"Case" is a linguistics term regarding a manner of categorizing nouns, pronouns, adjectives, participles, and numerals according to their traditionally corresponding grammatical functions within a given phrase, clause, or sentence. In some languages, nouns, pronouns, adjectives, determiners, participles, prepositions, numerals, articles and their modifiers take different inflected forms, depending on their case. As a language evolves, cases can merge (for instance, in Ancient Greek, the locative case merged with the dative case), a phenomenon formally called syncretism.
English has largely lost its inflected case system although personal pronouns still have three cases, which are simplified forms of the nominative, accusative and genitive cases. They are used with personal pronouns: subjective case (I, you, he, she, it, we, they, who, whoever), objective case (me, you, him, her, it, us, them, whom, whomever) and possessive case (my, mine; your, yours; his; her, hers; its; our, ours; their, theirs; whose; whosever). Forms such as I, he and we are used for the subject ("I kicked the ball"), and forms such as me, him and us are used for the object ("John kicked me").
Languages such as Ancient Greek, Armenian, Assamese, most Balto-Slavic languages, Basque, most Caucasian languages, most Dravidian languages,German, Icelandic, Japanese, Korean, Latin, Sanskrit, Tibetan, the Turkic languages and the Uralic languages have extensive case systems, with nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and determiners all inflecting (usually by means of different suffixes) to indicate their case. The number of cases differs between languages: Persian has two; modern English has three but for pronouns only; Modern Standard and Classical forms of Arabic have three; German, Icelandic, and Irish have four; Romanian has five; Latin, Slovenian, Russian and Turkish each have at least six; Armenian, Czech, Latvian, Lithuanian, Polish, Serbo-Croatian, Slovak and Ukrainian have seven; Sanskrit and Tamil have eight; Assamese has 10; Estonian has 14; Finnish has 15; Hungarian has 18 and Tsez has 64 cases.
Commonly encountered cases include nominative, accusative, dative and genitive. A role that one of those languages marks by case is often marked in English with a preposition. For example, the English prepositional phrase with (his) foot (as in "John kicked the ball with his foot") might be rendered in Russian using a single noun in the instrumental case, or in Ancient Greek as ? (tôi podí, meaning "the foot") with both words (the definite article, and the noun ? (poús) "foot") changing to dative form.
More formally, case has been defined as "a system of marking dependent nouns for the type of relationship they bear to their heads".:p.1 Cases should be distinguished from thematic roles such as agent and patient. They are often closely related, and in languages such as Latin, several thematic roles have an associated case, but cases are a morphological notion, and thematic roles a semantic one. Languages having cases often exhibit free word order, as thematic roles are not required to be marked by position in the sentence.
It is widely accepted that the Ancient Greeks had a certain idea of the forms of a name in their own language. A fragment of Anacreon seems to prove this. Nevertheless, it cannot be inferred that the Ancient Greeks really knew what grammatical cases were. Grammatical cases were first recognized by the Stoics and from some philosophers of the Peripatetic school. The advancements of those philosophers were later employed by the philologists of the Alexandrian school.
The English word case used in this sense comes from the Latin casus, which is derived from the verb cadere, "to fall", from the Proto-Indo-European root *?ad-. The Latin word is a calque of the Greek , ptôsis, lit. "falling, fall". The sense is that all other cases are considered to have "fallen" away from the nominative. This imagery is also reflected in the word declension, from Latin declinere, "to lean", from the PIE root *?ley-.
The equivalent to "case" in several other European languages also derives from casus, including cas in French, caso in Italian, caso in Spanish, caso in Portuguese and Kasus in German. The Russian word (padyézh) is a calque from Greek and similarly contains a root meaning "fall", and the German Fall and Czech pád simply mean "fall", and are used for both the concept of grammatical case and to refer to physical falls. The Finnish equivalent is sija, whose main meaning is "position" or "place".
Although not very prominent in modern English, cases featured much more saliently in Old English and other ancient Indo-European languages, such as Latin, Old Persian, Ancient Greek, and Sanskrit. Historically, the Indo-European languages had eight morphological cases, though modern languages typically have fewer, using prepositions and word order to convey information that had previously been conveyed using distinct noun forms. Among modern languages, cases still feature prominently in most of the Balto-Slavic languages (except Macedonian and Bulgarian), with most having six to eight cases, as well as Icelandic, German and Modern Greek, which have four. In German, cases are mostly marked on articles and adjectives, and less so on nouns. In Icelandic, articles, adjectives, personal names and nouns are all marked for case, making it, among other things, the living Germanic language that could be said to most closely resemble Proto-Germanic.
The eight historical Indo-European cases are as follows, with examples either of the English case or of the English syntactic alternative to case:
|Case||Indicates||Sample case words||Sample sentence||Interrogative||Notes|
|Nominative||Subject of a finite verb||we||We went to the store.||Who or what?||Corresponds to English's subject pronouns.|
|Accusative||Direct object of a transitive verb||us,
|The clerk remembered us.
John waited for us at the bus stop.
Obey the law.
|Whom or what?||Corresponds to English's object pronouns and preposition for construction before the object, often marked by a definite article the. Together with dative, it forms modern English's oblique case.|
|Dative||Indirect object of a verb||us,
to the (object)
|The clerk gave us a discount.
The clerk gave a discount to us.
According to the law...
|Whom or to what?||Corresponds to English's object pronouns and preposition to construction before the object, often marked by a definite article the. Together with accusative, it forms modern English's oblique case.|
|Ablative||Movement away from||from us||The pigeon flew from us to a steeple.||Whence? From where/whom?|
|Genitive||Possessor of another noun||'s,
|John's book was on the table.
The pages of the book turned yellow.
Table made out of wood.
To each his own.
|Whose? From what or what of?||Roughly corresponds to English's possessive (possessive determiners and pronouns) and preposition of construction.|
|Vocative||Addressee||John||John, are you all right?
|Locative||Location, either physical or temporal||in Japan,
at the bus stop,
in the future
|We live in Japan.
John is waiting for us at the bus stop.
We will see what will happen in the future.
|Where or wherein? When?||Roughly corresponds to English prepositions in, on, at, and by and other less common prepositions.|
|Instrumental||A means or tool used or companion present in/while performing an action||with a mop,
|We wiped the floor with a mop.
This letter was written by hand.
|How? With what or using what? By what means? With whom?||Corresponds to English prepositions by, with and via as well as synonymous constructions such as using, by use of and through.|
All of the above are just rough descriptions; the precise distinctions vary significantly from language to language, and as such they are often more complex. Case is based fundamentally on changes to the noun to indicate the noun's role in the sentence - one of the defining features of so-called fusional languages. Old English was a fusional language, but Modern English does not work this way.
Modern English has largely abandoned the inflectional case system of Proto-Indo-European in favor of analytic constructions. The personal pronouns of Modern English retain morphological case more strongly than any other word class (a remnant of the more extensive case system of Old English). For other pronouns, and all nouns, adjectives, and articles, grammatical function is indicated only by word order, by prepositions, and by the "Saxon genitive" (-'s).[a]
Taken as a whole, English personal pronouns are typically said to have three morphological cases:
Most English personal pronouns have five forms: the nominative and oblique case forms, the possessive case, which has both a determiner form (such as my, our) and a distinct independent form (such as mine, ours) (with two exceptions: the third person singular masculine and the third person singular neuter it, which use the same form for both determiner and independent [his car, it is his]), and a distinct reflexive or intensive form (such as myself, ourselves). The interrogative personal pronoun who exhibits the greatest diversity of forms within the modern English pronoun system, having definite nominative, oblique, and genitive forms (who, whom, whose) and equivalently coordinating indefinite forms (whoever, whomever, and whosever).
Though English pronouns can have subject and object forms (he/him, she/her), nouns show only a singular/plural and a possessive/non-possessive distinction (e.g. chair, chairs, chair's, chairs'). Note that chair does not change form between "the chair is here" (subject) and "I saw the chair" (direct object), a distinction made by word order and context.
Cases can be ranked in the following hierarchy, where a language that does not have a given case will tend not to have any cases to the right of the missing case::p.89
This is, however, only a general tendency. Many forms of Central German, such as Colognian and Luxembourgish, have a dative case but lack a genitive. In Irish nouns, the nominative and accusative have fallen together, whereas the dative-locative has remained separate in some paradigms; Irish also has genitive and vocative cases. In many modern Indo-Aryan languages, the accusative, genitive, and dative have merged to an oblique case, but much of these languages still retain vocative, locative, and ablative cases. Old English had an instrumental case, but not a locative or prepositional.
The traditional case order (nom-gen-dat-acc) was expressed for the first time in The Art of Grammar in the 2nd century BC:
There are five Cases, the right [nominative], the generic [genitive], the dative, the accusative, and the vocative.
However, for some languages, such as Latin, due to case syncretism the order may be changed for convenience, where the accusative or the vocative cases are placed after the nominative and before the genitive. For example:
For similar reasons, the customary order of the four cases in Icelandic is nominative-accusative-dative-genitive, as illustrated below:
In the most common case concord system, only the head-word (the noun) in a phrase is marked for case. This system appears in many Papuan languages as well as in Turkic, Mongolian, Quechua, Dravidian, Indo-Aryan, and other languages. In Basque and various Amazonian and Australian languages, only the phrase-final word (not necessarily the noun) is marked for case. In many Indo-European, Finnic, and Semitic languages, case is marked on the noun, the determiner, and usually the adjective. Other systems are less common. In some languages, there is double-marking of a word as both genitive (to indicate semantic role) and another case such as accusative (to establish concord with the head noun).
Declension is the process or result of altering nouns to the correct grammatical cases. Languages with rich nominal inflection (use grammatical cases for many purposes) typically have a number of identifiable declension classes, or groups of nouns with a similar pattern of case inflection or declension. Sanskrit has six declension classes, whereas Latin is traditionally considered to have five, and Ancient Greek three. For example, Slovak has fifteen noun declension classes, five for each gender (the number may vary depending on which paradigms are counted or omitted, this mainly concerns those that modify declension of foreign words; refer to article).
In Indo-European languages, declension patterns may depend on a variety of factors, such as gender, number, phonological environment, and irregular historical factors. Pronouns sometimes have separate paradigms. In some languages, particularly Slavic languages, a case may contain different groups of endings depending on whether the word is a noun or an adjective. A single case may contain many different endings, some of which may even be derived from different roots. For example, in Polish, the genitive case has -a, -u, -ów, -i/-y, -e- for nouns, and -ego, -ej, -ich/-ych for adjectives. To a lesser extent, a noun's animacy or humanness may add another layer of complexity. For example, in Russian:
The examples and perspective in this section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. (April 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Assamese has ten cases.
|English||Significance||Usual Suffixes||Transliteration of Suffixes||Example with ? (suli, "hair")|
|(I)||Absolutive||Subject of sentence||Ø||Ø||suli|
|(II)||Ergative||Agent||? (, ), ?||e, i||sulie|
|(III)||Accusative||Object of action||/ ? (animate); Ø (inanimate)||ok / k; Ø||sulik; suli|
|(IV)||Genitive||Possessive||or / r||sulir|
|(V)||Dative||Object to whom action is performed||/ ?||ok / k||sulik|
|(VI)||Dative of motion form||Object for whom action is performed||/||oloi / loi||suliloi|
|(VII)||Terminative||Shows end or limit; "until", "till", up to".||/ ?||oloike / loike||suliloike|
|(VIII)||Instrumental of motion from||Means by which action is done||/||ere / re||sulire|
|(IX)||Locative||Place in which, On the person of (animate) in the presence of||/ ?||ot / t||sulit|
|(X)||Vocative||Addressing, calling||?, Ø,||o, Ø, he||o suli!, suli!, he suli!|
Australian languages represent a diversity of case paradigms in terms of their alignment (i.e. nominative-accusative vs. ergative-absolutive) and the morpho-syntactic properties of case inflection including where/how many times across a noun phrase the case morphology will appear. For typical r-expression noun phrases, most Australian languages follow a basic ERG-ABS template with additional cases for peripheral arguments; however, many Australian languages, the function of case marking extends beyond the prototypical function of specifying the syntactic and semantic relation of an NP to a predicate. Dench and Evans (1988) use a five-part system for categorizing the functional roles of case marking in Australian languages. They are enumerated below as they appear in Senge (2015):
To illustrate this paradigm in action, take the case-system of Wanyjirra for whose description Senge invokes this system. Each of the case markers functions in the prototypical relational sense, but many extend into these additional functions:
Wanyjirra is an example of a language in which case marking occurs on all sub-constituents of the NP; see the following example in which the demonstrative, head, and quantifier of the noun phrase all receive ergative marking:
yalu-nggu mawun-du gujarra-lu ngu=wula yunbarn-ana junba
DIST-ERG man-ERG two-ERG REAL=3.AUG.SBJ sing-PRES corroboree.ABS
Those two men are singing corroboree.
However, this is by no means always the case or even the norm for Australian languages. For many, case-affixes are considered special-clitics (i.e. phrasal-affixes, see Anderson 2005) because they have a singular fixed position within the phrase. For Bardi, the case marker usually appears on the first phrasal constituent while the opposite is the case for Wangkatja (i.e. the case marker is attracted to the rightmost edge of the phrase). See the following examples respectively:
Boordiji-nim niiwandi aamba i-na-m-boo-na aril
fat-ERG tall man 3-TR-PST-poke-REM.PST fish
The tall fat man speared a fish.
tjitji warta purlkana-ngka nyinarra-nyi
child tree big-LOC sitting-?
'The child is sitting in the big tree.'
An example of a Belarusian case inflection is given below, using the singular forms of the Belarusian term for "country", which belongs to Belarusian's first declension class.
In German, grammatical case is largely preserved in the articles and adjectives, but nouns have lost many of their original endings. Below is an example of case inflection in German using the masculine definite article and one of the German words for "sailor".
An example with the feminine definite article with the German word for "woman".
An example with the neuter definite article with the German word for "book".
Modern Greek has four cases: nominative, genitive, accusative, and vocative. For neuters and most groups of feminines and plural masculines, the genitive case differs from the other three. Below is an example of the declension of ? (sky), which has a different form in the singular of all four cases, together with the appropriate article in both the singular and the plural:
Ancient Greek had one additional case, the dative. At some point, it was replaced with the preposition , followed by the accusative. This became necessary when pronunciation simplified, merging the two long vowels eta and omega to short. The result was that dative did not sound much different from the accusative in the singular of the first two groups. However, the dative case is still used in many expressions.
With time, only the sigma of was left and got attached to the article, except when an article is not used and it becomes instead. Note that this is not a different case from the accusative.
Below is an example with the dative case of the word ? (city):
Hindi has two noun cases, the nominative, and the oblique (or the postpositional case). There is also an obsolete vocative case whose function is now taken by the oblique case. The other cases are constructed adpositionally using the case-marking postpositions with nouns and pronouns in the oblique cases. The pronoun cases that Hindi have are the nominative, accusative/dative, and three oblique cases. The Oblique - Regular case is used with the primary postpositions of Hindi, Oblique - Ergative is used with the ergative marker (ne) and the Oblique - Genitive case is used with the secondary (compound) postpositions. All the noun and pronoun cases are mentioned in the table below. The cases which do not exist are constructed using primary postpositions and the regular oblique case.
Note: Hindi lacks 3rd person personal pronouns and to compensate for the loss, demonstrative pronouns are also used as 3rd person personal pronouns.
The oblique case is used exclusively with these 8 case-marking postpositions shown below. Out of these 8 postpositions, the genitive and semblative postpositions ka & sa decline to agree with the gender, number, and case of the object it shows possession and semblance of.
Cases in Japanese are marked by particles placed after the nouns. A distinctive feature of Japanese is the presence of two cases which are roughly equivalent to the nominative case in other languages: one representing the sentence topic, the other representing the subject. The most important case markers are the following:
|Nominative||? (ga)||marks the subject|
|? (wa)||marks the topic|
|Genitive||? (no)||shows possession|
|Dative||? (ni)||used for a goal or recipient of the action (e.g. "gives to someone"), or to indicate spatial placement (e.g. "to the west")|
|Accusative||? (o)||marks the direct object|
|Lative||? (e)||used for indicating direction towards (e.g."toward some place") but leaves ambiguity as to whether it is the goal.|
|Ablative||(kara)||used for indicating direction away (e.g. "from some place")|
|Terminative||(made)||used for the goal of a direction (e.g."up to/until some place")|
|Instrumental||? (de)||marks the instrument of an action|
Cases in Korean are marked by case markers placed after the nouns. Korean grammarians recognize at least seven grammatical cases. Other auxiliary particles, such as ?/? (eun/neun; topic), (kkaji; terminative), ? (do; "also"), ? (man; "only"), and ?/ (na/ina; "or"), are not classified as case markers.
Latvian nouns have seven grammatical cases: nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, instrumental, locative and vocative. The instrumental case is always identical to the accusative in the singular and to the dative in the plural. It is used as a free-standing case (without a preposition) only in highly restricted contexts in modern Latvian.
An example of a Latvian case inflection is given below, using the singular forms of the Latvian term for "man", which belongs to the first declension class.
In Lithuanian, only the inflection usually changes in the seven different grammatical cases:
|First person||First person
|Nominative||ñ||n?, ningal||ava? (voc. ava)||ava? (voc. ava)||ña?ga?||n?m/ namma?||nia?||avar (voc. avar?)|
|Genitive||ee (also e?, eu?e)||nie (also ni?, niu?e)||avae (also ava?u?e)||ava?u?e||ña?ga?u?e (also ña?gu?e)||nammu?e||ni?ga?u?e||avaru?e|
|Instrumental||el||nil||aval||aval||ña?gal (also ñal)||namm?l||ni?gal (also nil)||avar?l|
|Locative||eil (also e?kal)||niil (also ni?kal)||ava?il (also ava?kal)||ava?il (also ava?kal)||ña?ga?il||nammil||ni?ga?il||avaril (also ava?kal)|
An example of a Polish case inflection is given below, using the singular forms of the Polish terms for "human" (cz?owiek) and "monkey" (ma?pa)
Hungarian declension is relatively simple with regular suffixes attached to the vast majority of nouns. The following table lists all of the cases used in Hungarian.
|Case||Meaning||Suffix||Example||Meaning of the example|
|Nominative case||subject||?||ház||house (as a subject)|
|Accusative case||direct object||-ot/(-at)/-et/-öt/-t||házat||house (as an object)|
|Dative case||indirect object||-nak/-nek||háznak||to the house|
|Genitive case||possession||-é||házé||of the house (belonging to)|
|Instrumental-comitative case||with||-val/-vel (Assim.)||házzal||with the house|
|Causal-final case||for, for the purpose of||-ért||házért||for the house|
|Translative case||into (used to show transformation)||-vá/-vé (Assim.)||házzá||[turn] into a house|
|Terminative case||as far as, up to||-ig||házig||as far as the house|
|Illative case||into (location)||-ba/-be||házba||into the house|
|Adessive case||at||-nál/-nél||háznál||at the house|
|Ablative case||from||-tól/-t?l||háztól||from the house|
|Sublative case||onto (movement towards a thing)||-ra/-re||házra||onto the house|
|Superessive case||on/upon (static position)||-n/-on/-en/-ön||házon||on top of the house|
|Delative case||from (movement away from a thing)||-ról/-röl||házról||away from the house|
|Temporal case||at (used to indicate time or moment)||-kor||kett?kor||at two (o'clock)|
|Sociative case||with (archaic, nowadays slightly pejorative)||-stul/-stül||házastul||with the house|
|Types of||types or variants of a thing||-féle||kett?féle ház||two types of houses|
Romanian is the only modern major Romance language with a case system for all nouns, whereas all other Romance languages dropped the cases for nouns replacing them by prepositions. An example of Romanian case inflection is given below, using the singular form of the word "boy":
An example of a Russian case inflection is given below (with explicit stress marks), using the singular forms of the Russian term for "sailor", which belongs to Russian's first declension class.
Up to ten additional cases are identified by linguists, although today all of them are either incomplete (do not apply to all nouns or do not form full word paradigm with all combinations of gender and number) or degenerate (appear identical to one of the main six cases). The most recognized additional cases are locative (? , , ? ?), partitive (?, ?, ), and two forms of vocative -- old (, , ) and neo-vocative (, , ). Sometimes, so called count-form (for some countable nouns after numerals) is considered to be a sub-case. See details.
For example, in the following sentence leaf is the agent (kart?, nominative case), tree is the source (ap?d?na, ablative case), and ground is the locus (adhikara?a, locative case). The declensions are reflected in the morphemes -?t, -am, and -au respectively.
|from the tree||a leaf||to the ground||falls|
However, the cases may be deployed for other than the default thematic roles. A notable example is the passive construction. In the following sentence, Devadatta is the kart?, but appears in the instrumental case, and rice, the karman, object, is in the nominative case (as subject of the verb). The declensions are reflected in the morphemes -ena and -am.
|by Devadatta||the rice||is cooked|
The Tamil case system is analyzed in native and missionary grammars as consisting of a finite number of cases. The usual treatment of Tamil case (Arden 1942) is one in which there are seven cases: nominative (first case), accusative (second case), instrumental (third), dative (fourth), ablative (fifth), genitive (sixth), and locative (seventh). In traditional analyses, there is always a clear distinction made between post-positional morphemes and case endings. The vocative is sometimes given a place in the case system as an eighth case, but vocative forms do not participate in usual morphophonemic alternations and do not govern the use of any postpositions. Modern grammarians, however, argue that this eight-case classification is coarse and artificial and that Tamil usage is best understood if each suffix or combination of suffixes is seen as marking a separate case.
|Case||Suffixes||Example: (mannan) [king]|
Telugu has eight cases.
|Telugu||English||Usual Suffixes||Transliteration of Suffixes|
|(I)||Pratham? Vibhakti ( ?)||Nominative||, , ,||?u, mu, vu, lu|
|(II)||Dvit?y? Vibhakti ( ?)||Accusative||?, ?, , , ?||nin, nun, lan, k?rchi, gurinchi|
|(III)||Trut?y? Vibhakti ( ?)||Instrumental||, ?, , ?||ch?tan, ch?n, tan, t?n|
|(IV)||Chaturthi Vibhakti (? ?)||Dative||?,||korakun, kai|
|(V)||Pancham? Vibhakti ( ?)||Ablative||, ,||valanan, kaen, pai|
|(VI)||Shashth? Vibhakti ( ?)||Genitive||?, ?, , ?,||kin, kun, yokka, l?n, l?palan|
|(VII)||Saptam? Vibhakti ( ?)||Locative||,||a?dun, nan|
|(VIII)||Sambodhan? Pratham? Vibhakti (? ?)||Vocative||?, , ,||?, , ?r?, ?s?|
Modern Turkish has five cases (In Turkish ?smin hâlleri).
|çiçe?i / the flower||çiçe?e / to flower||çiçekte / in flower||çiçekten / from flower||çiçe?in / of flower|
The accusative can exist not only in the noun but also in the verb. For example, Arkada?lar bize gelmeyi dü?ünüyorlar./Friends are thinking of coming to us.
The dative can exist not only in the noun but also in the verb. For example, Bol bol kitap okumaya çalyorum./I try to read a lot of books .
An example of a Ukrainian case inflection is given below, using the singular forms of the Ukrainian word "?" ('dream', 'ambition', 'inspiration'), which is a soft feminine noun of the first declension class.
|Case||Example: ? - dream||Translation||Sentence|
|nominative||?||[a] dream||? ? ? ?.||I have a dream|
|genitive||?||[a] dream's / [of a] dream||? ? ? ?.||I cannot fathom the limits of your dream.|
|dative||?||[to/for a] dream||? ? ? `?.||You have to give your dream a name.|
|accusative||?||dream||? ? ? ?.||I can't just forget my dream.|
|instrumental||[with a] dream/[by a] dream||? ` .||Young people are united by a common dream.|
|locative||/? ?||[on/in a] dream [as a direct object]||? .||This book is based on its author's dream.|
|vocative||?||"dream" [as a direct object]||? ?, ?!||Don't leave me, my dream!|
As languages evolve, case systems change. In early Ancient Greek, for example, the genitive and ablative cases became combined, giving five cases, rather than the six retained in Latin. In modern Hindi, the Sanskrit cases have been reduced to three: a direct case (for subjects and direct objects) and oblique case, and a vocative case. In English, apart from the pronouns discussed above, case has vanished altogether except for the possessive/non-possessive dichotomy in nouns.
The evolution of the treatment of case relationships can be circular.:pp.167-174Adpositions can become unstressed and sound like they are an unstressed syllable of a neighboring word. A postposition can thus merge into the stem of a head noun, developing various forms depending on the phonological shape of the stem. Affixes can then be subject to various phonological processes such as assimilation, vowel centering to the schwa, phoneme loss, and fusion, and these processes can reduce or even eliminate the distinctions between cases. Languages can then compensate for the resulting loss of function by creating adpositions, thus coming full circle.
Recent experiments in agent-based modeling have shown how case systems can emerge and evolve in a population of language users. The experiments demonstrate that language users may introduce new case markers to reduce the cognitive effort required for semantic interpretation, hence facilitating communication through language. Case markers then become generalized through analogical reasoning and reuse.
The following are systems that some languages use to mark case instead of, or in addition to, declension:
The lemma form of words, which is the form chosen by convention as the canonical form of a word, is usually the most unmarked or basic case, which is typically the nominative, trigger, or absolutive case, whichever a language may have.
[the -s ending is] more appropriately described as an enclitic postposition'
In speech the genitive is signalled in singular nouns by an inflection that has the same pronunciation variants as for plural nouns in the common case
In writing, the inflection of regular nouns is realized in the singular by apostrophe + s (boy's), and in the regular plural by the apostrophe following the plural s (boys)
We conclude that both head and phrasal genitives involve case inflection. With head genitives it is always a noun that inflects, while the phrasal genitive can apply to words of most classes.