British Passport
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British Passport

British passport
British Passport cover 2010 (non-EU).jpg
British citizen ordinary passport
British passport data page.jpg
The data page of the 2015 version of the British biometric passport
Date first issued1414 (first mention of 'passport' in an Act of Parliament)[1]
1915 (first 'modern' passport)
15 August 1988 (machine-readable passport; first EU design)
6 February 2006 (first biometric version)
7 October 2015 (second biometric version; last EU design issued to British Citizens; non-EU designed issued to other British Nationals who are not British Citizens)
30 March 2019 (second biometric version, non-EU design issued to all British National including British Citizens)
Issued by United Kingdom
--HM Passport Office
--CSRO (Gibraltar)
--Crown dependencies
--Overseas Territories
Type of documentPassport
PurposeIdentification
Eligibility requirementsBritish citizenship or any of the various other forms of British nationality
Expiration10 years (16 or older)
5 years (under 16)
Cost Fees for all passport applications are reduced by £9.50 if completed online

British passports are passports issued by the United Kingdom to those holding any form of British nationality. There are different types of British nationality, and different types of British passports as a result. A British passport enables the bearer to travel worldwide and serves as proof of citizenship. Every British citizen is also a citizen of the European Union. The passport allows for freedom of movement in any of the states of the European Economic Area and Switzerland. It also facilitates access to consular assistance from British embassies around the world, or any embassy of another European Union member state until the United Kingdom departs the European Union in October 2019. Passports are issued using royal prerogative, which is exercised by Her Majesty's Government.

British citizen passports have been issued in the UK by Her Majesty's Passport Office since 2006, a division of the Home Office. British citizens can use their passport as evidence of right of abode in the United Kingdom and EU citizenship. All passports issued in the UK since 2006 have been biometric.

In 1988, the UK government changed the colour of the passport to burgundy red from dark blue, in line with most EU passports. In response to Brexit, the UK government announced in December 2017 its plan to change the passport colour back to dark blue from October 2019.[3] New passports were issued from 30 March 2019 that removed all references to the European Union as part of the Brexit planning by the Home Office.[4]

Types of British passports

Owing to the many different categories in British nationality law, there are different types of passports for each class of British nationality. All categories of British passports are issued by Her Majesty's Government under royal prerogative.[5] Since all British passports are issued in the name of the Crown, the reigning monarch does not require a passport.[6] The following table shows the number of valid British passports on the last day of 2018 and shows the different categories eligible to hold a British passport:[7]

Category Country code Valid passports
as at 31 Dec 2018
Issuing authority Note
British citizens GBR 50,437,362 In the UK: HM Passport Office (HMPO)
In Gibraltar: Civil Status and Registration Office (CSRO)
British Overseas Territories Citizens of Gibraltar GBD 2,305 CSRO formerly British Dependent Territories Citizens
British Overseas Territories Citizens of other British Overseas Territories 45,171 HMPO on behalf of individual Overseas Territories[8]
British Overseas citizens GBO 12,656 HMPO
British subjects with right of abode in UK GBS 33,669 HMPO
British subjects without right of abode in UK 829 HMPO
British protected persons GBP 1,321 HMPO
British Nationals (Overseas) GBN 169,653 HMPO
A British passport issued in Jersey

(prior to April 2019)

British citizen, British overseas citizen, British subject, British protected person, British national (overseas)

British citizen, British overseas citizen, British subject, British protected person and British national (overseas) passports are issued by HM Passport Office in the UK. British nationals of these categories applying for passports outside the UK can apply for their passport online from HMPO. British passports were previously issued by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office in British embassies around the world. However, in 2009, this was stopped and British citizen passports can now only be issued by the Passport Office in the UK. The FCO says: "In their 2006 report on consular services, the National Audit Office recommended limiting passport production to fewer locations to increase security and reduce expenditure."[9]

Gibraltar

British citizens and British Overseas Territory citizens of Gibraltar can apply for their passport in Gibraltar, where it will be issued by the Gibraltar Civil Status and Registration Office.

EU citizenship

British citizens, British Overseas Territory citizens of Gibraltar and British subjects with right of abode are considered to be UK nationals for the purpose of EU law. They are therefore considered to be EU citizens, allowing them to move freely within the European Economic Area and Switzerland.

Other types of British nationals are not considered to be EU citizens, but may nevertheless enjoy visa-free travel to the European Union on a short-term basis.

Crown Dependencies and Overseas Territories

British passports in Jersey, Guernsey and the Isle of Man are issued in the name of the Lieutenant-Governor of the respective Crown Dependencies on behalf of the States of Jersey, States of Guernsey and the Government of the Isle of Man respectively. Meanwhile, in British Overseas Territories, British Overseas Territories Citizen passports are issued in the name of the respective territory's governor.

British emergency passport with its cream cover
Identity card from a collective passport issued in 2005

Special British passports

Diplomatic passports are issued in the UK by HMPO. They are issued to British diplomats and high-ranking government officials to facilitate travel abroad.

Official passports are issued to those travelling abroad on official state business.

Queen's Messenger passports are issued to diplomatic couriers who transport documents on behalf of HM Government.

Emergency passports are issued by British embassies across the world. Emergency passports may be issued to any person holding British nationality. Commonwealth citizens are also eligible to receive British emergency passports in countries where their country of nationality is unrepresented. Under a reciprocal agreement, British emergency passports may also be issued to EU citizens in countries where their own country does not have a diplomatic mission or is otherwise unable to assist.

Collective (also known as group passports) are issued to defined groups of 5 to 50 individuals who are British citizens under the age of 18 for travel together to the EEA and Switzerland, such as a group of school children on a school trip.[10]

History

A military passport from 1857 signed by George Villiers, 4th Earl of Clarendon and issued to Major Roderick MacKenzie of the Royal Artillery
British passport issued to Abraham Hayward between 1862 and 1871

Safe conduct documents, usually notes signed by the monarch, were issued to foreigners as well as English subjects in medieval times. They were first mentioned in an Act of Parliament, the Safe Conducts Act in 1414. Between 1540 and 1685, the Privy Council issued passports, although they were still signed by the monarch until the reign of Charles II when the Secretary of State could sign them instead. The Secretary of State signed all passports in place of the monarch from 1794 onwards, at which time formal records started to be kept.[11]

Passports were written in Latin or English until 1772, when French was used instead. From about 1855 English was used, with some sections translated into French for many years.

In 1855 passports became a standardised document issued solely to British nationals. They were a simple single-sheet paper document, and by 1914 included a photograph of the holder.

The British Nationality and Status of Aliens Act 1914 was passed on the outbreak of World War I. A new format was introduced in 1915: a single sheet folded into eight with a cardboard cover. It included a description of the holder as well as a photograph, and had to be renewed after two years.

Historical passports

Some duplicate passports and passport records are available at the British Library; for example IOR: L/P&J/11 contain a few surviving passports of travelling ayahs for the 1930s.[12] A passport issued on 18 June 1641 and signed by King Charles I still exists.[13]

Timeline

Various changes to the design were made over the years:[13]

  • In 1927, the country name changed from "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland" to "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland" (alternatively the name of the colony appeared here)
  • In 1954, the name of the Secretary of State was removed.
  • In 1968 the validity was extended from five years renewable up to ten, to ten years non-renewable.
  • At the end of 1972, several modifications were made. A special blue watermarked paper was introduced to make alteration and forgery more difficult. The number of pages was reduced from 32 to 30, and the holder's eye colour and the maiden name of a married woman were removed.
  • In May 1973, an optional 94-page passport was made available which provided many more pages for immigration stamps and visas for frequent travellers.
  • In 1975, lamination over the bearer's photograph was introduced to make alteration harder. Overprinting of the laminate was added in 1981 to make removal easier to spot.
  • In 1979, UK exchange controls were abolished, and the foreign exchange page was removed.
  • In 1982, the holder's occupation and country of residence were removed.
  • In July 1988, changes were made to ease the introduction of machine-readable passports later in the year. Joint passports were no longer issued and the descriptions of distinguishing features and height were removed.
  • In August 1988, the old style started to be replaced by the burgundy passport, which included the first-ever printed mention of the European Community on the cover and granted automatic free movement of labour to British citizens in the other 9 EEC countries (at the time), and reciprocally provided access for those nation's workers into the UK economy.[14] Some offices issued the remaining stock of old-style passports until as late as 1993.[15]
  • 1998: Digital facial image rather than a laminated photograph, and intaglio or raised printing on the inside of the covers. Children under 16 are no longer included on new adult passports.[16]
  • 2006: Biometric passports (also called ePassports) comply with the US Visa Waiver Program.
  • 2010: The Identity & Passport Service announced that the British passport was to be redesigned. Pages of the passport will contain well-known UK scenes including the White Cliffs of Dover, the Gower Peninsula, Ben Nevis and the Giant's Causeway. There will also be new security features, namely moving the chip which stores the holder's details to the inside of the passport cover where it will no longer be visible (this gives additional physical protection as well as making it much harder to replace the chip without damage to the passport cover being spotted), a secondary image of the holder printed onto the observations page, new designs now stretching across two pages and a new transparent covering which includes several holograms to protect the holder's personal details.[17]
  • 2015: HM Passport Office unveiled the design and theme of the new passport as 'Creative United Kingdom' at Shakespeare's Globe, London on November. The design features British cultural icons such as William Shakespeare, John Harrison, John Constable, Charles Babbage, Ada Lovelace, Antony Gormley, Elisabeth Scott and Anish Kapoor; iconic British innovations such as the Penny Black and the London Underground; and UK landmark structures like the Houses of Parliament, London Eye, Edinburgh Castle, the Pierhead Building in Cardiff, Titanic Belfast and the Royal Observatory Greenwich. As part of the Press release the HM Passport Office said the new passport is the most secure in the world. The passport was released in December 2015. De La Rue has a 10-year contract with HM Passport Office designing and producing the British Passports starting in 2010 as well as the new 'Creative UK' passport in 2015.[18][19]
  • 2019: References to the European Union removed.

The pre-1988 passport

UK passport from 1924
UK Passport from the original design before the change to Burgundy (issued 1991)

A 32-page passport with a dark cover, commonly known as the old blue style,[20] came into use in 1920 with the formation of the Passport Service following international agreement[21] on a standard format for passports, and remained in use until replaced by the European Union-style machine-readable passport in late 1988. As with many documents worldwide and all booklet-format documents, details were handwritten into the passport and (as of 1955) included: number, holder's name, "accompanied by his wife" and her maiden name, "and" (number) "children", national status. For both bearer and wife: profession, place and date of birth, country of residence, height, eye and hair colour, special peculiarities, signature and photograph. Names, birth dates, and sexes of children, list of countries for which valid, issue place and date, expiry date, a page for renewals and, at the back, details of the amount of foreign exchange for travel expenses (a limited amount of sterling, typically £50 but increasing with inflation, could be taken out of the country).[22] The bearer's sex was not explicitly stated, although the name was written in with title ("Mr John Smith"). Descriptive text was printed in both English and French (a practice which still continues), e.g., "Accompanied by his wife (Maiden name)/Accompagné de sa femme (Née)". Changed details were struck out and rewritten, with a rubber-stamped note confirming the change.

If details and photograph of a man's wife and details of children were entered (this was not compulsory), the passport could be used by the bearer, wife, and children under 16, if together; separate passports were required for the wife or children to travel independently.[23] The passport was valid for five years, renewable for another five, after which it had to be replaced.[24]

The passport had a printed list of countries for which it was valid, which was added to manually as validity increased. A passport of 1955 was valid for the British Commonwealth, USA, and all countries in Europe "including the USSR, Turkey, Algeria, Azores, Canary Islands, Iceland, and Madeira";[25] during its period of validity restrictions eased and it was endorsed "and for all other foreign countries".[26]

The British visitor's passport

A new simplified type, the British Visitor's Passport, was introduced in 1961. It was a single-page cardboard document valid for one year obtainable for many years from Employment Exchanges, as agents of the Passport Office, and then from a Post Office. It was accepted for travel by most west European countries (excluding surface travel to West Berlin), but was dropped in 1995 since it did not identify the holder's nationality or meet new security standards.

European format passports

On 15 August 1988, the Glasgow passport office became the first to issue burgundy-coloured machine-readable passports. They followed a common format agreed amongst member states of the European Community, and had the words 'European Community' on the cover, changed to 'European Union' in 1997. The passport has 32 pages; a 48-page version is available with more space for stamps and visas. There are two lines of machine-readable text printed in a format agreed amongst members of the International Civil Aviation Organization, and a section in which relevant terms ("surname", "date of issue", etc.) are translated into the official EU languages. Passports issued overseas did not all have a Machine Readable Zone but these was introduced gradually as appropriate equipment was made available overseas.

In 1998[27] the first digital image passport was introduced with photographs being replaced with images printed directly on the bio-data page which was moved from the cover to an inside page to reduce the ease of fraud. These documents were all issued with machine readable zones and had a hologram over the photograph, which was the first time that British passports had been protected by an optically variable safeguard. These documents were issued until 2006 when the biometric passport was introduced. The bio-data page is printed with a finely detailed background including a drawing of a red grouse (a native British bird), and the entire page is protected from modification by a laminate which incorporates a holographic image of the kingfisher; visa pages are numbered and printed with detailed backgrounds including drawings of other birds: a merlin, curlew, avocet, and red kite. An RFID chip and antenna are located on the obverse of the data page and hold the same visual information as is printed, including a digital copy of the photograph with biometric information for use with facial recognition systems. The Welsh and Scottish Gaelic languages were included in all British passports for the first time in 2005,[28] and appear on the titles page replacing the official languages of the EU, although the EU languages still appear faintly as part of the background design. Welsh and Scottish Gaelic precede the official EU languages in the translations section.

Change to blue passport

Model released by UK Government showing what the new design could look like after Brexit

There was speculation regarding re-introduction of the old-style passport following completion of Brexit[29] but the government denied any immediate plans.[30] Such a change was supported by some due to its symbolic value, including Brexit Secretary David Davis,[31] while others thought the undue weight put on such a trivial change raises the question of whether the government is able to prioritise its order of business ahead of Brexit.[32][non-primary source needed] On 2 April 2017, Michael Fabricant MP said that security printing and banknote manufacturer De La Rue, who hold the current £400 million contract with HM Passport Office, had stated that the coat of arms would "contrast better on navy blue than it currently does on the maroon passports"[33] as part of their pre-tender discussions with the government.[34][35]The Sun newspaper launched a campaign in August 2016,[36] and a question was put to Home Secretary Amber Rudd in the House of Commons.[30]

In December 2017, Immigration Minister Brandon Lewis announced that the blue passport would "return" after the United Kingdom's exit from the European Union.[3] The announcement led to controversy regarding the actual colour of the pre-1988 passport, with Scottish Conservatives leader Ruth Davidson calling the campaign "baffling" as she "always thought [the old passports] were black", and Channel 4 political journalist Michael Crick saying that "any witness would describe [the passport as black] in court".[37]

Physical appearance

British passports are burgundy, with the coat of arms of the United Kingdom emblazoned in the centre of the front cover.

With the sole exception of emergency passports, which are printed and issued by British diplomatic missions, all other types of British passports have been printed and issued by Her Majesty's Passport Office (HMPO) in the United Kingdom since May 2015. Some British Overseas Territories, such as Bermuda, did not start forwarding applications to HMPO until June 2016 when their own passport book stock was depleted.[38]

There are three types of covers among British passports. Passports with the generic cover are issued to British citizens not residing in the Crown dependencies and Gibraltar, and persons holding all other types of British nationality. Passports issued to residents of the Crown dependencies and Gibraltar have a slightly variated cover. Passports issued to British Overseas Territories citizens residing in certain territories have a completely different cover, albeit with the same interior design.[39]

Generic design

Front cover

The words "UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND" are inscribed above the coat of arms, whilst the word "PASSPORT" is inscribed below. The biometric passport symbol EPassport logo.svg appears at the bottom of the front cover under the word "PASSPORT".

Until 30 March 2019 the words "EUROPEAN UNION" were printed at the top of British passports issued to British nationals who are considered "United Kingdom nationals for European Community purposes"[40] (i.e. British Citizens, British Subjects with the right of abode[41] in the UK and British Overseas Territories Citizens connected with Gibraltar).[42] It is not included at the top of other British passports (i.e. passports issued to British Nationals (Overseas), British Overseas Citizens, British Protected Persons, non-Gibraltarian British Overseas Territories Citizens and British Subjects without the right of abode in the UK)

Passport note

Generic British passports contain on their inside cover the following words in English only:

Her Britannic Majesty's Secretary of State Requests and requires in the Name of Her Majesty all those whom it may concern to allow the bearer to pass freely without let or hindrance, and to afford the bearer such assistance and protection as may be necessary.

In older passports, more specific reference was made to "Her Britannic Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs", originally including the name of the incumbent.

Information page

British passports issued by HM Passport Office include the following data on the information page:

  • Photograph of the owner/holder (digital image printed on page)
  • Type (P)
  • Code of issuing state (GBR)
  • Passport number
  • Surname (see note below regarding titles)
  • Given names
  • Nationality (the class of British nationality, such as "British Citizen" or "British Overseas Citizen", or if issued on behalf of a Commonwealth country, "Commonwealth Citizen"[43])
  • Date of birth
  • Sex (Gender)
  • Place of birth (only the city or town is listed, even if born outside the UK; places of birth in Wales are entered in Welsh upon request [44])
  • Date of issue
  • Authority
  • Date of expiry
  • Machine Readable Zone starting with P<GBR

The items are identified by text in English and French (e.g., "Date of birth/Date de naissance"); there is a section in which all this text is translated into Welsh and Scottish Gaelic.[45] Passports issued until March 2019 were translated into all official EU languages.

According to the UK government, the current policy of using titles on passports requires that the applicant provides evidence that the Lord Lyon has recognised a feudal barony, or the title is included in Burke's Peerage. If accepted (and if the applicant wishes to include the title), the correct form is for the applicant to include the territorial designation as part of their surname (Surname of territorial designation e.g. Smith of Inverglen). The Observation would then show the holder's full name, followed by their feudal title e.g. The holder is John Smith, Baron of Inverglen.

Function-related passports

Besides the ordinary passports described above, special passports are issued to government officials from which diplomatic status may (diplomatic passport) or may not (official passport) be conferred by the text on the cover. A special passport is available for the Queen's Messenger. The latter passport contains the text QUEEN'S MESSENGER - COURRIER DIPLOMATIQUE below the coat of arms, and the text "BRITISH PASSPORT" above it.[46]

Passports issued to residents of the Crown dependencies and Gibraltar

The front cover of a Gibraltar-issued biometric passport

British passports issued directly by the Crown dependencies as well as the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar are slightly different from those issued by HMPO to residents of the United Kingdom and to British nationals abroad.

Passports for British citizens connected to the Crown dependencies of Jersey, Guernsey and the Isle of Man do not carry the words "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland" on the front cover. In their place, these passports feature the words BRITISH ISLANDS -- BAILIWICK OF JERSEY or BAILIWICK OF GUERNSEY or ISLE OF MAN, as appropriate.

Gibraltar passport covers are virtually identical to British passports issued by Her Majesty's Passport Office, except that they feature the word GIBRALTAR directly above the coat of arms and below the words "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland."

In passports issued by the Crown dependencies, the passport note request is slightly different from those issued by the UK, coming from the Lieutenant Governor of the respective island. This difference results from the Crown dependencies owing allegiance to Queen Elizabeth II rather than the Government of the United Kingdom.

In Gibraltar passports, the "request" in the passport note is made by the Governor of Gibraltar instead of "Her Britannic Majesty's Secretary of State".

The issuing of a British Passport by the authorities in the Crown Dependencies cannot be inferred from the machine readable zone as the issuing country code and citizenship code (both GBR) is identical to passports issued by the United Kingdom for British Citizens.

Passports issued to residents of certain British Overseas Territories

Traditionally, British passports issued to BOTCs residing in certain British Overseas Territories (Anguilla, Bermuda, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Montserrat, St. Helena, and Turks & Caicos Islands) bear a different design, even when the HMPO assumed the responsibility of the manufacturing process of these passports in 2015.

Passports issued to BOTCs of those territories bear the words "BRITISH PASSPORT" above the royal coat of arms of Queen Elizabeth II and the name of the British Overseas Territory below it (e.g. "TURKS AND CAICOS ISLANDS"). The only exception is the design of Bermudian passports, which bears the wordings "GOVERNMENT OF BERMUDA" under the royal coat of arms.[47]

The nationality reads "British Overseas Territories citizen" regardless of the residence of the bearer. Previously, in the machine-readable zone, the three-letter ISO 3166-1 alpha-3 code of the territory is given in the field of the code of issuing state, while GBD (British Overseas Territories citizens, formerly British Dependent Territories citizens) is shown in the nationality field. Either of these features enabled automatic distinction between BOTCs related to different territories. Ever since the HMPO assumed the responsibility of the issuance of BOTC passports in 2015, however, the code of issuing state is changed to GBD for all territories, thus making it impossible to identify the holder's domicile without the aid of other features, such as the passport cover.[48]

Similar to passports issued to Crown dependencies and Gibraltar residents, the passport note request is made by the Governor of the British Overseas Territory on behalf of "Her Majesty's Secretary of State".[49]

Multiple passports

People who have valid reasons may be allowed to hold more than one passport booklet. This applies usually to people who travel frequently on business, and may need to have a passport booklet to travel on while the other is awaiting a visa for another country. Some Muslim-majority countries including Syria, Lebanon, Libya, Kuwait, Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, and Yemen do not issue visas to visitors if their passports bear a stamp or visa issued by Israel, as a result of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. In that case, a person can apply for a second passport[50] to avoid travel issues. Reasons and supporting documentation (such as a letter from an employer) must be provided.[51]

In addition, a person who has dual British citizenship and British Overseas Territories citizenship are allowed to hold two British passports under different statuses at the same time. Persons who acquired their BOTC status with a connection to Gibraltar or Falkland Islands, however, are not eligible due to differences in regulations, and their BOTC passports will be cancelled when their British citizen passports are issued even when they possess both citizenships.[52]

Observations

Certain British passports are issued with printed endorsements on the Official Observations page, usually in upper case (capital letters). They form part of the passport when it is issued, as distinct from immigration stamps subsequently entered in the visa pages. Some examples are:[53][52]

  • The Holder is not entitled to benefit from European Union provisions relating to employment or establishment
British citizens from Jersey, Guernsey and the Isle of Man without a qualifying connection to the United Kingdom by descent or residency for more than five years have this endorsement in their passports. Moreover, British Nationals (Overseas) would have the same endorsement if they renew their BN(O) passport after 29 March 2019.
  • The Holder of this passport has Hong Kong permanent identity card no XXXXXXXX which states that the holder has the right of abode in Hong Kong
British Nationals (Overseas) (BN(O)s) have this endorsement in their passports, as registration as a BN(O) before 1997 required the applicant to hold a valid Hong Kong permanent identity card, which guaranteed the holder's right of abode in Hong Kong. Such persons would continue to have right of abode or right to land in Hong Kong after the transfer of sovereignty of Hong Kong in 1997 under the Immigration Ordinance. This endorsement is also found in a British citizen passport when the holder has both British citizenship and BN(O) status.[52]
  • The Holder is entitled to right of abode in the United Kingdom
British Subjects with the right of abode (usually from Ireland) have this endorsement in their passports.
  • The Holder is entitled to readmission in the United Kingdom
British Overseas Citizens who have been granted indefinite leave to enter or remain after 1968 retain this entitlement for life as their ILR is not subject to the two-year expiration rule,[54] and their passports are accordingly issued with this endorsement.
  • The Holder is subject to control under the Immigration Act 1971
British nationals without the right of abode in the UK will have this endorsements in their passports unless they have been granted indefinite leave to enter or remain. However, even though a BN(O) passport does not entitle the holder the right of abode in the UK, this endorsement is not found in BN(O) passports (1999 and biometric versions).
  • In accordance with the United Kingdom immigration rules the holder of this passport does not require an entry certificate or visa to visit the United Kingdom
This endorsement is found in BN(O) passports, and accordingly holders of BN(O) passports are allowed to enter the UK as a visitor without an entry certificate or visa for up to six months per entry.
  • The Holder is also a British National (Overseas)
British citizens who also possess BN(O) status will have this endorsement in their passports to signify their additional status, as the two passports cannot be held at the same time.[52]
  • The Holder is or The Holder is also known as ...
This endorsement is found in passports where the holder uses or retains another professional, stage or religious name and is known by it "for all purposes", or has a recognised form of address, academic, feudal or legal title (e.g. Doctor, Judge, Queen's Counsel, Professor, Minister of Religion) regarded as important identifiers of an individual.[53] The styling 'Dr ...', 'Professor ...' or similar is recorded here, or the alternative professional/stage/religious name, usually on request by the passport holder.[53] For example, Cliff Richard's birth name was Harry Webb, and the passport Observations page would read:

"The Holder is also known as Cliff Richard"

This endorsement is also found in the passport of persons with Peerage titles, members of the Privy Council, holders of knighthoods and other decorations, etc, to declare the holder's title.
Also, this endorsement is found if the passport holder's name is too long to fit within the 30-character limits (including spaces) on the passport information page; applies to each line reserved for the surname and the first given name including any middle name(s).[55] In this scenario the holder's full name will be written out in full on the Observations page.[55] According to the UK passport agency guidelines, a person with a long or multiple given name, which cannot fit within the 30-character passport information page limits, should enter as much of the first given name, followed by the initials of all middle names (if any).[55] The same advice applies to a long or multiple surname. The holder's full name is then shown printed out in its entirety on the passport Observations page.[53][55] For example, Kiefer Sutherland's birth name would read on the passport information page:

Surname: "Sutherland"
Given names: "Kiefer W F D G R"

Observations page:

"The Holder is Kiefer William Frederick Dempsey George Rufus Sutherland"

  • The holder's name in Chinese Commercial Code: XXXX XXXX XXXX
This endorsement was found in BN(O)[] and Hong Kong British Dependent Territories Citizen passports held by BN(O)s and British Dependent Territories Citizens with a connection to Hong Kong who have a Chinese name recognised by the Hong Kong Immigration Department before the handover. After the handover, British passport issued in Hong Kong can only be issued at the British Consulate-General, and this endorsement is no longer in use. (See also: Chinese commercial code)
  • Holder is a dependant of a member of Her Britannic Majesty's Diplomatic Service
This endorsement is found in British passports held by people who are dependants or spouses of British diplomats.

Abandoned plans for "next generation" biometric passports and national identity registration

There had been plans, under the Identity Cards Act 2006, to link passports to the Identity Cards scheme. However, in the Conservative - Liberal Democrat Coalition Agreement that followed the 2010 General Election, the new government announced that they planned to scrap the ID card scheme, the National Identity Register, and the next generation of biometric passports, as part of their measures 'to reverse the substantial erosion of civil liberties under the Labour Government and roll back state intrusion.'[56][57]

The Identity Cards Act 2006 would have required any person applying for a passport to have their details entered into a centralised computer database, the National Identity Register, part of the National Identity Scheme associated with identity cards and passports. Once registered, they would also have been obliged to update any change to their address and personal details. The identity card was expected to cost up to £60 (with £30 going to the Government, and the remainder charged as processing fees by the companies that would be collecting the fingerprints and photographs).[58] In May 2005 the Government said that the cost for a combined identity card and passport would be £93 plus processing fees.[59]

The next generation of biometric passports, which would have contained chips holding facial images and fingerprints,[60] were to have been issued from 2012. Everyone applying for a passport from 2012 would have had their 10 fingerprints digitally scanned and stored on a database, although only two would have been recorded in the passport.[61]

Monarch

The Queen, Elizabeth II, does not have a passport because passports are issued in her name and on her authority, thus making it superfluous for her to hold one.[62] All other members of the royal family, however, including the Queen's husband Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh and their son, heir apparent Charles, Prince of Wales, do have passports.[62]

Visa requirements

Visa requirements for British citizens
  United Kingdom
  Freedom of movement
  Visa not required
  Visa on arrival
  eVisa
  Visa available both on arrival or online
  Visa required prior to arrival

Visa requirements for British citizens are administrative entry restrictions by the authorities of other states placed on citizens of the United Kingdom. As of 26 March 2019, holders of regular British Citizen passports had visa-free or visa on arrival access to 185 countries and territories, ranking the British Citizen passport 5th in the world in terms of travel freedom (tied with Austrian, Dutch, Norwegian, Portuguese and Swiss passports) according to the Henley Passport Index.[63] Additionally, Arton Capital's Passport Index ranked the British Citizen passport 3rd in the world in terms of travel freedom, with a visa-free score of 163 (tied with Austrian, Belgian, Canadian, Greek, Irish, Japanese, Portuguese and Swiss passports), as of 17 October 2018.[64]

Visa requirements for other categories of British nationals, namely British Nationals (Overseas), British Overseas Citizens, British Overseas Territories Citizens, British Protected Persons, and British Subjects, are different.

Foreign travel statistics

According to the Foreign travel advice provided by the British Government (unless otherwise noted) these are the numbers of British visitors to various countries per annum in 2015 (unless otherwise noted):[65]

Foreign travel statistics
Country Number of visitors
 Albania[note 1] 80,000
 American Samoa[note 2][66][67][failed verification] 119
 Angola[note 3][68] 14,267/12,319 ?
 Andorra[note 4] 150,000
 Angola[68] 12,319
 Anguilla[note 4][69] 5,021
 Antarctica[note 2][70] 3,915
 Antigua and Barbuda[note 2][71] 70,701
 Aruba[note 1][72] 10,447
 Australia[note 2][73] 731,900
 Austria[note 5][note 4][74] 919,500
 Azerbaijan[note 4][75] 29,514
 Bahamas[76] 28,022
 Bangladesh[note 1] 150,000
 Barbados[note 5][note 4][77] 218,638
 Belarus[note 4] 6,000
 Belgium[note 4][78] 868,173
 Belize[note 4][note 5][79] 13,342
 Bermuda[note 2][80] 41,348
 Bhutan[note 2][81] 3,246
 Bolivia[note 4][82] 17,528
 Bosnia and Herzegovina[note 2][83] 12,715
 Botswana[84] 41,011
 Brazil[note 2][85] 185,858
 Brunei[note 6][86] 18,222
 Bulgaria[note 7][87] 424,384
 Burkina Faso[note 4][88] 1,343
 Cambodia[note 4][89] 159,489
 Cameroon[note 1][note 5][90] 16,008
 Canada[note 2][91] 819,530
 Cape Verde[note 5][92] 126,685
 Cayman Islands[note 2][note 8][93] 14,017
 Chile[note 2][94] 54,714
 China[note 4][95][96] 594,300
 Colombia[97] 39,715
 Congo[note 9][98] 6,115
 Cook Islands[note 2][66][99] 2,954
 Costa Rica[note 2][100] 76,173
 Croatia[note 2][101] 750,675
 Cuba[102] 155,802
 Curacao[note 4][103] 2,806
 Cyprus[note 7][104] 1,327,805
 Czech Republic[note 5][note 2][105] 470,576
 Denmark[note 1] 150,000
 Dominica[106] 4,951
 Dominican Republic[note 2][107] 177,534
 Ecuador[note 1][108] 27,126
 Egypt 865,000
 Ethiopia[note 1] 20,000
 Estonia[note 5][note 2][109] 58,402
 Fiji[note 2][110] 16,925
 Finland[note 5][note 7][111] 232,071
 France[112] 12,235,713
 French Polynesia[note 2][113] 2,840
 Gambia[note 9][114] 60,424
 Ghana[note 1] 90,000
 Georgia[note 7][115] 29,406
 Germany[note 4][116] 2,551,061
 Greece[117] 2,397,169
 Greenland[note 4][118] 1,595
 Grenada[note 2][119] 25,351
 Guadeloupe[note 1] <1,000
 Hong Kong[note 2][120] 555,353
 Hungary[note 5][note 4][121] 376,573
 Iceland[note 7][122] 297,963
 Indonesia[note 4][123] 352,017
 India[note 2][124] 986,296
 Ireland[125] 3,547,000
 Israel[note 2][126] 198,500
 Italy[note 4][127] 4,922,000
 Jamaica[note 2][128] 217,647
 Japan[note 2][129] 310,500
 Jordan[note 4][130] 64,776
 Kazakhstan[note 2][131] 21,341
 Kiribati[note 2][66][132] 173
 Kuwait[note 4] 7,000
 Kenya[note 3] 100,000
 Kyrgyzstan[note 2][133] 6,900
 Laos[note 2][134] 27,723
 Latvia[note 5][note 2][135] 95,357
 Lebanon[note 4][136] 61,994
 Lesotho[note 10][137] 2,380
 Liechtenstein[note 1] 2,200
 Lithuania[note 4][138] 58,200
 Luxembourg[note 4][note 5][139] 69,350
 Macau[note 2][140] 57,121
 Macedonia[note 4][note 5][141] 8,856
 Madagascar[142] 3,167
 Malaysia[note 2][143] 358,818
 Malawi[note 11][144] 51,145
 Maldives[note 2][145] 103,977
 Malta[note 7][146] 640,570
 Mali[note 1][147] 900
 Marshall Islands[note 2][66] 51
 Mauritius[note 2][145] 149,807
 Mexico[note 2][note 8][148] 563,099
 Moldova[note 2][149] 11,555
 Mongolia[note 2][150] 6,012
 Montenegro[note 5][note 4][151] 37,464
 Montserrat[note 12][152] 1,380
 Morocco[153] 554,000
 Myanmar[note 4][154] 51,051
 Namibia[155] 27,365
   Nepal[156] 29,730
 New Caledonia[note 2][66] 708
 Nigeria[note 1] 117,000
 Niue[note 2][66][157] 146
 Norway[note 1] 581,000
 Netherlands[note 2][158] 2,195,000
 New Zealand[note 2][159] 249,264
 Nicaragua[note 4][160] 16,923
 Oman[note 2][161] 143,224
 Pakistan[note 11][162] 275,400
 Palau[note 4][163] 852
 Panama[164] 16,338
 Papua New Guinea[note 4][165] 6,974
 Peru[note 2][166] 69,506
 Philippines[note 2][167] 182,708
 Poland[note 4][168] 796,900
 Portugal 2,600,000
 Qatar[note 2][169] 120,495
 Romania[note 4][170] 179,265
 Russia[note 2][171] 193,522
 Saba[note 1][note 8][172] 200
 Saint Lucia[173] 68,175
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines[174] 17,045
 Samoa[note 2][66][175] 1,422
 San Marino 5,750
 São Tomé and Príncipe[note 13][176] 83
 Serbia[note 7][note 5][177] 32,802
 Seychelles[note 2][178] 21,906
 Singapore[note 2][179] 518,903
 Sint Eustatius[note 1][note 8][172] 200
 Slovakia[note 4][note 5][180] 77,837
 Slovenia[note 2][note 5][181] 118,508
 Solomon Islands[note 2][182] 496
 South Africa[183] 407,486
 South Korea[note 2][184] 126,024
 Spain[note 7][185] 18,502,722
 Sri Lanka[note 2][186] 201,879
 Suriname[note 2][187] 1,077
 Swaziland[note 4][188] 15,503
  Switzerland 709,925
 Sweden[note 1][189] 603,000
 Taiwan[note 2][190] 104,911
 Tanzania[note 4][191] 67,742
 Thailand[note 2][192] 994,468
 Timor-Leste[note 2][66][note 8][193] 1,253
 Tonga[note 2][66][194] 1,102
 Trinidad and Tobago[note 1][195] 37,473
 Turkey[note 7][196] 2,254,871
 Turks and Caicos[197] 6,399
 Tuvalu[note 2][66][198] 59
 Uganda[note 10][199] 43,009
 Uruguay[note 1] 20,000
 Ukraine[note 2][200] 78,603
 United Arab Emirates[note 2][201] 1,265,000
 United States[note 2][note 14][202] 5,076,167
 Uzbekistan[note 3][203] 1,800
 Venezuela[note 10][204] 20,837
 Vietnam[note 2][205] 283,537
 Zambia[206] 36,997
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Data for 2014
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl Data for 2017
  3. ^ a b c Data for 2015
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah Data for 2016
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Counting only guests in tourist accommodation establishments.
  6. ^ Data for 2011
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i Data for 2018
  8. ^ a b c d e Data for arrivals by air only.
  9. ^ a b Data for 2012
  10. ^ a b c Data for 2013
  11. ^ a b Data for 2009
  12. ^ Data for 2010
  13. ^ Data for 2005
  14. ^ Total number includes tourists, business travelers, students, exchange visitors, temporary workers and families, diplomats and other representatives and all other classes of nonimmigrant admissions (I-94).

Gallery of British passports

See also

References

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