The camp was built as a mixture of tents and huts in 1897. The section called Sling Camp was occupied by soldiers of the New Zealand Expeditionary Force during the First World War. At the end of the war, the overcrowded camp was the site of the Battle of Bulford, when New Zealand troops staged a brief mutiny. Later, New Zealanders awaiting demobilization left their mark by creating the Bulford Kiwi, a large chalk figure on the hillside overlooking the camp.
Permanent barracks were built during the inter-war years: the current names were applied in 1931. Carter Barracks, a hutted camp north of Bulford Droveway, beyond the northern boundary of the present site, were built in 1939-40 and demolished in 1978.
The modern-day Bulford Camp is on two sites, separated by Marlborough Road. The camp on the eastern side contains Picton Barracks which since 1992 has housed the headquarters of 3rd (UK) Division and its Signals Regiment. Kiwi Barracks, where many of the streets are named after New Zealand towns, houses 3rd Regiment Royal Military Police. 5th Battalion The Rifles moved to Bulford Camp from Germany in 2016.
The garrison church of St George was built in 1920-1927. Pevsner describes it as "large, Perpendicular, spick and span and smug".
The Catholic church of Our Lady Queen of Peace was built in 1968, replacing a church of Our Lady of Victories which was opened in 1925.
Kiwi Primary School, under County Council control since 1948, serves the camp from a building which was opened in 1965.
The first school at the camp was opened in Wing Barracks before 1915, then transferred to the County Council in 1948 and renamed Wing County Junior School in 1955. In 1963 this school was combined with Kiwi Infants' County School to form the present Kiwi School. Until 1997 there was a second primary school, Haig County Primary School.
In 1906 the Amesbury and Military Camp Light Railway was extended from Amesbury into the camp. The station within the camp was the terminus for personnel while a goods track extended into Sling Camp. This extension was removed in 1933; the whole line closed to passengers in 1952 but goods services continued until 1963.
^"Merely For the Record": The Memoirs of Donald Christopher Smith 1894-1980. By Donald Christopher Smith. Edited by John William Cox, Jr. Bermuda. (A Bermudian officer (1914 Rhodes Scholar for Bermuda, later a prominent lawyer, and a Member of the Colonial Parliament (MCP) of Bermuda for twenty years) serving in the Royal Field Artillery, Lieutenant Smith's unit, among others, was sent with small arms to surround Bulford Camp for two days, after which the mutiny fizzled out).