall... A large majority of Republicans support the wall -- 79 percent. A majority of independents -- 66 percent -- oppose the wall, and 84 percent of Democrats are also against it.
  56. ^ Kurtzleben, Danielle (23 January 2018). "What The Latest Immigration Polls Do (And Don't) Say". NPR. Given the choice between "open borders" ... and a "secure border," 79 percent of Americans agreed that the U.S. needs "secure borders." ... In a different poll, 58 percent of Americans support "building a combination of physical and electronic barriers across the U.S.-Mexico border."
  57. ^ "Government Shutdown 2019". POLITICO. Retrieved .
  58. ^ Baker, Peter (2019-02-15). "Trump Declares a National Emergency, and Provokes a Constitutional Clash". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved .
  59. ^ Gramlich, John. "How Americans see illegal immigration, the border wall and political compromise". Pew Research Center. Pew Research Center. Retrieved 2019.
  60. ^ Norman, Jim (4 February 2019). "Solid Majority Still Opposes New Construction on Border Wall". Gallup News. Gallup. Retrieved 2019.
  61. ^ "Behind the Wall - Shuafat Refugee Camp". Ir Amim. Archived from the original on May 23, 2012.
  62. ^ Learned, J.G. "The Hmong: Part 1 Legend and History". North-by-North-East.com. Archived from the original on December 8, 2010. Retrieved 2013.

External links and further reading


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