British Association For the Advancement of Science
Get British Association For the Advancement of Science essential facts below. View Videos or join the British Association For the Advancement of Science discussion. Add British Association For the Advancement of Science to your topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.
British Association For the Advancement of Science

British Science Association
British Science Association logo.jpg
Founded1831; 191 years ago (1831)[1]
TypeProfessional organisation and registered charity
Registration no.212479
  • Wellcome Wolfson Building,
    165 Queen's Gate, London SW7 5HD[2]
Coordinates51°29?50?N 0°10?44?W / 51.4971°N 0.1790°W / 51.4971; -0.1790Coordinates: 51°29?50?N 0°10?44?W / 51.4971°N 0.1790°W / 51.4971; -0.1790
Area served
UK, Worldwide
Key people
Chair: Gisela Abbam
President: Professor Alice Roberts
CEO: Katherine Mathieson
£2,754,408 (year ending Dec 2018)[2]

The British Science Association (BSA) is a charity and learned society founded in 1831 to aid in the promotion and development of science.[1] Until 2009 it was known as the British Association for the Advancement of Science (BA).[3] The current Chief Executive is Katherine Mathieson. The BSA's mission is to get more people engaged in the field of science by coordinating, delivering, and overseeing different projects that are suited to achieve these goals.[4] The BSA "envisions a society in which a diverse group of people can learn and apply the sciences in which they learn."[5] and is managed by a professional staff located at their Head Office in the Wellcome Wolfson Building.[5] The BSA offers a wide variety of activities and events that both recognize and encourage people to be involved in science.[6] These include the British Science Festival, British Science Week, the CREST Awards, Huxley Summit, Media Fellowships Scheme, along with regional and local events.[6]



The former British Science Association logo launched in 2009
Old logo used for "The BA"

The Association was founded in 1831[7] and modelled on the German Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte.[8] It was founded during post-war reconstruction after the Peninsula war to improve the advancement of science in England.[9] The prime mover (who is regarded as the main founder) was Reverend William Vernon Harcourt, following a suggestion by Sir David Brewster, who was disillusioned with the elitist and conservative attitude of the Royal Society. Charles Babbage, William Whewell and J. F. W. Johnston[10] are also considered to be founding members. The first meeting was held in York (at the Yorkshire Museum) on Tuesday 27 September 1831 with various scientific papers being presented on the following days. It was chaired by Viscount Milton, President of the Yorkshire Philosophical Society, and "upwards of 300 gentlemen" attended the meeting.[11] The Preston Mercury recorded that those gathered consisted of "persons of distinction from various parts of the kingdom, together with several of the gentry of Yorkshire and the members of philosopher societies in this country". The newspaper published the names of over a hundred of those attending and these included, amongst others, eighteen clergymen, eleven doctors, four knights, two Viscounts and one Lord.[12]

From that date onwards a meeting was held annually at a place chosen at a previous meeting. In 1832, for example, the meeting was held in Oxford, chaired by Reverend Dr William Buckland. By this stage the Association had four sections: Physics (including Mathematics and Mechanical Arts), Chemistry (including Mineralogy and Chemical Arts), Geology (including Geography) and Natural History.[13][14]

During this second meeting, the first objects and rules of the Association were published. Objects included systematically directing the acquisition of scientific knowledge, spreading this knowledge as well as discussion between scientists across the world, and to focus on furthering science by removing obstacles to progress.[14] The rules established included what constituted a member of the Association, the fee to remain a member, and the process for future meetings. They also include dividing the members into different committees. These committees separated members into their preferred subject matter, and were to recommend investigations into areas of interest, then report on these findings, as well as progress in their science at the annual meetings.[14]

Additional sections were added throughout the years by either splitting off part of an original section, like making Geography and Ethnology its own section apart from Geology in 1851, or by defining a new subject area of discussion, such as Anthropology in 1869.[15][16]

A very important decision in the Association's history was made in 1842 when it was resolved to create a "physical observatory". A building that became well known as the Kew Observatory was taken on for the purpose and Francis Ronalds was chosen as the inaugural Honorary Director. Kew Observatory quickly became one of the most renowned meteorological and geomagnetic observatories in the world.[17][18] The Association relinquished control of the Kew Observatory in 1871 to the management of the Royal Society, after a large donation to grant the observatory its independence.[19]

In 1872, the Association purchased its first central office in London, acquiring four rooms at 22 Albemarle Street. This office was intended to be a resource for members of the Association.[19]

One of the most famous events linked to the Association Meeting was an exchange between Thomas Henry Huxley and Bishop Samuel Wilberforce in 1860 (see the 1860 Oxford evolution debate). Although it is often described as a "debate", the exchange occurred after the presentation of a paper by Prof Draper of New York, on the intellectual development of Europe with relation to Darwin's theory (one of a number of scientific papers presented during the week) and the subsequent discussion involved a number of other participants (although Wilberforce and Huxley were the most prominent).[20] Although a number of newspapers made passing references to the exchange,[21] it was not until later that it was accorded greater significance in the evolution debate.[22]

Electrical standards

One of the most important contributions of the British Association was the establishment of standards for electrical usage: the ohm as the unit of electrical resistance, the volt as the unit of electrical potential, and the ampere as the unit of electrical current.[23] A need for standards arose with the submarine telegraph industry. Practitioners came to use their own standards established by wire coils: "By the late 1850s, Clark, Varley, Bright, Smith and other leading British cable engineers were using calibrated resistance coils on a regular basis and were beginning to use calibrated condensers as well."[23]

The undertaking was suggested to the BA by William Thomson, and its success was due to the use of Thomson's mirror galvanometer. Josiah Latimer Clark and Fleeming Jenkin made preparations. Thomson, with his students, found that impure copper, contaminated with arsenic, introduced significant extra resistance. The chemist Augustus Matthiessen contributed an appendix (A) to the final 1873 report[24] that showed temperature-dependence of alloys.

The natural relation between these units are clearly, that a unit of electromotive force between two points of a conductor separated by a unit of resistance shall produce unit current, and that this current in a unit of time convey a unit quantity of electricity.

The unit system was "absolute" since it agreed with previously accepted units of work, or energy:

The unit current of electricity, in passing through a conductor of unit resistance, does a unit of work or its equivalent in a unit of time.


The Association introduced the British Association (usually termed "BA") screw threads, a series of screw thread standards in sizes from 0.25 mm up to 6 mm, in 1882.[25] The standards were based on the metric system, although they had to be re-defined in imperial terms for use by UK industry.  The standard was modified in 1884 to restrict significant figures for the metric counterpart of diameter and pitch of the screw in the published table, as well as not designating screws by their number of threads per inch, and instead giving an approximation due to considerable actual differences in manufactured screws.[26]

In 1878 a committee of the Association recommended against constructing Charles Babbage's analytical engine, due to concerns about the current state of the machine's lack of complete working drawings, the machine's potential cost to produce, the machine's durability during repeated use, how and what the machine will actually be utilized for, and that more work would need to be done to bring the design up to a standard at which it is guaranteed to work.[27]

The Association was parodied by English novelist Charles Dickens as 'The Mudfog Society for the Advancement of Everything' in The Mudfog Papers (1837-38).[28][29]

In 1903, microscopist and astronomer Washington Teasdale died whilst attending the annual meeting.[30]

Perception of science in the UK

The Association's main aim is to improve the perception of science and scientists in the UK. Membership is open to all.[]

At the beginning of the Great Depression, the Association's focus began to shift their purpose to account for not only scientific progress, but the social aspects of such progress. In the Association's 1931 meeting, the president General Jan Christiaan Smuts ended his address by the proposal of linking science and ethics together but provided no means to actuate his ideas.[31][32] In the following years, debate began as to whom the responsibilities of scientists fell upon. The Association adopted a resolution in 1934 that dedicated efforts to better balance scientific advancement with social progress.[32]

J.D. Bernal, a member of the Royal Society and the British Association, wrote The Social Function of Science in 1939, describing a need to correctly utilize science for society and the importance of its public perception.[33][34] The idea of the public perception of science was furthered in 1985 when the Royal Society published a report titled The Public Understanding of Science.[35]

In the report, a committee of the Royal Society determined that it was scientists' duty to communicate to and educate the public.[36] Lord George Porter, then president of the Royal Society, British Association, and Director of the Royal Institution, created the Committee on the Public Understanding of Science, or COPUS, to promote public understanding of science.[36]

Professor Sir George Porter became the president in September 1985. He won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1967 along with Manfred Eigen, and Ronald George Wreyford Norrish.[37] When asked about the scientific literacy of Britain, he stated that Britain was the least educated country compared to all the other advanced countries. His idea to solve this problem would be to start scientific education for children at the age of 4. He says his reason for such an early age is because that is the age when children are the most curious, and implementing science at that age will help them gain curiosity towards all disciplines of science.[38] When asked why public ignorance to science matters, his response was

It matters because among those who are scientifically illiterate are some of those who are in power, people who lead us in politics, in civil service, in the media, in the church, often in industry and sometimes even in education. Think, for example, about the enormous influence of scientific knowledge on one's whole philosophy of life, even one's religion. It is no more permissible for the archbishops of today, who advise their flocks on how to interpret the Scriptures, to ignore the findings of Watson and Crick, than it was right for clerics of the last century to ignore the work of Darwin. Science today is all-pervasive. Without some scientific and technical education, it is becoming impossible even to vote responsibly on matters of health, energy, defense or education. So unless things change, we shall soon live in a country that is backward not only in its technology and standard of living but in its cultural vitality too. It is wrong to suppose that by foregoing technological and scientific education we shall somehow become a nation of artists, writers or philosophers instead. These two aspects of culture have never been divorced from each other throughout our history. Every renaissance, every period that showed a flowering of civilization, advanced simultaneously in the arts and sciences, and in technology too.[38]

Sir Kenneth Durham, former Director of Research at Unilever, on becoming president in August 1987 followed on from Sir George Porter saying that science teachers needed extra pay to overcome the scarcity of mathematics and physics teachers in secondary schools, and that "unless we deal with this as matter of urgency, the outlook for our manufacturing future is bleak".[This quote needs a citation] He regretted that headmasters and careers masters had for many years followed 'the cult of Oxbridge' because "it carried more prestige to read Classics at Oxbridge and go into the Civil Service or banking, than to read engineering at, say, Salford, and go into manufacturing industry".[This quote needs a citation] He said that reporting of sciences gave good coverage to medical science, but that "nevertheless, editors ought to be sensitive to developments in areas such as solid state physics, astro-physics, colloid science, molecular biology, transmission of stimuli along nerve fibres, and so on,[This quote needs a citation] and that newspaper editors were in danger of waiting for disasters before the scientific factors involved in the incidents were explained.[]

In September 2001 Sir William Stewart, as outgoing president, warned that universities faced "dumbing down" and that

we can deliver social inclusiveness, and the best universities, but not both from a limited amount of money. We run the risk of doing neither well. Universities are underfunded, and must not be seen simply as a substitute for National Service to keep youngsters off the dole queue... [Adding,] scientists have to be careful and consider the full implications of what they are seeking to achieve. The problem with some clever people is that they find cleverer ways of being stupid.[This quote needs a citation]

In the year 2000, Sir Peter Williams had put together a panel to discuss the shortage of physics majors. A physicist called Derek Raine had stated that he has had multiple firms call him up asking for physics majors. The report they made stated that it is critical that they increase the number of physics teachers, or it will have a detrimental effect on the number of future engineers and scientists.[39]

British Science Festival

The Association's major emphasis in recent decades has been on public engagement in science. Its annual meeting, now called the British Science Festival, is the largest public showcase for science in the UK and attracts a great deal of media attention. It is held at UK universities in early September for one week, with visits to science-related local cultural attractions.

The 2010 Festival, held in Birmingham with Aston University as lead University partner, featured a prank event: the unveiling of Dulcis foetidus, a fictional plant purported to emit a pungent odour. An experiment in herd mentality, some audience members were induced into believing they could smell it.[40] The Festival has also been the home to protest and debate. In 1970 there were protestors over the use of science for weapons.

Science Communication Conference

The Association organised and held the annual Science Communication Conference for over ten years. It was the largest conference of its kind in the UK, and addressed the key issues facing science communicators. In 2015, the BSA introduced a new series of smaller events for science communicators, designed to address the same issues as the Science Communication Conference but for a more targeted audience.[41]

British Science Week

In addition to the British Science Festival, the British Science Association organises the British Science Week (formerly National Science & Engineering Week), an opportunity for people of all ages to get involved in science, engineering, technology and maths activities, originating as the National Week of Science, Engineering and Technology.[42]

The Association also has a young people's programme, the CREST Awards which seeks to involve school students in science beyond the school curriculum, and to encourage them to consider higher education and careers in science.

Huxley Summit

Named after Thomas Huxley, the Huxley Summit is a leadership event run by the British Science Association, where 250 of the most influential people in the UK are brought together to discuss scientific and social challenges that the UK faces in the 21st century and to develop a link between scientists and non-scientists to ensure that science can be understood by society as a whole.[43] On 8 November 2016, the British Science Association held the very first Huxley Summit at BAFTA, London.[43] The theme of the summit was "Trust in the 21st Century" and how that would affect the future of science, innovation, and business.[44]

Media Fellowship Schemes

The British Science Association's Media Fellowship provides the opportunity for practicing scientists, clinicians, and engineers to spend a period of time working at media outlets such as the Guardian, BBC Breakfast or The Londonist.[45] After their time with the media placement, the fellows attend the British Science Festival which will offer these practitioners valuable working experience with a range of media organizations along with learning from a wide range of public engagement activities and be able to network with academics, journalists and science communicators.[45]

CREST Awards

CREST Awards is the British Science Association's scheme to encourage students aged 5-19 to get involved with STEM projects and encourage scientific thinking. Awards range from Star Awards (targeted at those aged 5-7) to Gold Awards (targeted to those aged 16-19). Overall, 30,000 awards are undertaken annually.[46] Many students who do CREST Awards, especially Silver and Gold Awards which require 30 and 70 hours of work respectively, enter competitions like the UK Big Bang Fair.

Patrons and Presidents of the British Science Association

Traditionally the president is elected at the meeting usually held in August/September for a one-year term and gives a presidential address upon retiring. The honour of the presidency is traditionally bestowed only once per individual. Written sources that give the year of presidency as a single year generally mean the year in which the presidential address is given. In 1926/1927 the association's patron was King George V and the president was his son Edward, Prince of Wales. The vice-presidents for the Leeds meeting at this time included City of Leeds Alderman Charles Lupton and his brother, The Rt. Hon. the Lord Mayor of Leeds Hugh Lupton. The husband of the brothers' first cousin once removed - Lord Airedale of Gledhow - was also a vice-president at the Leeds meeting.[47][48]

Presidents 1900-2010
Presidents to 1899

List of annual meetings

  • 1831 (1st meeting) York, England.
  • 1832 (2nd meeting) Oxford, England.
Meetings from 1833 to 2012


The organisation is administered from the Wellcome Wolfson Building at the Science Museum, London in South Kensington in Kensington and Chelsea, within a few feet of the northern boundary with the City of Westminster (in which most of the neighbouring Imperial College London is resident).

See also


  1. ^ a b "About Us". British Science Association. Retrieved 2016.
  2. ^ a b c d "Financial history - 212479 - BRITISH ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE". Retrieved 2016.
  3. ^ Robert Winston, New Scientist, 3 February 2009.
  4. ^ "Our work". British Science Association. Retrieved 2019.
  5. ^ a b "British Science Association". Retrieved 2019.
  6. ^ a b "Our organisation". British Science Association. Retrieved 2019.
  7. ^ James, Frank A.J.L. (2013). "British Association for the Advancement of Science". In Hessenbruch, Arne (ed.). Reader's Guide to the History of Science. Routledge. pp. 106-107. ISBN 9781134262946.
  8. ^ The German organisation was founded in 1822.
  9. ^ "Our history". British Science Association. Retrieved 2019.
  10. ^ David Knight, 'Johnston, James Finlay Weir (1796-1855)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004.
  11. ^ Caledonian Mercury, 6 October 1831.
  12. ^ Preston Chronicle, 8 October 1831.
  13. ^ Jackson's Oxford Journal, 23 June 1832.
  14. ^ a b c British Association for the Advancement of Science.; Science, British Association for the Advancement of (1831-1832). Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. Vol. 1st & 2nd Meeting (1831-1832). London.
  15. ^ British Association for the Advancement of Science.; Science, British Association for the Advancement of (1851). Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. Vol. 21st Meeting (1851). London.
  16. ^ British Association for the Advancement of Science.; Science, British Association for the Advancement of (1857). Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. Vol. 27th Meeting (1857). London.
  17. ^ Ronalds, B.F. (2016). Sir Francis Ronalds: Father of the Electric Telegraph. London: Imperial College Press. ISBN 978-1-78326-917-4.
  18. ^ Ronalds, B.F. (June 2016). "Sir Francis Ronalds and the Early Years of the Kew Observatory". Weather. 71 (6): 131-134. Bibcode:2016Wthr...71..131R. doi:10.1002/wea.2739.
  19. ^ a b British Association for the Advancement of Science.; Science, British Association for the Advancement of (1872). Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. Vol. 41st Meeting (1871). London.
  20. ^ Oxford Chronicle, 7 July 1860.
  21. ^ Liverpool Mercury, 5 July 1860.
  22. ^ Jackson's Oxford Journal, 4 August 1894.
  23. ^ a b "The Ohm is where the Art is: British Telegraph Engineers and the Development of Electrical Standards" Bruce J. Hunt (1994), Osiris 9: 48 to 63
  24. ^ Fleeming Jenkin (1873) Reports of the Committee on Electrical Standards appointed by the British Association for the Advancement of Science, link from HathiTrust.
  25. ^ British Association for the Advancement of Science.; Science, British Association for the Advancement of (1883). Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. Vol. 52nd Meeting (1882). London.
  26. ^ British Association for the Advancement of Science.; Science, British Association for the Advancement of (1884). Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. Vol. 54th Meeting (1884). London.
  27. ^ British Association for the Advancement of Science.; Science, British Association for the Advancement of (1879). Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. Vol. 48th Meeting (1878). London.
  28. ^ Dickens, Charles; Bentley, George (1880). The mudfog papers, etc., now first collected. University of California Libraries. London : R. Bentley.
  29. ^ Zerbe, Michael J. (14 July 2016). "Satire of Science in Charles Dickens's Mudfog Papers: The Institutionalization of Science and the Importance of Rhetorical Diversity to Scientific Literacy". Configurations. 24 (2): 197-227. doi:10.1353/con.2016.0016. ISSN 1080-6520.
  30. ^ "RAS Obituaries - Washington Teasdale". Retrieved 2019.
  31. ^ British Association for the Advancement of Science.; Science, British Association for the Advancement of (1932). Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. Vol. 100th Meeting (1931). London.
  32. ^ a b McGucken, William (1979). "The Social Relations of Science: The British Association for the Advancement of Science, 1931-1946". Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. 123 (4): 237-264. ISSN 0003-049X. JSTOR 986583. PMID 11610647.
  33. ^ J D Bernal (1939). The Social Function of Science.
  34. ^ Mackay, Alan L. (February 2007). "J D Bernal: his legacy to science and to society". Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 57 (1): 1-16. Bibcode:2007JPhCS..57....1M. doi:10.1088/1742-6596/57/1/001. ISSN 1742-6596.
  35. ^ "The public understanding of science | Royal Society". Retrieved 2019.
  36. ^ a b Bodmer Walter (20 September 2010). "Public Understanding of Science: The BA, the Royal Society and COPUS". Notes and Records of the Royal Society. 64 (suppl_1): S151-S161. doi:10.1098/rsnr.2010.0035.
  37. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1967".
  38. ^ a b "Sir George Porter on British Science".
  39. ^ "UK tackles student shortage". October 2001.
  40. ^ David Gregory (16 September 2010). "'Greatest smell' tests audience". BBC Birmingham. Retrieved 2010.
  41. ^ "Supporting Science Communicators". British Science Association. Retrieved 2017.
  42. ^ "British Science Week". British Science Association. Retrieved 2014.
  43. ^ a b "Huxley Summit | About". Retrieved 2019.
  44. ^ "Huxley Summit | 2016". Retrieved 2019.
  45. ^ a b "British Science Association Media Fellowship | The Nutrition Society". Retrieved 2019.
  46. ^ "CREST Awards". British Science Association. Retrieved 2019.
  47. ^ "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science - Leeds 1927 (August 31 - September 7)". OFFICE OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION - BURLINGTON HOUSE, LONDON, W.l - 1927. Retrieved 2018.
  48. ^ "Report of British Association for the Advancement of Science",, University of Oxford 1926-27: British Association for the Advancement of Science, retrieved 2014{{citation}}: CS1 maint: location (link)
  49. ^ "Table showing the Places and Times of Meeting of the British Association, with Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Local Secretaries, from its Commencement". Report of the Seventy-sixth Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, held in York in August 1906. London: John Murray. 1907. p. xxxviii.
  50. ^ "Table showing the Places and Times of Meeting of the British Association, with Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Local Secretaries, from its Commencement". Report of the Fifty-third Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, held in Southport in September 1883. London: John Murray. 1884. p. xxx.
  51. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Report of the twenty-first meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science
  52. ^ "Table showing the Places and Times of Meeting of the British Association, with Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Local Secretaries, from its Commencement". Report of the Thirty-sixth Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, held in Nottingham in August 1866. London: John Murray. 1867. p. xx.
  53. ^ "3rd meeting". Retrieved 2013.
  54. ^ "4th meeting". Retrieved 2013.
  55. ^ "6th meeting". Retrieved 2013.
  56. ^ "7th meeting". Retrieved 2013.
  57. ^ "8th meeting". Retrieved 2013.
  58. ^ "9th meeting". Retrieved 2013.
  59. ^ "10th meeting". Retrieved 2013.
  60. ^ "11th meeting". Retrieved 2013.
  61. ^ "12th meeting". Retrieved 2013.
  62. ^ "13th meeting". Retrieved 2013.
  63. ^ "14th meeting". Retrieved 2013.
  64. ^ "15th meeting". Retrieved 2013.
  65. ^ "29th meeting". Retrieved 2021.
  66. ^ "30th meeting". Retrieved 2013.
  67. ^ "31st meeting". Retrieved 2013.
  68. ^ "32nd meeting". Retrieved 2013.
  69. ^ "33rd meeting". Retrieved 2013.
  70. ^ "34th meeting". Retrieved 2013.
  71. ^ "35th meeting". Retrieved 2013.
  72. ^ "36th meeting". Retrieved 2013.
  73. ^ "37th meeting". Retrieved 2013.
  74. ^ "38th meeting". Retrieved 2013.
  75. ^ "39th meeting". Retrieved 2013.
  76. ^ "40th meeting". Retrieved 2013.
  77. ^ "41st meeting". Retrieved 2013.
  78. ^ "42nd meeting". Retrieved 2013.
  79. ^ "43rd meeting". Retrieved 2013.
  80. ^ "44th meeting". Retrieved 2013.
  81. ^ "45th meeting". Retrieved 2013.
  82. ^ "46th meeting". Retrieved 2013.
  83. ^ "47th meeting". Retrieved 2013.
  84. ^ "48th meeting". Retrieved 2013.
  85. ^ "49th meeting". Retrieved 2013.
  86. ^ "50th meeting". Retrieved 2013.
  87. ^ "51st meeting". Retrieved 2013.
  88. ^ "52nd meeting". Retrieved 2013.
  89. ^ "53rd meeting". Retrieved 2013.
  90. ^ "54th meeting". Retrieved 2013.
  91. ^ "55th meeting". Retrieved 2013.
  92. ^ "56th meeting". Retrieved 2013.
  93. ^ "57th meeting". Retrieved 2013.
  94. ^ "58th meeting". Retrieved 2013.
  95. ^ "59th meeting". Retrieved 2013.
  96. ^ "60th meeting". Retrieved 2013.
  97. ^ "61st meeting". Retrieved 2013.
  98. ^ "62nd meeting". Retrieved 2013.
  99. ^ "63rd meeting". Retrieved 2013.
  100. ^ "64th meeting". Retrieved 2013.
  101. ^ "65th meeting". Retrieved 2013.
  102. ^ "66th meeting". Retrieved 2013.
  103. ^ "67th meeting". Retrieved 2013.
  104. ^ "68th meeting". Retrieved 2013.
  105. ^ "69th meeting". Retrieved 2013.
  106. ^ "70th meeting". Retrieved 2013.
  107. ^ "71st meeting". Retrieved 2013.
  108. ^ "72nd meeting". Retrieved 2013.
  109. ^ "73rd meeting". Retrieved 2013.
  110. ^ "British Association Meeting for 1946". Nature. 157 (3985): 330. 16 March 1946. Bibcode:1946Natur.157T.330.. doi:10.1038/157330d0.
  111. ^ "British Association for the Advancement of Science". Retrieved 2013.
  112. ^ "DAJ V13/2: The Role of Section H at the British Association for the Advancement of Science in the History of Anthropology". Archived from the original on 19 October 2012. Retrieved 2013.
  114. ^ Recent developments in electro-organic synthesis, Manuel M. Baizer, Naturwissenschaften August 1969, Volume 56, Issue 8, pp. 405-409.
  115. ^ Martin, J. W. (1970). "The British Association for the Advancement of Science: The Exeter Meeting". Journal of the Institute of Actuaries (1886-1994). 96 (3): 383-387. doi:10.1017/S0020268100016620. JSTOR 41140126.
  116. ^ McKelvey, K. Muir (1973). "The British Association for the Advancement of Science: Annual Meeting 1972, at Leicester". Journal of the Institute of Actuaries (1886-1994). 99 (1): 85-87. doi:10.1017/S0020268100017091. JSTOR 41140253.
  117. ^ "Energy in the balance : some papers from BA79 : papers given at the annual meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, 1979". Retrieved 2013.
  118. ^ "The BA at the end of the 20th Century" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 February 2013. Retrieved 2013.

External links

Video clips

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



Music Scenes