Bryansk
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Bryansk
Bryansk

Collage of Bryansk
Collage of Bryansk
Flag of Bryansk
Flag
Coat of arms of Bryansk
Coat of arms
Anthem: none[2]
Location of Bryansk
Bryansk is located in Russia
Bryansk
Bryansk
Location of Bryansk
Bryansk is located in Bryansk Oblast
Bryansk
Bryansk
Bryansk (Bryansk Oblast)
Coordinates: 53°14?N 34°22?E / 53.233°N 34.367°E / 53.233; 34.367Coordinates: 53°14?N 34°22?E / 53.233°N 34.367°E / 53.233; 34.367
CountryRussia
Federal subjectBryansk Oblast[1]
Founded985[3] or 1146[4]
Government
 o BodyCouncil of People's Deputies[5]
 o Head[5]Alexander Khlimankov[6]
Area
 o Total186.73 km2 (72.10 sq mi)
Elevation
190 m (620 ft)
Population
 o Total415,721
 o Estimate 
(January 2015)[8]
426,225
 o Rank41st in 2010
 o Density2,200/km2 (5,800/sq mi)
 o Subordinated toBryansky Urban Administrative Okrug (city of oblast significance)[9]
 o Capital ofBryansk Oblast[1], Bryansky Urban Administrative Okrug[9]
 o Urban okrugBryansk Urban Okrug[10]
 o Capital ofBryansk Urban Okrug[10]
Time zoneUTC+3 (MSK Edit this on Wikidata[11])
Postal code(s)[12]
241000-241002, 241004, 241006, 241007, 241010-241025, 241027-241031, 241033, 241035-241041, 241044, 241044, 241047, 241050, 241890, 241899, 241960-241967, 241970, 241980-241983, 241985, 241988, 241991
Dialing code(s)+7 4832
OKTMO ID15701000001
City DaySeptember 17
Twin townsGy?r, Konin, Dobele, Dupnitsa, Gomel, Karlovo, Naujoji Akmen?, Oryol, Severodvinsk, Omsk, Auce, Mogilyov, Chernihiv, Minsk, Chernivtsi, Izhevsk, Auce MunicipalityEdit this on Wikidata
Websitewww.bga32.ru

Bryansk (Russian: , IPA: [br?ansk]) is a city and the administrative center of Bryansk Oblast, Russia, located 379 kilometers (235 mi) southwest of Moscow. Population: ;[7];[13].[14]

History

The first written mention of Bryansk , as Debryansk, dates to 1146 in the Hypatian Codex. The name appears variously as , , and in other spellings.[4] Etymologically, it derives from "", a Slavic word for "ditch", "lowland", or "dense woodland";[15][16] the area was known for its dense woods, of which very little remains today. Local authorities and archaeologists, however, believe that the town had existed as early as 985[3] as a fortified settlement on the right bank of the Desna River.

Bryansk remained poorly attested until the 1237-1242 Mongol invasion of Rus'. It was the northernmost of the Severian cities in the possession of the Chernigov Rurikids. After the Mongols murdered Prince Mikhail of Chernigov in 1246 and his capital was destroyed, his son Roman Mikhailovich moved his seat to Bryansk. In 1310, when the Mongols sacked the town again, it belonged to the Principality of Smolensk.

Grand Duke Algirdas of Lithuania acquired Bryansk through inheritance in 1356 and gave it to his son, Dmitry the Elder. Until the end of the century Grand Duke Jogaila of Lithuania, Grand Duke Vytautas of Lithuania, the future Grand Duke ?vitrigaila of Lithuania, and Grand Duke Yury of Smolensk contested control of the town.

The Grand Duchy of Moscow conquered Bryansk following the Battle of Vedrosha in 1503. The town was turned into a fortress which played a major role during the Time of Troubles (1598-1613). During the Time of Troubles the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth occupied the town in 1610, and it remained in Polish hands as part of Smolensk Voivodeship until the Truce of Deulino in 1634. In 1709 Tsar Peter the Great incorporated Bryansk into the Kiev Governorate, but Empress Catherine the Great deemed it wise to transfer the town to the newly-formed Oryol Governorate in 1779. She also promulgated the town's coat of arms (August 1781).

In the 17th and 18th centuries the economy of Bryansk, which had become a regional trading center, was based on the Svenskaya fair (Russian: ?), the largest in European Russia. The fair took place annually under the auspices of the nearby Svensky Monastery. After the town started to manufacture cannon and ammunition for the Imperial Russian Navy in 1783, Bryansk evolved from a regional market town into an important industrial center for metallurgy and textiles. The city's population exceeded 30,000 by 1917.[17] In 1812 Napoleon's Grande Armée fought the Russians in Bryansk and in Orel during the French invasion of Russia.

View of May Day at Gagarin Boulevard in 1920

In 1918 the Belarusian People's Republic claimed Bryansk, but Bolshevik forces took the town in 1919. During World War II the German Wehrmacht captured Bryansk and the town remained under Axis occupation (from October 6, 1941 to September 17, 1943), with the city left heavily damaged by fighting. About 60,000 Soviet partisans were active in and around Bryansk, inflicting heavy losses on the German army. In 1944, soon after its liberation, Bryansk became the administrative center of Bryansk Oblast.

Administrative and municipal status

Bryansk is the administrative center of the oblast.[1] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with three work settlements (Belye Berega, Bolshoye Polpino, and Raditsa-Krylovka), incorporated separately as Bryansky Urban Administrative Okrug--an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, Bryansky Urban Administrative Okrug is incorporated as Bryansk Urban Okrug.[10]

Economy

Today's Bryansk is an important center for steel and machinery manufacturing, and is home to many large factories. The main industries are machine building, metalworking, chemical, electrical equipment, electronics, wood, textile and food industries, locomotives, diesel engines, freight cars, motor graders, pavers and other road equipment, agricultural equipment, construction materials, and garments.

Transportation

Bryansk-I, May 2010

Since 1868, there is a railway connection between Bryansk and Moscow.[18] The city has railway stations: Bryansk Orlovsky and Bryansk-Lgovskiy (Bryansk Bryansk -I and -II, respectively), Ordzhonikidzegrad; Street Bus Station and Peresvet Bezhitsa bus station. fourteen kilometres (9 miles) west of the city lies the Bryansk International Airport.

Passenger traffic carried by bus (more than 1,400 cars on 54 permanent urban routes), trolley on 10 regular routes, uses (36 routes), as well as commuter trains and railcars. The cost of public transport (trolley buses) is 16 rubles, and buses, 20 rubles (as of May 2018).

Notable people

Russian cosmonaut Viktor Afanasyev, shot put athlete Svetlana Krivelyova, sculptor and architect Naum Gabo, classical pianist Valentina Igoshina, and MMA fighter Vitaly Minakov were born in Bryansk. Bulgarian communist leader Stanke Dimitrov (Marek) died in an aviation accident near the city. The writer Leonid Dobychin spent most of his adult years there. Swimmer Victoria Kaminskaya was born in Bryansk.

Climate

Bryansk has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb).

Climate data for Bryansk
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 7.6
(45.7)
9.9
(49.8)
20.2
(68.4)
28.3
(82.9)
32.3
(90.1)
34.9
(94.8)
37.7
(99.9)
38.4
(101.1)
30.7
(87.3)
24.8
(76.6)
17.1
(62.8)
9.9
(49.8)
38.4
(101.1)
Average high °C (°F) -3.5
(25.7)
-3.0
(26.6)
2.8
(37.0)
12.0
(53.6)
19.0
(66.2)
22.1
(71.8)
23.9
(75.0)
22.7
(72.9)
16.5
(61.7)
9.7
(49.5)
1.6
(34.9)
-2.7
(27.1)
10.1
(50.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) -6.0
(21.2)
-6.1
(21.0)
-0.8
(30.6)
7.2
(45.0)
13.7
(56.7)
17.1
(62.8)
18.9
(66.0)
17.5
(63.5)
11.9
(53.4)
6.1
(43.0)
-0.7
(30.7)
-4.9
(23.2)
6.2
(43.2)
Average low °C (°F) -8.6
(16.5)
-9.1
(15.6)
-4.2
(24.4)
3.0
(37.4)
8.6
(47.5)
12.3
(54.1)
14.2
(57.6)
12.9
(55.2)
7.9
(46.2)
3.0
(37.4)
-2.8
(27.0)
-7.3
(18.9)
2.5
(36.5)
Record low °C (°F) -41.8
(-43.2)
-34.9
(-30.8)
-29.6
(-21.3)
-21.8
(-7.2)
-4.2
(24.4)
-1.3
(29.7)
2.2
(36.0)
0.1
(32.2)
-5.2
(22.6)
-13.0
(8.6)
-23.6
(-10.5)
-38.6
(-37.5)
-41.8
(-43.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 46
(1.8)
41
(1.6)
38
(1.5)
43
(1.7)
57
(2.2)
80
(3.1)
87
(3.4)
69
(2.7)
63
(2.5)
56
(2.2)
53
(2.1)
50
(2.0)
683
(26.9)
Average rainy days 7 6 8 14 16 18 17 14 16 16 14 10 156
Average snowy days 23 21 14 4 0.4 0 0 0 0.4 4 14 22 103
Average relative humidity (%) 85 82 76 68 65 69 71 72 77 81 87 87 77
Mean monthly sunshine hours 18.6 58.8 133.3 180.0 282.1 264.0 294.5 260.4 171.0 83.7 27.0 21.7 1,795.1
Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net[19]
Source #2: Climatebase (sun, 1949-2011)[20]

Culture and education

Monument of Kurgan of Immortality

Bryansk has two universities, three theaters, and a technical academy.

Twin towns and sister cities

Bryansk is twinned with:

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e Law #13-Z
  2. ^ Article 6 of the Charter of Bryansk states that the symbols of the oblast include a flag and a coat of arms, but not an anthem.
  3. ^ a b . Moscow ? . 2003. p. 56. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9.
  4. ^ a b Hypatian Codex
  5. ^ a b Charter of Bryansk, Article 24
  6. ^ Official website of Bryansk Council of People's Deputies. Alexander Anatolyevich Khlimankov, Head of the City of Bryansk
  7. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "? 2010 ?.  1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. ? 2010 ? [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  8. ^ Bryansk Oblast Territorial Branch of the Federal State Statistics Service. ? ? ? ? ? 1 2015 ? (in Russian)
  9. ^ a b Law #69-Z
  10. ^ a b c Law #3-Z
  11. ^ " ? ?". - ? (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved 2019.
  12. ^ . ?- ? . (Russian Post). (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  13. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). " , ? ? ? ?, ?, , ? ? - ? ? ? ? ? ? 3  ? ?" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities--Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). ? 2002 ? [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  14. ^ "? 1989 ?. ? ? ? , ? ? ?, , , ?, ? -?" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. ? 1989 ? [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). ? ? : [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
  15. ^  ?. ?.?- ? . , ? ?-, 2004
  16. ^  ?. ?.? ? . , -, 2002
  17. ^ ? ?
  18. ^ "Train Station in Bryansk" (in Russian). Archived from the original on March 23, 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  19. ^ "Weather and Climate- The Climate of Bryansk" (in Russian). Weather and Climate ( ? ). Retrieved 2015.
  20. ^ "Brjansk Climate Normals". Climatebase. Retrieved 2015.

Sources

  • . 30 2005 ?. « ?», ? . ? No173  29 2015 ?. «? ? ? ? ?». ? ? ?  ?. : "", No23, 7 ? 2005 ?. (Bryansk City Council of People's Deputies. November 30, 2005 Charter of the City of Bryansk, as amended by the Decision #173 of April 29, 2015 On Amending and Supplementing the Charter of the City of Bryansk. Effective as of after the official publication.).
  • ?.  No13-?  5 ? 1997 ?. « - ? ?», ? . No4-?  5 ? 2014 ?. «? ? ? ?». : " ?", No119, 24 ? 1997 ?. (Bryansk Oblast Duma. Law #13-Z of June 5, 1997 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Bryansk Oblast, as amended by the Law #4-Z of February 5, 2014 On Amending Various Legislative Acts of Bryansk Oblast. ).
  • ?.  No69-?  2 2012 ?. « ? ?, ? ? ?, ? ?, , ? ? ? ? ? ? ?». ? ? ? 1  2013 ?. ? " ", No16, 6 2012 ?.. (Bryansk Oblast Duma. Law #69-Z of November 2, 2002 On the Establishment of Urban Administrative Okrugs, Settlement Administrative Okrugs, Rural Administrative Okrugs, on Establishing Borders, Names, and Administrative Centers of the Administrative Okrugs of Bryansk Oblast. Effective as of January 1, 2013.).
  • ?.  No3-?  9 2005 ?. «? ? ? , , ? , ? ? ? ?», ? . No75-?  28 2015 ?. « ? ? ? ?». ? ? ?  10 ? ?. : " ", No13, 8 2005 ?. (Bryansk Oblast Duma. Law #3-Z of March 9, 2005 On Granting the Municipal Formations the Status of Urban Okrug, Municipal District, Urban Settlement, Rural Settlement and on Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations of Bryansk Oblast, as amended by the Law #75-Z of September 28, 2015 On Changing the Status of the Inhabited Locality the Settlement of Krasny Yatvizh in Kletnyansky District of Bryansk Oblast. Effective as of the day which is 10 days after the official publication.).

External links


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Bryansk
 



 



 
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