Captain General of the Army
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Captain General of the Army

Captain general
Spain-Army-OF-10.svg
Army Service Uniform shoulder strap with the rank of Captain general of the Spanish Army.
CountrySpain
Service branchSpanish Army
AbbreviationCG
RankFive-star rank
NATO rank codeOF-10
Non-NATO rankO-11
Formationc. 1763
Next lower rankGeneral of the Army
Equivalent ranksCaptain general of the Navy (N)
Captain general of the Air Force (AF)

Captain General (Spanish: Capitán General) has been the highest rank in the Spanish Army (Ejército de Tierra) since the 18th century. A five-star rank with NATO code OF-10, it is equivalent to a field marshal of the armies of numerous countries, a general of the Army of the United States, a captain general of the Spanish Navy (Armada Española) or a Captain general of the Air Force in the Spanish Air Force (Ejército del Aire). A Captain General's insignia consists of two command sticks under five four-pointed stars below the Royal Crown.

A personal rank of captain general was created in the Spanish Army (and Navy) as the highest rank in the hierarchy, not unlike the Marechal de France. Since King Charles IV's reign (1788-1808), the monarchs used captain general insignia when wearing uniform. Briefly abolished by the Second Spanish Republic (except one honorary promotion), it was restored by Nationalist Spain in 1938; Francisco Franco himself was the only officer of this rank. The effective rank was reserved to the reigning monarch. A few posthumous honorary promotions and honorary promotions of retired officers to this rank were also made, such as José Moscardó Ituarte (1956), Agustín Muñoz Grandes (1957), Camilo Alonso Vega (1969) or Manuel Gutiérrez Mellado (1994). Some members of the Spanish Royal Family were promoted to the rank after periods of service and Queen Isabella II appointed her consort, Francis of Assisi (1846). Two foreign monarchs, Edward VII of the United Kingdom and William II of Germany, and four distinguished foreign military officers also held the honour.

Insignia history

List of Captain generals

Date of promotion
Image
Name and style
Dead/Annulled
Notes
1763 Pedro Pablo Abarca de Bolea, Count of Aranda.jpg Pedro Pablo Abarca de Bolea, 10th Count of Aranda + 1798
1777 Pedro de Cevallos.jpg Pedro Antonio de Cevallos Cortés y Calderón + 1778
1783 Luis Berton de Balbe de Quiers, duque de Crillon.jpg Louis des Balbes de Berton de Crillon 4th Duke of Crillon and 1st Duke of Mahon + 1796
14 December 1788 Carlos IV a caballo (Cropped).png King Charles IV 19 March 1808
(Abdication)
Ex officio
1793 Portrait of General Antonio Ricardos by Goya.jpg Antonio Ricardos y Carrillo de Albornoz + 13 March 1794
25 May 1793 Agustin Esteve y Marqués - Manuel Godoy - 1954.312 - Art Institute of Chicago.jpg Manuel Godoy y Álvarez de Faria, Prince of the Peace 19 March 1808 Generalissimo (1801-1808)
1794 Royal Coat of arms of Spain (1761-1843) - Common Version of the Colours.svg Honorato Ignacio de Glimes de Brabante, Count Glimes de Brabante + 1804
1794 Royal Coat of arms of Spain (1761-1843) - Common Version of the Colours.svg José Carlos Álvarez de Bohórquez y Molina, Marquis of Ruchena + ?
1794 Royal Coat of arms of Spain (1761-1843) - Common Version of the Colours.svg Martín Antonio Álvarez de Sotomayor y Flores, Count of Colomera + 1819
1795 Royal Coat of arms of Spain (1761-1843) - Common Version of the Colours.svg Manuel de Negrete y de la Torre,Count of Campo de Alange + 1818
1795
General Jose de Urrutia (1739-1803) por Goya.jpg
José Ramón de Urrutia y de las Casas + 1803
1799
MigueldelaGruaTalamancayBranciforte.jpg
Miguel de la Grúa Talamanca, 1st Marquis of Branciforte + 1812
1806 Royal Coat of arms of Spain (1761-1843) - Common Version of the Colours.svg Ventura Caro y Fontes + 1809
19 March 1808 Fernando VII - Vicente López.jpg King Ferdinand VII + 29 September 1833[note 1] Ex officio
1808 Royal Coat of arms of Spain (1761-1843) - Common Version of the Colours.svg Vicente María de Vera de Aragón y Enríquez de Navarra, Duke of La Roca and Marquis of Sofraga + 1813
1808 General Castaños anciano.jpg Francisco Javier Castaños, 1st Duke of Bailén + 24 September 1852
1808 Royal Coat of arms of Spain (1761-1843) - Common Version of the Colours.svg Vicente María de Acevedo y Pola-Navia + November 1808
1808 Royal Coat of arms of Spain (1761-1843) - Common Version of the Colours.svg Joaquín de Navia-Osorio y Miranda, Marquis of Santa Cruz de Marcenado and Viscount of Puerto + 1816
1809 Royal Coat of arms of Spain (1761-1843) - Common Version of the Colours.svg Rafael Vasco y del Campo, Count of la Conquista de las Islas Batanes + 1810
1809 García de la Cuesta.jpg Gregorio García de Cuesta y Fernández de Celis + 26 November 1811
1809 Palafox-general.jpg José Rebolledo de Palafox y Melci, 1st Duke of Zaragoza + 15 February 1847
1809 Royal Coat of arms of Spain (1761-1843) - Common Version of the Colours.svg Ventura Escalante y Bruen + 1811
1810 Pedro Caro y Sureda, marqués de la Romana (Museo del Prado).jpg Pedro Caro, 3rd Marquis of La Romana + 23 January 1811
1811 Francisco Goya - Portrait of the Duke of Wellington.jpg Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington + 14 September 1852 Ad honorem
1811 William Carr Beresford, Viscount Beresford by Sir William Beechey (2).jpg William Beresford, 1st Viscount Beresford + 8 January 1854 Ad honorem
1811 Joaquin Blake.jpg Joaquín Blake y Joyes + 27 April 1827
1811 Portrait of General Claude-Anne de Rouvroy, marquis de Saint-Simon-Montbléru..jpg Claude-Anne de Rouvroy de Saint Simon, Marquis of Saint Simon and Montblerú + 27 February 1819

Émigré and Spanish Grandee.

1816 José de Ezpeleta y Galdeano.jpg José Manuel de Ezpeleta, 1st Count of Ezpeleta de Beire + 1823
1816 Royal Coat of arms of Spain (1761-1843) - Common Version of the Colours.svg Pedro Mendinueta y Múzquiz + 1825
1816 Royal Coat of arms of Spain (1761-1843) - Common Version of the Colours.svg Ramón de Osorio y Patiño, 4th Marquis of Castelar + 1817
1816 Pedro Díaz - José Fernando de Abascal.jpg José Fernando de Abascal y Sousa, 1st Marquis of La Concordia + 31 July 1821
1823 General Francisco Javier de Elío (Museo del Prado).jpg Francisco Javier de Elio y Olondriz + 1822
1823 Francisco de Eguía.png Francisco de Eguía, 1st Count of the Real Aprecio + 6 January 1827 President of the Provisional Board of Spain and the Indies
1824 Pedro de Alcántara Álvarez de Toledo y Salm Salm, XIII duque del Infantado (Museo del Prado).jpg Pedro de Alcántara Álvarez de Toledo, 13th Duke of the Infantado + 27 November 1841
1824 Baron de Eroles.JPG Joaquín Ibáñez, Baron de Eroles + 22 August 1825
1825 Royal Coat of arms of Spain (1761-1843) - Common Version of the Colours.svg Juan de Henestrosa y Orcasitas + 1831
1827 Retrato del Duque de San Carlos.jpg José Miguel de Carvajal-Vargas, 2nd Duke of San Carlos + 1828

Secretary of state (1814)

1831 Francisco Fernández de Córdoba, duque de Alagón.jpg Francisco Fernández de Córdoba, 1st Duke of Alagón + 1841
1 May 1838 Baldomero Espartero, Prince of Vergara.jpg Baldomero Espartero, Prince of Vergara + 8 January 1879
  • Regent of Spain (1840-1843)
  • Minister of War
    (29 July-30 August 1837 and 16 December 1837-1838)
  • Prime Minister
    (18 August-18 October 1837, 1840-1841 and 1854-1856)
9 October 1841 Retrato del general Rodil (Dionisio Fierros Álvarez).jpg José Ramón Rodil, 1st Marquis of Rodil + 20 February 1853
  • Viceroy of Navarre
    (1 July-2 October 1834)
  • Minister of War
    (27 April-15 May and 20 August-26 November 1836, and 1842-1843)
  • Prime Minister (1842-1843)
19 August 1843 II Marqués de Monsalud.jpg Juan José Nieto y Aguilar, 2nd Marquis of Monsalud + 28 February 1851
5 January 1844 Prudencio de Guadalfajara, I Duque de Castro-Terreño.jpg Prudencio de Guadalfajara y Aguilera, duque de Castroterreño + 16 June 1855
  • Minister of War (August-September 1835)
5 January 1844 Ramon Maria de Narvaez by Vicente Lopez 1772 1850.jpg Ramón María Narváez, 1st Duke of Valencia + 23 April 1868
  • Minister of State (1844, 1846 and 1847)
  • Minister of War (1844-1846, 1846, 1847 and 1866-1868)
  • Prime Minister
    (1844-1846, 1846, 1847-1849, 1849-1851, 1856-1857, 1864-1865 and 1866-1868)
10 October 1846 Don Francisco de Asís.jpg Francis, King Consort 19 September 1868
(Abolition of monarchy)
+ 17 April 1902
21 May 1849 Manuel Gutiérrez de la Concha, marqués del Duero (Palacio del Senado de España).jpg Manuel Gutiérrez de la Concha e Irigoyen, 1st Marquis of Duero + 27 June 1874
19 November 1852 Francisco de paula marti-Retrato de Pedro Villacampa y Maza de Lizana.jpg Pedro Villacampa y Maza de Lizana + 27 December 1854
30 July 1854 Evaristo Fernández de San Miguel, duque de San Miguel.jpg Evaristo Fernández de San Miguel y Valledor, 1st Duke of San Miguel + 29 May 1862
30 July 1854 Leopoldo ODonnell.jpg Leopoldo O'Donnell, 1st Duke of Tetuan + 5 November 1867
  • Prime Minister
    (14 July-12 October 1856, 1858-1863 and 1865-1866)
  • Minister of War (30 July-29 November 1854, 1858-1863 and 1865-1868)
  • Minister of State (30 June-2 de July 1858)
  • Minister of the Navy (25-27 November 1858)
  • Minister of Overseas (17 January-2 March 1863)
18 July 1856 Francisco-serrano.jpg Francisco Serrano, 1st Duke of la Torre + 25 November 1885
5 January 1858 Antonio de Orleans, duque de Montpensier (1824-1890).jpg Antoine, Duke of Montpensier December 1870[note 2]
10 October 1867 Retrato de Juan de la Pezuela.jpg Juan de la Pezuela y Cevallos, 1st Count of Cheste + 1 November 1906
24 April 1868 Manuel Pavía y Lacy, 1st Marquis of Novaliches.jpg Manuel Pavía y Lacy, 1st Marquis de Novaliches + 22 October 1896
24 April 1868 José Gutiérrez de la Concha, marqués de la Habana (Palacio del Senado de España).jpg José Gutiérrez de la Concha, 1st Marquis of Havana + 5 November 1895
  • Minister of Overseas (20 May-6 August 1863 and 29 November 1863-1864)
  • Minister of the Navy (19 June-16 July 1863 and 19-21 September 1868)
  • Minister of War (1863-1864 and 19 September-8 October 1868)
  • Prime Minister (19 September-8 October 1868)
30 September 1868 Valldeperas, Eusebi. Retrat de Joan Prim 43.JPG Juan Prim, 1st Marquis of los Castillejos + 30 December 1870
  • Minister of War (1868-1870)
  • Prime Minister (1869-1870)
16 November 1870
Retrato de Amadeo I de España (Banco de España).jpg
King Amadeo 11 February 1873
(Abdication)
Ex officio
  • Captain General of the Navy (1870-1873)
1 May 1874 Juan de Zavala y de la Puente.jpg Juan de Zavala, 1st Marquis of Sierra Bullones + 29 December 1879
  • Minister of state (1855-1856)
  • Minister of the Navy (1860-1863)
  • Minister of War (8 April-26 May 1872 and 3 January-29 June 1874)
  • Prime Minister (26 February-3 September 1874)
29 December 1874
Retrato de Alfonso XII de medio cuerpo (Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando).JPG
King Alfonso XII + 25 November 1885
  • Ex officio
  • Captain General of the Navy (1874-1885)
21 August 1875[2] Marshall Ramon Cabrera, El Tigre del Maestrazgos, by John Prescott Knight.jpg Ramón Cabrera y Griñó, 1st duke of the Maestrazgo + 24 May 1877
27 March 1876 Genaro de Quesada y Mathews, 1884.jpg Jenaro Quesada, 1st Marquis of Miravalles + 19 January 1889
  • Ad honorem
  • Prime Minister (7 March-9 December 1879)
27 March 1876 General Arsenio Martínez Campos (1831-1900).jpg Arsenio Martínez-Campos y Antón + 23 September 1892 Ad honorem
7 July 1878 General Joaquin Jovellar y Soler painting.jpg Joaquín Jovellar y Soler + 16 April 1892 Ad honorem
29 July 1892 Manuel Pavía, en La Ilustración Española y Americana.jpg Manuel Pavía y Rodríguez de Alburquerque + 4 January 1895 Ad honorem
22 January 1895 José López Domínguez (Palacio del Senado de España).jpg José López Domínguez + 17 October 1911
  • Ad honorem
  • Prime Minister (6 July-30 November 1906)
16 May 1895 Ramon Blanco.jpg Ramón Blanco y Erenas, 1st Marquis de Peña Plata + 4 April 1906 Ad honorem
14 November 1895 Fernando Primo de Rivera y Sobremonte, de Kaulak.jpg Fernando Primo de Rivera y Sobremonte, 1st Marquis of Estella + 23 May 1921
  • Ad honorem
  • Minister of War (1907-1909 and June-October 1917)
17 May 1902
Retrato de Alfonso XIII (Real Academia de la Historia).jpg
King Alfonso XIII 14 April 1931
(Second Spanish Republic established)[note 3]
  • Ex officio
  • Captain General of the Navy (1902-1931)
7 April 1907 Edward VII in coronation robes.jpg Edward VII, King of the United Kingdom[3] + 6 May 1910
23 January 1910 Camilo García de Polavieja, de Christian Franzen.jpg Camilo García de Polavieja y del Castillo-Negrete, 1st Marquis Polavieja + 15 January 1914 Ad honorem
23 January 1910 Valeriano Weyler bust.jpg Valeriano Weyler Nicolau, 1st Duke of Rubí and Marquis of Tenerife + 20 October 1930
  • Ad honorem
  • Minister of War (1901-1902, 23 June-1 December 1905 and 1906-1907)
  • Minister of the Navy (1 October-1 December 1905)
23 January 1910 The Kaiser as a Spanish Soldier.jpg Wilhelm II, German Emperor + 4 June 1941
12 March 1911 Marcelo de Azcárraga y Palmero (Palacio del Senado de España).jpg Marcelo de Azcárraga y Palmero + 30 May 1915
  • Ad honorem
  • Minister of War (1890-1892, 1895-1897 and 1899-1900)
  • Prime Minister (8 August-4 October 1897, 1900-1901 and 1904-1905)
  • Minister of the Navy (23-31 October 1900)
17 May 1921 Carlos Tancredo de Bourbon-Duas Sicílias.JPG Carlos of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, Infante of Spain 14 April 1931
+ 11 November 1949
2 May 1931 Francisco Aguilera y Egea.png Francisco Aguilera y Egea + 19 May 1931
  • Ad honorem
  • Minister of War (19 April-11 June 1917)
July 20, 1936 General Sanjurjo.jpg José Sanjurjo y Sacanell, 1st Marquis of the Rif
--
Posthumous promotion
18 July 1938 RETRATO DEL GRAL. FRANCISCO FRANCO BAHAMONDE.jpg Francisco Franco Bahamonde + 20 November 1975
March 22, 1947 General Miguel Primo de Rivera.jpg Miguel Primo de Rivera y Orbaneja, 2nd Marquis of Estella
--
March 24, 1951 José Enrique Varela.jpg José Enrique Varela Iglesias, 1st Marquis of San Fernando de Varela
--
October 21, 1952 Juanyaguecirca39.jpg Juan Yagüe Blanco, 1st Marquis of San Leonardo de Yagüe
--
April 12, 1956 General Moscardó (Cropped).png José Moscardó Ituarte, 1st Count of the Alcázar de Toledo
--
Posthumous promotion
27 February 1957 Agustín Muñoz Grandes (2).jpg Agustín Muñoz Grandes + 11 July 1970
23 March 1962 Fidel Dávila 1939.jpg Fidel Dávila Arrondo + 22 March 1962
29 October 1969 Visita de personalidades al Castillo dentro de los actos conmemorativos del Tricentenario de la Paz de los Pirineos (cropped).jpg Camilo Alonso Vega + 1 July 1971
20 November 1975[4][note 7] King Juan Carlos of Spain with Ambbassador Khatib (Cropped).png King Juan Carlos I Active until 19 June 2014.
(Abdication)
  • Ex officio
  • Retired since 19 June 2014
  • Captain General of the Navy and the Air Force
24 July 1994 El vicepresidente 1º y Asuntos de Defensa, Manuel Gutiérrez Mellado, recibe la felicitación del presidente Adolfo Suárez.jpg Manuel Gutiérrez Mellado, 1st Marquis Gutiérrez-Mellado + 15 December 1995
19 June 2014 Felipe VI (Cropped).jpg King Felipe VI Present

See also

Notes

  1. ^ He abdicated on 6 May 1808 and kept under guard in France. Restored in 1814.
  2. ^ Accession of King Amadeo.
  3. ^ On 14 April 1931 Alfonso XIII renounced as head of state but did not formally abdicate.
  4. ^ Named himself.
  5. ^ a b c At Civil War until 1 April 1939.
  6. ^ At Civil War.
  7. ^ Monarch since 22 November 1975.

References

Citations

  1. ^ Francisco de Asís de Borbón. Biografías y vidas. Retrieved 13 February 2017.
  2. ^ Ramón Cabrera y Griñó (1806-1877). Base documental d'Història Contemporània de Catalunya.. Acceded 12 January 2017
  3. ^ Royal Decree of the Ministry of War 7 April 1907. Gaceta de Madrid
  4. ^ Decree 16/1975, 20 November, por el que se promueve al empleo de Capitán General de los Ejércitos de Tierra, Mar y Aire a S. A. R. el Príncipe de España. Spanish Official Gazette

Sources

  • List of captain generals of the Spanish Army ASAVE (in Spanish)
  • Guaita Martorell, Aurelio. Capitanes y capitanías generales. Revista de historia militar, ISSN 0482-5748, Nº 65, 1988, pp. 125-172.

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