Boycotts of Israel in Sports
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Boycotts of Israel in Sports

Boycotts of Israel in sports refer to various diqualifications and denial of Israeli athletes. As part of a more or less systematic boycott of Israel, Israeli athletes and teams have been barred from some competitions. In many international competitions, where Israel does take part, such as the Olympic Games, some Arab and Muslim competitors avoid competing against Israelis.[1] Some[vague] countries even compel their athletes not to compete against Israelis or in Israel.

Contemporary examples

The Israel Football Association was a member of the Asian Football Confederation (AFC) group of FIFA between 1954 and 1974. Because of the Arab League boycott of Israel, several Arab and Muslim states refused to compete against Israel. The political situation culminated in Israel winning the 1958 World Cup qualifying stage for Asia and Africa without playing a single game, forcing FIFA to schedule a playoff between Israel and Wales to ensure the Israeli team did not qualify without playing at least one game (which Wales won). In 1974, Israel was expelled from the AFC group by a resolution initiated by Kuwait, which was adopted by AFC by a vote of 17 to 13 with 6 abstentions.[2] To get around the ban, Israel was admitted as an associated member of the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) in 1992, and was admitted as a full member of the UEFA group in 1994. Supporters of the Boycott Divestment Sanctions (BDS) movement have advocated for Israel to be expelled or suspended from FIFA, without success.[3] On 24 August 2018 the President of the Palestinian Football Association (PFA) Jibril Rajoub was fined CHF 20,000 (US$20,333) and banned from FIFA matches for a year for inciting hatred and violence against an Argentinian team proposing to play a friendly match in Israel.[4]

In 2007, Mushir Salem Jawher, a Kenyan-born marathoner, lost his Bahraini citizenship after competing in the Tiberias Marathon in Israel, but later that year reacquired Bahraini citizenship and competed again in the Tiberias Marathon in 2008, 2009 and 2010.

In 2009, there was an increased number of full or partial boycotts of Israeli athletes, probably related to Arab/Leftist fury over Operation Cast Lead. Israeli tennis star Shahar Peer was denied a visa to participate in a tournament in Dubai, leading to comments from stars like Serena Williams and Andy Roddick that were critical of the Dubai authorities' decision, with Roddick later pulling out of a tournament in Dubai. After a response that included a cable network cancelling its coverage of the event and a large fine for the Dubai Tennis Authorities, Dubai did issue a visa for Israeli tennis player Andy Ram to compete that year.

Tennis authorities in Malmö, Sweden wanted to cancel a Davis Cup match between Israel and Sweden because of anti-Israel riots and because the city council did not want the Israeli team competing in the city. The tennis authorities were unwilling to accept a Swedish forfeit, which would have eliminated Sweden from the competition, and decided to bar spectators from the match instead. As a punishment, the city was banned from hosting Davis Cup matches for five years.[5]

Supporters of the BDS movement also tried and failed to have Israeli teams barred from the 2012 London Olympics and the 2016 Rio Olympics. At the 2016 Rio Olympics, Egypt's Islam El Shehaby provoked outrage after refusing to shake hands with Israeli judoka, Or Sasson.[6]

Despite the country's international political issues, a growing[vague] number of Arab athletes are joining domestic Israeli sports teams and the international teams, including the Israel national football team. These include Rifaat Turk, Najwan Ghrayib, Walid Badir, Salim Toama, Abbas Suan, amongst others. Another Arab-Israeli, Johar Abu Lashin, born in Nazareth, was an IBO Welterweight champion.

In October 2017, when an Israeli won gold in an international judo championship in the United Arab Emirates, officials refused to fly the Israeli flag and play the Israeli national anthem, instead playing the official music of the International Judo Federation (IJF) and flying the IJF's logo.[6] The UAE also banned Israeli athletes from wearing their country's symbols on uniforms,[6] having to wear IJF uniforms. Other contestants received similar treatment. In December 2017, seven Israelis were denied visas by Saudi Arabia to compete in an international chess tournament.[7]

On 24 May 2018, a team of international jurists, including Harvard Professor Alan Dershowitz, announced a plan to petition the international Court of Arbitration for Sport against the exclusion of Israel's flag and anthem at sporting events in Arab countries.[8] In July 2018, the International Judo Federation cancelled two grand slam judo events, in Tunis and Abu Dhabi, because Israeli flags were not allowed to be raised.[9] Also in July 2018, the World Chess Federation said it will ban Tunisia from hosting the international chess competition in 2019 if it does not grant a visa to Israeli contestants, including a seven-year-old Israeli girl champion.[10]

Individual sporting boycott

Since the 21st century, Israeli athletes competing in tournaments have faced boycotts by athletes from Muslim countries (primarily Iran), speculated to be the result of political interferences.

Iran

Date Retired athlete's name Israeli athlete's name Sport type Event Official reason for retiring
17 February 2001[11] Hamed Malekmohammadi Yoel Razvozov judo 2001 World Judo Championships
15 August 2004 [12] Arash Miresmaeili Ehud Vaks judo 2004 Summer Olympics
22 June 2003[13] Iran national five-a-side soccer team Israel national five-a-side soccer team soccer 2003 Special Olympics World Summer Games
4 August 2005[14] Iran U-21 men national basketball team Israel U-21 men national basketball team basketball FIBA Under-21 World Championship Visa issues
28 January 2007[15] Ahmad Ksanfandi (referee) Gal Yekutiel judo 2007 Tbilisi judo Open
18 September 2007 [16] Mehdi Mohammadi Ilia Shafran amateur wrestling 2007 World Wrestling Championships
10 August 2008 [17] Mohammad Alirezaei Tom Be'eri swimming 2008 Summer Olympics Indigestion
28 July 2009[18] Mohammad Alirezaei Michael Malul swimming 2009 World Aquatics Championships
30 September 2009[19] Mohammad Hossein Ebrahimi Tomer Or fencing 2009 World Fencing Championships
1 October 2009[19][20] Ali Fadja Slava Zingerman fencing 2009 World Fencing Championships Retired from entire competition
1 October 2009 [21] Mohammad Mohazzabnia Tomer Hodorov tennis 2009 Kenya Futures F1
4 April 2010[22] Iran youth national volleyball team Israel youth national volleyball team volleyball 2010 International Volleyball Tournament Pordenone
10 April 2010[23][not in citation given] Meisam Bagheri Moty Lugassi taekwondo A-Class Belgian Open 2010
28 April 2010[24] Iran men's national table tennis team Israel men's national table tennis team table tennis 2011 Luxembourg Table Tennis championship
21 May 2010[25] Ali Shahhosseini Misha Zilberman badminton 2010 Spanish Open
15 August 2010[26] Mohammad Soleimani Gili Haimovitz taekwondo 2010 Summer Youth Olympics
4 November 2010[27] Hamed Sayyad Ghanbari Maor Hatoel fencing 2010 World Fencing Championships
4 November 2010[27] Mohammad Hossein Ebrahimi Kobi Hatoel fencing 2010 World Fencing Championships
5 November 2010[28] Hamed Sedaghati Ido Herpe fencing 2010 World Fencing Championships
5 November 2010[28] Sadegh Abedi Grigori Beskin fencing 2010 World Fencing Championships
24 July 2011[29] Mohammad Alirezaei Gal Nevo swimming 2011 World Aquatics Championships Tiredness
20 August 2011[30] Iran men's national volleyball team Israel men's national volleyball team volleyball 2011 Summer Universiade
11 September 2011 [31] Ghasem Rezaei Robert Avanesyan amateur wrestling 2011 World Wrestling Championships
18 September 2011 [32] Javad Mahjoub Or Sasson judo World Cup Tashkent 2011
10 October 2011 [33] Shervin Tolouei Oren Bassal fencing 2011 World Fencing Championships
5 November 2011 [34] Kaveh Mehrabi Misha Zilberman badminton 2011 Puerto Rico International Challenge
21 July 2015 [35] Saber Hoshmand/Abbas Pourasgari Sean Faiga/Ariel Hilman beach volleyball 2015 FIVB Grand Slam Yokohama injury
27 January 2017 [36] Majid Hassaninia Jonathan Giller karate 21st Open de Paris - Karate Premier League "what is of paramount importance to every Iranian athlete is his/her beliefs plus support for the defenseless Palestinian nation"
25 November 2017 [37] Alireza Karimi Uri Kalashnikov wrestling 2017 World U23 Wrestling Championship Lost prior match at instruction of coach.

Elsewhere

Date Country origin Retired athlete's name Israeli athlete's name Sport type Event Official reason for retiring
26 July 2001[38]  Tunisia Sadok Khalki Arik Zeevi judo 2001 World Judo Championships
6 July 2006[39]  Indonesia Indonesia Fed Cup team Israel Fed Cup team tennis 2006 Fed Cup
19 July 2007 [40]  Kuwait Mohammed al Ghareeb Amir Weintraub tennis 2007 Togliatti challenger Stomach problems
15 August 2008 [41]  Syria Bayan Jumah Anya Gostomelsky swimming 2008 Summer Olympics
7 February 2010 [42]  Kuwait Kuwait men's national pool team Israel men's national pool team pool 2010 Hanover world team A championship Food poison of 4 players
5 May 2011 [43]  Algeria Zakaria Chenouf Adam Sagir taekwondo 2011 World Taekwondo Championships
1 October 2011 [44]  Algeria Meriem Moussa Shahar Levi judo World Cup Women Rome 2011
1 October 2011 [44]  Algeria Rahou Abdelmalek Artem Masliy boxing 2011 World Amateur Boxing Championships
18 October 2013 [45]  Tunisia Malek Jaziri Amir Weintraub tennis 2013 Tashkent Challenger
7 August 2016 [46]  Saudi Arabia Joud Fahmy Christianne Legentil/Gili Cohen judo 2016 Summer Olympics sustain injuries to her arm and leg during training; ostensibly dropped out of match with Christianne Legentil of Mauritius to avoid match with Gili Cohen in next round

See also

References

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  2. ^ "Aust-Asian bid fails". The Sydney Morning Herald. 1974-09-16. p. 11. Retrieved .
  3. ^ "Palestinians disappointed but determined after FIFA betrayal". 2015-05-29.
  4. ^ "FOOTBALL CHIEF BANNED BY FIFA FOR INCITING HATRED".
  5. ^ agencies, Telegraph staff and (2 April 2009). "Sweden punished for Israel Davis Cup lockout" – via www.telegraph.co.uk.
  6. ^ a b c CNN, Henry Young,. "Israeli wins gold in UAE; officials refuse to play anthem".
  7. ^ "Storm brews over Saudi chess tournament". BBC News. 26 December 2017 – via www.bbc.com.
  8. ^ "Dershowitz to sue against Israeli flag ban at sports events in Arab state".
  9. ^ "Regev gets Israeli flag-less Tunis, Abu Dhabi judo events cancelled".
  10. ^ "Tunisia could lose chance to host World Chess meet after banning Israelis".
  11. ^ ? 26.07.2011 13:00 ?: 14:42 ? (26 July 2011). "? ?  -  - ?". ? (in Hebrew). Retrieved 2011.
  12. ^ ' ?: ' ? ? ' [Iranian judoka: 'I retired in solidarity with suffering Palestinians']. Ynet (in Hebrew). Tel Aviv. 14 August 2004. Retrieved 2012.
  13. ^ "Sport / Special Olympics". Irishtimes.com. Retrieved 2011.
  14. ^ Livnat, Arie (2005-08-04). "Basketball / Iran pulls out of U21 tourney to avoid match-up against Israel". Haaretz. Retrieved 2011.
  15. ^ Maddy, Bruce (29 January 2007). "Iranian official refuses to referee Yekutiel's ..." Jpost.com. Retrieved 2011.
  16. ^ Haas, Sa'ar (18 September 2007). ? ?, [Wrestling: Iran did not fight, ...]. Ynet (in Hebrew). Tel Aviv. Retrieved 2012.
  17. ^ "Mohammad Alirezaei | InTheMoment". Momentmagazine. Retrieved 2011.
  18. ^ Haas, Sa'ar (28 July 2009). "Iranian swimmer refuses to race Israeli contender at worlds". Ynetnews. Tel Aviv. Retrieved 2012.
  19. ^ a b Hipsh, Rami (2009-10-02). "Fencing / Iran keeps up Israel boycott, forfeits again". Haaretz. Retrieved 2011.
  20. ^ " - nrg - ...?: ". Nrg.co.il. 3 October 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  21. ^ " - ? nrg - ... ". Nrg.co.il. Retrieved 2011.
  22. ^ ? ? [Volleyball: Iran refused to play against the national youth]. Ynet (in Hebrew). Tel Aviv. 4 April 2010. Retrieved 2012.
  23. ^ "- ? ? ? ". One.co.il. Retrieved 2011.
  24. ^ " - nrg - ..."?: ?, ". Nrg.co.il. Retrieved 2011.
  25. ^ Aharoni, Oren (20 May 2010). ? ? [Badminton: Iran boycotted the Israeli competition]. Ynet (in Hebrew). Tel Aviv. Retrieved 2012.
  26. ^ "Political victims at Youth Olympics; more Olympic notes - Brian Cazeneuve". Sportsillustrated.cnn.com. Retrieved 2011.
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  28. ^ a b Aharoni, Oren (11 May 2010). , ? . Ynet (in Hebrew). Tel Aviv. Retrieved 2012.
  29. ^ Associated, The (2011-07-26). "Swimming World Championships / Iran's team dives into Israel boycott". Haaretz. Retrieved 2011.
  30. ^ " ?". One.co.il. Retrieved 2011.
  31. ^ "Iranians disqualified for refusing to wrestle Israelis". Iranian.com. Retrieved 2011.
  32. ^ " ?' ' , ". One.co.il. Retrieved 2011.
  33. ^ Aharoni, Oren (10 October 2011). " ?" [Sabre: Iranians did not appear to compete with Israelis]. Ynet. Tel Aviv. Retrieved 2012.
  34. ^ Aharoni, Oren (11 May 2011). ? ? ? - [Another chapter in Iranian boycott this time - Badminton]. Ynet (in Hebrew). Tel Aviv. Retrieved 2012.
  35. ^ Results/Schedule. FIVB. 11 May 2011. Retrieved 2015.
  36. ^ "My beliefs precede quest for medal: Iranian karateka". 28 January 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  37. ^ "My beliefs precede quest for medal: Iranian karateka". 28 January 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  38. ^ ?' ? ? ? ? . Ynet (in Hebrew). Tel Aviv. 26 July 2001. Retrieved 2012.
  39. ^ "ITF fines Indonesia $31, 600 for canceling match vs. Israel - Tennis". CBSSports.com. 15 November 2006. Archived from the original on 12 August 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  40. ^ " ? ? ? ". One.co.il. Retrieved 2011.
  41. ^ Schuman, Benjamin (15 August 2008). "More Politics in the Olympic Pool | InTheMoment". Momentmagazine. Retrieved 2011.
  42. ^ Aharoni, Oren (2 July 2010). ? ' . Ynet (in Hebrew). Tel Aviv. Retrieved 2012.
  43. ^ "Algerian judoka boycotts Israeli in World Championship". Echorouk Online. Retrieved 2011.
  44. ^ a b Aharoni, Oren (10 January 2011). ? , ' ? [After Iran, Israel boycotted by Algerian athletes]. Ynet (in Hebrew). Tel Aviv. Retrieved 2012.
  45. ^ "ATP investigating Tunisian player's withdrawal". 2015-02-04. Retrieved 2018.
  46. ^ "Saudi judoka forfeits Rio match, apparently to avoid Israeli". 7 August 2016. Retrieved 2016.

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