Burgas
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Burgas
Burgas

City
Top to bottom, left to right: View of Slaveikov district at Night, Marine Casino Center in Burgas Sea Garden, A fountain in Tsaritsa Ioanna Square, View of Clock in Transportana shopping area, Panteona Complex Building, Bogorids Street, St. Cyril and Methodius Cathedral, Burgas Art Gallery, View of Burgas Sand Sculptures event in Sea Garden, The Pier at the Burgas Central Beach
Top to bottom, left to right: View of Slaveikov district at Night, Marine Casino Center in Burgas Sea Garden, A fountain in Tsaritsa Ioanna Square, View of Clock in Transportana shopping area, Panteona Complex Building, Bogorids Street, St. Cyril and Methodius Cathedral, Burgas Art Gallery, View of Burgas Sand Sculptures event in Sea Garden, The Pier at the Burgas Central Beach
Flag of Burgas
Flag
Coat of arms of Burgas
Coat of arms
Nicknames: 
The city of sea and lakes
The city of the dreams
Burgas is located in Bulgaria
Burgas
Burgas
Location of Burgas
Coordinates: 42°29?43?N 27°28?18?E / 42.49528°N 27.47167°E / 42.49528; 27.47167Coordinates: 42°29?43?N 27°28?18?E / 42.49528°N 27.47167°E / 42.49528; 27.47167
CountryBulgaria
Province (Oblast)Burgas
MunicipalityBurgas
Government
 o MayorDimitar Nikolov
Area
 o Total253.644 km2 (97.932 sq mi)
Elevation
30 m (100 ft)
Population
(2014-31-12)
 o TotalIncrease 202,694 (within city limits)
 o Urban
Decrease 277,922 [1]
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
 o Summer (DST)UTC+3 (EEST)
Postal Code
8000-8034
Area code(s)+359 056
WebsiteOfficial website

Burgas (Bulgarian: , pronounced [bur'?as]), sometimes transliterated as Bourgas, is the second largest city on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast and the fourth-largest in Bulgaria after Sofia, Plovdiv, and Varna, with a population of 202,694 inhabitants, while 277,922 live in its urban area. It is the capital of Burgas Province and an important industrial, transport, cultural and tourist centre.

The city is surrounded by the Burgas Lakes and located at the westernmost point of the Black Sea, at the large Burgas Bay. The LUKOIL Neftochim Burgas is the largest oil refinery in southeastern Europe and the largest industrial enterprise. The Port of Burgas is the largest port in Bulgaria, and Burgas Airport is the second most important in the country. Burgas is the centre of the Bulgarian fishing and fish processing industry.[2]

Names

Burgas as seen from space

A similar literal composition have the cities Burgos in Spain and numerous cities containing the Germanic burg "city" such as Hamburg. It is widely considered, including by the city's official website, that the name of the city is derived from the Latin word "burgos" as meaning a "tower", after a local ancient Roman travel post, which used to be in the area of today's Burgas Port. 15 centuries later, the settlement was mentioned by the Byzantine poet Manuel Phil as "Pyrgos" (Greek: ), a word identical in meaning with the Greek word for tower.[3][4] The name passed to Bulgarian through the Turkish Burgaz. There are several alternative explanations for the name's origin. By one of them, the city's name comes from Gothic name "baurgs" as meaning "signified consolidated walled villages".[5] According to Bulgarian prof. Kiril Vlahov, the name of the city comes from the Thracian word "pyurg" as meaning "fortification of wooden beams". It is also suggested that the name ultimately comes from the name of khan Burtaz (683-633 BC).

Geography

Topography

Burgas is situated at the westernmost point of the bay by the same name and in the eastern part of the Burgas Plain, in the east of the Upper Thracian Plain. Burgas is located some 389 kilometres (242 mi) from Sofia, 272 km (169 mi) from Plovdiv, and 335 km (208 mi) from Istanbul. To the west, south and north, the city is surrounded by the Burgas Lakes: Burgas, Atanasovsko and Mandrensko, which are home to several hundred bird species. Pan-European corridor 8 passes through the city,[6] the European routes E87 and E773, and the longest national rout I/6.

The St. Anastasia Island is a part of the city.

Climate

Burgas has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa) but with continental influences. The summertime in Burgas lasts about five months from mid-May until late September. Average temperatures during high season is 24 °C (75 °F). Summertime sea temperatures stay around 23-24 °C (73-75 °F) at sunrise and go up to 29-30 °C (84-86 °F) at dawn, averaging 26 °C (79 °F). Winters are milder compared with the inland part of the country, with average temperatures of 4-5 °C (39-41 °F) and below 0 °C (32 °F) during the night. Snow is possible in December, January, February and rarely in March; however, it can quickly melt. The highest temperature was recorded in August 2003, at 42.8 °C (109 °F) and the lowest at -17.8 °C (0 °F) in January 1952.

Climate data for Burgas, Bulgaria (1961-2013)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 6.4
(43.5)
8.1
(46.6)
11.3
(52.3)
16.0
(60.8)
21.2
(70.2)
25.8
(78.4)
28.4
(83.1)
28.2
(82.8)
24.4
(75.9)
19.1
(66.4)
12.9
(55.2)
8.3
(46.9)
17.6
(63.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) 2.1
(35.8)
3.2
(37.8)
6.1
(43.0)
10.5
(50.9)
15.6
(60.1)
20.2
(68.4)
22.7
(72.9)
22.4
(72.3)
18.6
(65.5)
13.6
(56.5)
8.2
(46.8)
4.1
(39.4)
12.3
(54.1)
Average low °C (°F) -1.4
(29.5)
-0.7
(30.7)
1.9
(35.4)
6.1
(43.0)
10.7
(51.3)
15.1
(59.2)
17.4
(63.3)
17.2
(63.0)
13.5
(56.3)
9.1
(48.4)
4.4
(39.9)
0.6
(33.1)
7.9
(46.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 44.3
(1.74)
37
(1.5)
48.2
(1.90)
69.9
(2.75)
50
(2.0)
62.1
(2.44)
47.7
(1.88)
28.5
(1.12)
45.5
(1.79)
52.3
(2.06)
68
(2.7)
45.1
(1.78)
599
(23.6)
Average precipitation days 8.1 7.5 8.1 9.7 9.2 9.1 6.1 4.7 5.3 6.6 9.0 9.1 92.6
Average relative humidity (%) 80.2 77.6 75.3 76.4 76 73.4 70.9 71.4 72.2 77.1 79.2 80.6 75.9
Mean monthly sunshine hours 76 90 127 177 248 272 329 303 244 165 98 63 2,192
Source: Climatebase.ru[7]

Flora and fauna

The Burgas Wetlands are highly recognized for their significance to biodiversity and as a resource pool for products used by people.

Lake Burgas is Bulgaria's largest lake and is in the middle of the city. It is important for migrating birds. Over 250 species of birds inhabit the lake area, 61 of which are endangered in Bulgaria and 9 globally, attracting keen birdwatchers from all over the world. The lakes are also home to important fish and invertebrates. In the site have been recorded several IUCN Red-Listed species of animals — 5 invertebrates, 4 fish, 4 amphibians, 3 reptiles, 5 birds and 3 mammals. Situated along the second largest migration path of birds in Europe, the Via Pontica, the site is an important stopover and staging site for a large number of water-birds, raptors and passerines. Yearly during migration and wintering more than 20,000 (up to 100,000) waterbirds congregate there.[8]

The Atanasovo Lake is one of two salt-water lakes in the Black Sea region and contains rare and representative examples of wetland habitats. It is a hot spot for biodiversity, with many Red-Listed species of plants and animals. It is a well-known bottleneck site for migratory birds, with around 60,000 raptors and 240,000 storks, pelicans and cranes passing over the site and often landing in large numbers for staging. The highest numbers in Europe of migrating White Pelicans (Pelecanus onocrotalus), Dalmatian Pelicans (Pelecanus crispus), Marsh Harriers (Circus aeruginosus) and Red-footed Falcons (Falco vespertinus) have been recorded here.[8]

Protected areas

Administrative division

Burgas is divided into the following neighbourhoods:

With a decision from the Counsel of Ministers in 2009, the villages of Banevo and Vetren were incorporated into Burgas.

Currently a new city plan is being considered which will open the city to the sea and includes several residential neighbourhoods and a new highway junction.

History

Alexander Severus coin from the Colonia Flavia Pacis Deultensium

The earliest signs of life in the region date back 3000 years, to the Bronze Age and the early Iron Age. The favorable conditions on the fertile plain, around the sea, have brought people here from early antiquity. The biggest mark was left by the Thracians who made the region rich in archaeological finds (from around 4th c. BC). This includes their sanctuary at Beglik Tash along the south coast and a burial mound near Sunny Beach. They built the mineral baths of Aquae Calidae and the fortress Tyrsis.[3][4]

A Balkan Celtic Horned Helmet from the village of Bryastovets, (Burgas region), eastern Bulgaria, 3rd century BC.

Under Darius I became part of the Achaemenid Empire, before the Odrysian kingdom was established. Greeks from Apollonia built in area of Sladkite kladenzi (today Pobeda-neighbourhood) a marketplace for trade with the Tracians kings.

During the rule of the Ancient Romans, near Burgas, Colonia Flavia Pacis Deultensium (Deultum, Dibaltum, or Develtum) was established as a military colony for veterans by Vespasian in AD 70. The Romans built this colonia on the main road Via Pontica. It was the second most important city in the province Haemimontus.

In 376 the Goths destroyed an elite Roman company near Develtum at the Battle of Dibaltum.[9]

Bulgarian and Byzantine Middle Ages

In the Middle Ages, there were important settlements in the area: the fortress Skafida, Poros, Rusokastron (Battle of Rusokastro), the Baths called Aquae Calidae and used by Byzantine, Bulgarian and Ottoman Emperors; a small fortress called Pyrgos was erected where Burgas is today and was most probably used as a watchtower. Under the Byzantine Empire it became an important city on the Black Sea coast. The Bulgarian ruler Krum built the Erkesiya, a 140 km (87 mi)-long border wall from the Black Sea (near Gorno Ezerovo) to the Maritsa River.

In 1206 the Latin Emperor Henry of Flanders (see Fourth Crusade) destroyed Aquae Calidae, which was known as Thermopolis at this time, The baths were later rebuilt by the Byzantines and Bulgarians. Poros was mentioned in a 1270 document of the Patriarchate of Constantinople.[10] Close to Poros took place the Battle of Skafida in 1304, when the Bulgarian Tsar Todor Svetoslav defeated the Byzantines and conquered the southern Black Sea coast.

At the beginning of the 14th century the region was sacked by the Catalan Company. In the 13th century Burgas is mentioned by the Byzantine poet Manuel Philes in his works as Burgas.[10]

Ottoman rule

Burgas in Ottoman Bulgaria, painted by Luigi Mayer

Like many of the towns surrounding it, Burgas was conquered by the Ottomans with the rest of Bulgaria in the late 14th century, only to be returned to the Byzantine Empire during the Ottoman Interregnum and retained by the Byzantines until the fall of the Empire to the Ottomans in 1453. It was only in the 17th century that a settlement renamed to Ahelo-Pirgas grew in the modern area of the city. It was later renamed to Burgas again and had only about 3,000 inhabitants. In the early 19th century Burgas was depopulated after raids by kurzdhali bandits. By the mid-19th century it had recovered its economic prominence through the growth of craftsmanship and the export of grain.[11] The city was a small town in ?slimye (Sliven) sanjak in at first Rumelia Eyalet, after that in the Silistra Eyalet and Edirne Eyalet before the liberation in 1878.

In the 17th and 18th centuries Burgas became an important port for cereal and possesses its own grain measure, the Burgas-Kile. The town was the regional centre of trade and administrative centre of the Burgas Kaaza.[12][13][14] In 1865 the port of Burgas was after Trapezunt the second most important Ottoman port in the Black Sea. Burgas was at this time the major centre on the southern Bulgarian Black Sea Coast.[15][16]

After the liberation until 1945

Alexandrovska Street in 1906

It was a department centre in Eastern Rumelia before incorporated in the Principality of Bulgaria in 1885. From the late 19th century Burgas became an important economic and industry center. The first development plan of the city was adopted in 1891 and the city's layout and appearance changed, especially through the newly constructed public buildings.[17] In 1888, the city library was founded, in 1891 the sea garden was created and in 1897 the Cathedral of the Holy brothers Cyril and Methodius was built. In 1895 Georgi Ivanov opened the first Printing house in Burgas, followed by the house of Christo Velchev in 1897, which changed in 1900 his name in Velchevi Brothers Printing house.[18]

A 1913 plan of the city

The opening of the railway line to Plovdiv on 27 May 1890 and the deep water port in 1903 were important stages of this boom and led to the rapid industrialization of the city.[19][20] In the period after 151 factories were founded. Among them were the Sugar refinery founded by Avram Chaliovski, the Great Bulgarian Mills of Ivan Chadzipetrov and the oil and soap factory Kambana.[17] In 1900 the mineral springs by the ancient Aquae Calidae were included in the urban area. In 1903, the new building of the Burgas Central railway station opened.[21][22]

Founded in 1924 in Burgas Deweko (now HemusMark AD) was the first pencil factory in Southeastern Europe and became in 1937 official supplier to the Bulgarian Monarchy.[23] 1925 opened in Burgas a specialized high school for mechanics and technologies. The following year, a large covered market was opened.[17] Because of the cold wave in winter 1928/29 the Black Sea iced in late January and early February, so that the island of Sveta Anastasia could be reached on foot.[24] 1934, Burgas already had 34,260 inhabitants.

Communism

During World War II on 9 September 1944 Red Army troops occupied the city and soon the whole country.[25] In the following People's Courts, especially members of the wealthy families of the intelligentsia and members of the Bar Association were convicted. The two Chambers of the People's Courts met in Burgas in the former building of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Burgas (now the seat of the Governor of the Province Burgas).[26]

After the Communists took power in 1945, the German and Italian School and the People's University were closed[27] and over 160 factories and businesses (including the large companies Great Bulgarian Mills, Veriga, Plug, Dab, etc.), shops, baths and other private property were nationalized. The nationalization and inability to lead by the new rulers led the companies to the collapse of the food supply and the shortage of goods of daily life in the city.[26] The political repression against the population of Burgas continued for the next few years. Access to universities and other higher education in the Bulgarian capital was refused for the young people of Burgas and some of them were interned in prison and labor camps.[26]

The Neftohim refinery, one of the major Bulgarian industrial capacities, built during the Socialist era

After the end of the Second World War, the Haganah organised several convoys for the European survivors of the Holocaust, which departed on ships from Burgas for Palestine. These convoys allowed 12,000 people, including the Jewish population of the city, to emigrate.[28][29] In the following years the city center of Burgas, unlike many other Bulgarian cities, was not much affected by Communist-type urbanization and has kept much of its 19th- and early-20th-century architecture. A number of oil and chemical companies were gradually built.

The terrorists of the Movement 2 June, Till Meyer, Gabriele Rollnik, Gudrun Stürmer and Angelika Goder were arrested on 21 June 1978 in Burgas by West German officials and then brought into the Federal Republic.[30]

Today

Today the local port is the largest in Bulgaria adding significantly to the regional economy. Burgas also hosts annual national exhibitions and international festivals and has a vibrant student population of over 6,000 that add to the city's appeal. The historical society also maintains open-air museums at Beglik Tash and Develtum.

Several countries have General Consulates in Burgas, among them Belarus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Georgia,[31]Greece, Romania, Russia, Sierra Leone,[32]Turkey and Ukraine.[33]

2012 bus bombing

On 18 July 2012 a terrorist attack was carried out by a suicide bomber[34] on a passenger bus transporting Israeli tourists at the Burgas Airport. The bus was carrying forty-two Israelis, mainly youths, from the airport to their hotels, after arriving on a flight from Tel Aviv. The explosion killed the Bulgarian bus driver and five Israelis.[35]

Population

Demographics

During the first decade after the liberation of Bulgaria, in the 1880s the population of Burgas numbered about 6,000 inhabitants.[36] Since then it started growing decade by decade, mostly because of the migrants from the rural areas and the surrounding smaller towns, reaching its peak in the period 1988-1991 exceeding 200,000.[37]

Burgas
Year 1887 1910 1934 1946 1956 1965 1975 1985 1992 2001 2005 2009 2011 2013
Population 5,749 14,897 36,230 44,449 72,526 106,185 144,755 182,856 195,986 192,390 189,245 193,765 200,271
Highest number 211,587 in 1991
Sources: National Statistical Institute,[37][38][39] citypopulation.de,[40] pop-stat.mashke.org,[41] Bulgarian Academy of Sciences[36]

Ethnic linguistic and religious composition

According to the latest 2011 census data, the individuals declared their ethnic identity were distributed as follows:[42][43]

  • Bulgarians: 172,898 (95.2%)
  • Turks: 3,200 (1.2%)
  • Roma: 3,122 (0.9%)
  • Others: 1,330 (0.7%)
  • Indefinable: 666 (0.4%)
  • Undeclared: 19,155 (1.6%)

Total: 211,033

Government and politics

Twin cities

Economy

Burgas is an important industrial centre. The most notable industrial enterprise is LUKOIL Neftochim Burgas - the largest oil refinery in South-eastern Europe and the largest manufacturing plant in the Balkans. The city, along with Sofia, is one of the key elements in supporting Bulgaria's future European transport network (TEN-T) EU and Pan-European Transport Corridor 8, which includes construction of the railway and road infrastructure and the development of the Port of Burgas and Burgas Airport.

Education

University of Bourgas "Prof. doc. Asen Zlatarov"

The university of Bourgas "Prof doc. Asen Zlatarov" is the first university and still the only public higher education facility in the Bourgas region.[45]

It was founded on 6 October 1963 by Decree No 162 of the Council of Ministers as Higher Chemico-technological institute "Prof. d-r Asen Zlatarov"

In the past, the university included only specialties related to Chemistry, but now the university is the major educational institution in the Bourgas region, that incorporates the several faculties and colleges:[46]

- Faculty of technical sciences

- Faculty of social sciences

- Faculty of natural sciences

- Technical college

- College of tourism

- Medical college[47]

The university itself is named on the professor doctor Asen Zlatarov - Bulgarian scientist, the founder of the Bulgarian biochemistry school and one of the major public figures in the Bulgarian history.

Burgas Free University

Burgas Free University (BFU) was established with an Act of The Great National Assembly on 18 September 1991 and is one of the first non-state universities in the country.

The university is accredited by the National Evaluation and Accreditation Agency and is certified under the international quality standard ISO 9001:2008. BFU is a modern and innovative university, caring for its students and their professional realization, and which has significant academic achievements and an internationally recognized status.

BFU is a member of the European Universities Association (EUA). It has signed Agreements of Cooperation with 36 universities and organizations in Europe, America, Asia and Africa. It implements students and staff exchange programmes with 24 universities in Europe. It participates in the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS).

It works under joint international projects with more than 100 universities and organizations. BFU is a partner of UNESCO under the UNITWIN/UNESCO Chairs Programme and is a host institution of UNESCO Chair on Culture of Peace and Human Rights.

Burgas Free University is certified according to the quality standards of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). In 2005 BFU was certified under ISO 9001:2000 and in 2010 under ISO 9001:2008. All the university's main activities have been certified, as well as its degree programmes: education of students in Bachelor, Master and PhD programmes, qualification, research and international relations activities.

School of Commerce

The School of Commerce is a vocational college specialized in the fields of economics, finance, management and accounting education. Established on 1 October 1905, it is the second oldest business school in Bulgaria.

Culture

Main sights

  • Regional Historical Museum Burgas
  • Ethnographic Museum
  • Archaeological Museum - Burgas
  • Museum of Nature and Science
  • Historical museum Burgas
  • Roman City of Develtum
  • The Roman and medieval Baths of Aquae Calidae
  • The Poros Fortress
  • The Rusokastro Fortress
  • The Erkesiya-Border wall
  • City Gallery
  • Theatre Adriana Budevska
  • City Beach
  • Pantheon
  • The pier
  • Sea Casino
  • Navel of Burgas
  • The building of Regional Customs Burgas
  • Burgas Central railway station
Opera House

The modern building of the Burgas Opera House is home to the city's two major musical institutions; the Burgas State Opera and the Philharmonic Society of Burgas.

Sea Garden

A municipal park built in 1910 for the residents of Burgas by the city's chief gardener, Georgi Duhtev.

Churches and monasteries

Bulgarian Orthodox Churches
  • Saints Cyril and Methodius Orthodox Cathedral
  • Holy Theotokos Orthodox Church
  • Saint John of Rila (Ivan Rilski) Orthodox Church
  • Holy Trinity Orthodox Church
  • Saint Demetrius Orthodox Church
  • Saint Athanasius Orthodox Church
  • Saint Nicholas Orthodox Church
  • Saint Poimen of Zographou Orthodox Church
  • Holy Theotokos Monastery
  • Saint Anastasia Monastery on the St. Anastasia Island
Armenian Orthodox Church

Armenian Apostolic and Orthodox Church Surp Hach (Church of the Holy Cross) was built in 1853 and is one of the oldest in the city and has been named as one of the city's monuments of culture. With stained glass windows and intricate decoration inside, the picturesque church was built in 1855.

Bulgarian Catholic Churches

Regular events

  • April
    • International Audition for performances of German and Austrian music
  • May
    • Burgas Sailing Week
    • Petya Dubarova-Contest
    • Erata na Vodoleya-Theatre Festival
  • July
    • July mourning
    • Three Week Festival of Opera and Classical Music
    • Burgas Marathon swimming
  • August
  • December
    • Every 6 December Burgas pays respect to its patron saint, St. Nicholas, also the patron saint of fishermen.
    • WDSF Burgas Cup

Professional sports

Paragliding over the Sea Garden in the City Centre, a common sight during the summer season

Notable people

Honours

Burgas Peninsula on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica is named after the city of Burgas. The ships of the company Ocean Fisheries - Burgas operated in the waters of South Georgia, Kerguelen,[48] the South Orkney Islands, South Shetland Islands and Antarctic Peninsula from 1970 to the early 1990s. The Bulgarian fishermen, along with those of the Soviet Union, Poland and East Germany are the pioneers of modern Antarctic fishing industry."[49][50]

See also

References

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  2. ^ Norman Polmar: The Naval Institute guide to the Soviet Navy, 5. Ausgabe, United States Naval Institute, Naval Institute Press, 1991, p.447
  3. ^ a b "Burgas Municipality". Burgas.
  4. ^ a b "Burgas".
  5. ^ Wright, Joseph, 1892, A Primer of the Gothic Language, glossary & section 182.
  6. ^ Pan-European corridors Archived 23 February 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ "Climatological Normals for Bourgas, Bulgaria (2000-)". Climatebase. Retrieved 2013.
  8. ^ a b "Ramsar Convention". Ramsar.org. Retrieved 2012.
  9. ^ Herwig Wolfram: Die Goten: von den Anfängen bis zur Mitte des sechsten Jahrhunderts : Entwurf einer historischen Ethnographie, Verlag C.H.Beck, 2001, S. 130
  10. ^ a b Ivan Karayotov, Stoyan Raychevski, Mitko Ivanov: ? . ? ? ., Tafprint OOD, Plovdiv, 2011, ISBN 978-954-92689-1-1, S. 60-65
  11. ^ Burgas, Bulgaria (Eyewitness Travel), Jonathan Bousfield and Matt Willis, Dorling Kindersley Limited, London, England, 2008, p. 210.
  12. ^ Etudes historiques. A l'occasion du XIII Congrés international des sciences historiques - Moscou, août 1970. Acad. Bulg. des sciences, 1970, p. 243 and p. 252.
  13. ^ Claude Charles De Peyssonnel: Traité sur le commerce de la Mer Noire, Band 2, Cuchet, 1787, p. 151
  14. ^ Karayotov/Raychevski/Ivanov, p. 301
  15. ^ Karayotov/Raychevski/Ivanov, p. 112-113
  16. ^ Wael B. Hallaq, Donald Presgrave Little: Islamic studies presented to Charles J. Adams, BRILL, 1991, S. 211
  17. ^ a b c Regionalmuseum Burgas. "History of Burgas" (PDF) (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 2012., Regionalmuseum Burgas. "History of Burgas". Retrieved 2011. - Abstract
  18. ^ Karayotov/Raychevski/Ivanov, p. 220-228
  19. ^ Aschoff, Christian. "retro-bib - Seite aus Meyers Konversationslexikon: Bulgarien (Geschichte 1886, 1887)". www.retrobibliothek.de.
  20. ^ R. J. Crampton: A concise history of Bulgaria, Verlag Cambridge University Press, 1997, p. 121
  21. ^ Karayotov/Raychevski/Ivanov, p. 210-220
  22. ^ Nikolova/Panaiotov: p. 300
  23. ^ "History of HemusMark AD" (in Bulgarian). Archived from the original on 24 January 2012. Retrieved 2011.
  24. ^ Karayotov/Raychevski/Ivanov, p. 236
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  26. ^ a b c Karayotov/Raychevski/Ivanov, p. 246-250
  27. ^ Burneva/Murdsheva: Deutsch als Fremdsprache(n) an bulgarischen Hochschulen in Hiltraud Casper-Hehne: Die Neustrukturierung von Studiengängen "Deutsch als Fremdsprache": Probleme und Perspektiven ; Fachtagung 17. - 19. November an der Universität Hannover, Universitätsverlag Göttingen, 2006, p. 238
  28. ^ Gaby Coldewey: Zwischen Pruth und Jordan: Lebenserinnerungen Czernowitzer Juden. Böhlau Verlag, Köln/Weimar 2003, p. 105.
  29. ^ Idith Zertal: From catastrophe to power: Holocaust survivors and the emergence of Israel, University of California Press, 1998, pp. 118-120, 139, 208, 298
  30. ^ Eckhart Dietrich: Angriffe auf den Rechtsstaat: die Baader/Meinhof-Bande, die Bewegung 2. Juni, die Revolutionären Zellen und die Stasi im Operationsgebiet Westberlin (aus Originalurteilen mit Erklärungen und Anmerkungen), 2009, p. 84
  31. ^ Foreign consulates in Burgas. Embassypages.com
  32. ^ "Consulate General of Angola in Muanda, Congo (Democratic Republic)". Embassypages.com. Retrieved 2018.
  33. ^ "Crimean News Agency". QHA. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 2015.
  34. ^ 2012 Burgas bus bombing#Perpetrator investigations
  35. ^ "Israel names five victims of Bulgaria terror attack". Haaretz. 19 July 2012. Retrieved 2012.
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  41. ^ "Pop-stat.mashke.org". Pop-stat.mashke.org. 1 February 2011. Retrieved 2012.
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  44. ^ "Batumi - Twin Towns & Sister Cities". Batumi City Hall. Archived from the original on 4 May 2012. Retrieved 2013.
  45. ^ "Burgas Prof. Assen Zlatarov University | Ranking & Review". www.4icu.org. Retrieved 2017.
  46. ^ ?, ? ?. " ? ? ?". www.mon.bg. Retrieved 2017.
  47. ^ burgasinfo.com. " "?. ?-? ? " ? 750 ?, - - " " - ? ?". BurgasInfo.com. Retrieved 2017.
  48. ^ Levenov Point. SCAR Composite Gazetteer of Antarctica
  49. ^ K.-H. Kock. Antarctic Fish and Fisheries. Cambridge University Press, 1992. p. 183 ISBN 9780521362504
  50. ^ SCAR Composite Gazetteer of Antarctica

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