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This is a list of Celtic tribes, organized in order of the likely ethnolinguistic kinship of the peoples and tribes.
In Classical antiquity, Celts were a large number and a significant part of the population in many regions of Western Europe, Southern Central Europe, British Isles and parts of the Balkans, in Europe, and also Central Asia Minor or Anatolia.
Map showing the Roman district (probably not yet a full province by then) of Raetia et Vindelicia, as it stood in AD 14. Celts dwelt in most part of the shown land on the map except for the Rhaetians.
Ancient tribes in the middle Danube river basin around 1st C. BCE
Central and northern Illyrian tribes and neighbouring Celtic tribes (most in magenta) to the North and Northwest during the Roman period.
Tribes in Thrace before the Roman period. Some of the tribes shown, such as the Serdi were Celts.
They lived Southern Central Europe (in the Upper Danube basin and neighbouring regions) which is hypothesized as the original area of the Celts (Proto-Celts), corresponding to the Hallstatt Culture. Later they expanded towards the Middle Danube valley and to parts of the Balkans and towards inland central Asia Minor or Anatolia (Galatians). Hercynian Forest (Hercynia Silva), north of the Danube and east of the Rhine was in their lands. Celts, especially those from Western and Central Europe, were generally called by the Romans "Galli" i.e. "Gauls", this name was synonym of "Celts", this also means that not all of the peoples and tribes called by the name "Gauls" (Galli) were specifically Gauls in a narrower more regional sense. ( ) Their language is scarcely attested and can not be classified as a P-Celtic or Q-Celtic.
Some closely fit the concept of a tribe. Others are confederations or even unions of tribes.
Tulingi (Tylangii?) - localization unclear, possibly Southern Germany, Switzerland, or Austria; an originally Boii Celtic tribe that migrated along the upper Danube and later allied with the Helvetii?; also may have been a Germanic tribe.
Helvetii - original dwellers of Agri Decumates region, in the western part of Hercynia Silva, to the east and north of the Rhine; later, possibly at the end of the 3rd century BC they expanded to the South and Southwest to land later called Helvetia (modern day Switzerland). They were possibly more related to the Celtic populations of the upper Danube basin than to the Celts of Gaul. ( ) Decumates may have meant "Ten Cantons". La Tène, (tribal confederation of four tribes).
In the middle 3rd century BC, Celts from the middle Danube valley, immigrated from Thrace into the highlands of central Anatolia (modern Turkey), that was called Galatia after that. These people, called Galatians, a generic name for "Celts", were eventually Hellenized, but retained many of their own traditions. They spoke Galatian, a name derived from the generic name for "Celts". Some closely fit the concept of a tribe. Others are confederations or even unions of tribes.
Gaesatae - Numbering c. 30,000, they participated in the battle of Telamon a group of mercenary celtic warriors from several tribes of the western Alps slopes, not a tribe.
Possible Gaulish tribes
Galli (tribe) - along Gallicus (Gállego) river banks, see place names (toponyms) like Forum Gallorum, Gallur, a different tribe from the Suessetani; may have been a tribe related to the Galli (Gauls) and not to the Hispano-Celts / Iberian Celts. Some Gaulish tribes may have migrated southward and crossed the Pyrenees (by the north, the central, or the south areas of the mountains) in a second or a third Celtic wave to the Iberian Peninsula. These tribes were different from the Hispano-Celtic / Iberian Celtic tribes.
Concani / Gongani - two tribes of similar name (the Britannia Gangani and Hibernia Gangani) lived in Britannia and Hibernia, they could have been three branches of the same tribe, three related tribes with common ancestors or three different tribes that shared similar names.
Carpetani - Central Iberian meseta (Spain), in the geographical centre of the Iberian Peninsula, in a large part of today's Castilla-La Mancha and Madrid regions. A tribal confederation with 27 identified tribes. (the name of these tribes is known today by archaeology discovery of their names in old stellae and not by mention of any known or survived works of Classical Antiquity authors)
Conii - according to some scholars, Conii and Cynetes were two different peoples or tribes and the names were not two different names of the same people or tribe; in this case, the Conii may have dwelt along the northern banks of the middle Anas (Guadiana) river, in today's western Extremadura region of Spain, and were a Celtici tribe wrongly confused with the Cynetes of Cyneticum (Algarve) that dwelt from the west banks of the Low river Anas (Guadiana) further to the south (the celticization of the Cynetes by the Celtici confused the distinction between the two peoples or tribes).
Saephes / Saefes / Sefes - people or tribe of the Celtici that has been identified as synonymous with the Ophi or Serpent People (their land was called Ophiussa), a people that migrated westward and conquered and expelled an older people known as the Oestrymni or Oestrimni (in a land that was called Oestriminis).
Territory of the Celtiberi, mixed Celtic and Iberian tribes or Celtic tribes influenced by Iberians, with the possible location of the tribes. The names of the tribes are in Castillian or Spanish (whose plural grammatical number descends from the Latin plural accusative declension).
They spoke Brittonic (an Insular Celtic language of the P Celtic type).
They lived in Britannia, it was the name Romans gave, based on the name of the people: the Britanni.
Some closely fit the concept of a tribe but others are confederations or even unions of tribes.
Gangani (Ll?n Peninsula, Wales) - A tribe of the same name, the Gangani (Ganganoi), lived in Hibernia's southwestern coast, they could have been two branches of the same tribe, two related tribes with common ancestors or two different tribes that shared similar names. A tribe of similar name, the Gongani or Concani, was a tribe of the Cantabri, they could have been another branch of the same tribe, related tribes with common ancestors or a different tribe that shared a similar name.
The population groups (tribes and tribal confederations) of Ireland (Iouerní? / Hibernia) mentioned in Ptolemy's Geographia in a modern interpretation. Tribes' names on the map are in Greek (although some are in a phonetic transliteration and not in Greek spelling).
Gangani (Ganganoi) (Britons? A tribe of the same name lived in western Britannia (today's northwestern Wales) they could have been two branches of the same tribe, two related tribes with common ancestors or two different tribes that shared similar names.
Iverni (Iouernoi - Iwernoi on the map, not the Greek spelling)
Manapii (Manapioi) (Belgae? A tribe of similar name, the Menapii, lived in the coast of Belgica province or they could have been two different tribes that shared similar names)
A people or a group of related tribes that dwelt in Belgica, parts of Britannia, and may have dwelt in parts of Hibernia and also of Hispania) (large tribal confederation).
According to classical authors works, like Caesar's De Bello Gallico, they were a different people and spoke a different language (Ancient Belgic) from the Gauls and Britons; they were clearly an Indo-European people and may have spoken a Celtic language. There is also the possibility that their language may have been a different language branch of Indo-European from the Nordwestblock culture, which may have been intermediary between Germanic and Celtic, and might have been affiliated to Italic (according to a Maurits Gysseling hypothesis).
Menapii - Cassel. A tribe of similar name, the Manapii (Manapioi), lived in southeastern Hibernia (modern ireland) coast, they could have been two branches of the same tribe, two related tribes with common ancestors or two different tribes that shared similar names.
Peoples of northern Italy during the 4th to 3rd centuries BC. Ligurians are shown in the west coastal region (north coast of the Ligurian Sea, part of the Mediterranean Sea) to the south of the Celts (shown in blue) and to the northwest of the Etruscans, in the left side of the map. (map names are in French)
Northern Mediterranean Coast straddling South-east French and North-west Italian coasts, including far Northern and Northwestern Tuscany and Corsica. Because of the strong Celtic influences on their language and culture, they were known already in antiquity as Celto-Ligurians (in Greek , Keltolígues). Very little is known about this language, Ligurian (mainly place names and personal names remain) which is generally believed to have been Celtic or Para-Celtic; (i.e. an Indo-European language branch not Celtic but more closely related to Celtic). They spoke ancient Ligurian.
Laevi - a Ligurian tribe that dwelt in the low river Ticinus (Ticino), according to both Livy & Pliny. According to Livy (v. 34), they took part in the expedition of Bellovesus into Italy in the 6th century BC
They lived in Central Alps, eastern parts of present-day Switzerland, the Tyrol in Austria, and the Alpine regions of northern Italy. They spoke the Rhaetian language. There is evidence that the non-Celtic (and Pre-Indo-European) elements (see Tyrsenian languages) had, by the time of Augustus, been assimilated by the influx of Celtic tribes and had adopted Celtic speech. In addition, the abundance of Celtic toponyms and the complete absence of Etruscan place names in the Rhaetian territory leads to the conclusion that, by the time of Roman conquest, the Rhaetians were completely Celticized.[better source needed]
^A. Mocsy and S. Frere, Pannonia and Upper Moesia. A History of the Middle Danube Provinces of the Roman Empire. p. 14.
^Pannonia. A History of the Middle Danube Provinces of the Roman Empire. p. 14.
^Frank W. Walbank, Polybius, Rome and the Hellenistic World: Essays and Reflections,
ISBN0-521-81208-9, 2002, p. 116: "... in A7P 60 (1939) 452 8, is not Antigonus Doson but barbarians from the mainland (either Thracians or Gauls from Tylis) (cf. Rostovizef and Welles (1940) 207-8, Rostovizef (1941) 111, 1645), nor has that inscription anything to do with the Cavan expedition. On ..."
^Velika Dautova-Ru?evljan and Miroslav Vujovi?, Rimska vojska u Sremu, 2006, p. 131: "extended as far as Ruma whence continued the territory of another community named after the Celtic tribe of Cornacates"
^Ion Grumeza, Dacia: Land of Transylvania, Cornerstone of Ancient Eastern Europe, ISBN0-7618-4465-1, 2009, p. 51: "In a short time the Dacians imposed their conditions on the Anerati, Boii, Eravisci, Pannoni, Scordisci,"
^John T. Koch, Celtic culture: a historical encyclopedia, ISBN1-85109-440-7, 2006, p. 907.
^ abJ. J. Wilkes, The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN0-631-19807-5, p. 81: "In Roman Pannonia the Latobici and Varciani who dwelt east of the Venetic Catari in the upper Sava valley were Celtic but the Colapiani of ..."
^ abJ. J. Wilkes, The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN0-631-19807-5, p. 140: "... Autariatae at the expense of the Triballi until, as Strabo remarks, they in their turn were overcome by the Celtic Scordisci in the early third century"
^Population and economy of the eastern part of the Roman province of Dalmatia, 2002, ISBN1-84171-440-2, p. 24: "the Dindari were a branch of the Scordisci"
^John Boardman, I. E. S. Edwards, E. Sollberger, and N. G. L. Hammond, The Cambridge Ancient History, Vol. 3, Part 2: The Assyrian and Babylonian Empires and Other States of the Near East, from the Eighth to the Sixth Centuries BC, ISBN0-521-22717-8, 1992, p. 600: "In the place of the vanished Treres and Tilataei we find the Serdi for whom there is no evidence before the first century BC. It has for long been supposed on convincing linguistic and archeological grounds that this tribe was of Celtic origin"
^Dio Cassius, Earnest Cary, and Herbert B. Foster, Dio Cassius: Roman History, Vol. IX, Books 71-80 (Loeb Classical Library, No. 177), 1927, Index: "... 9, 337, 353 Seras, philosopher, condemned to death, 8. 361 Serdi, Thracian tribe defeated by M. Crassus, 6. 73 Seretium,""
^Dubravka Balen-Letuni?, 40 godina arheolo?kih istra?ivanja u sjeverozapadnoj Hrvatskoj, 1986, p. 52: "and the Celtic Serretes"
^Alan Bowman, Edward Champlin, and Andrew Lintott, The Cambridge Ancient History, Vol. 10: The Augustan Empire, 43 BC-AD 69, 1996, p. 580: "... 580 I3h. DANUBIAN AND BALKAN PROVINCES Tricornenses of Tricornium (Ritopek) replaced the Celegeri, the Picensii of Pincum ..."
^William M. Ramsay, Historical Commentary on Galatians, 1997, p. 302: "... these adaptable Celts were Hellenized early. The term Gallograecia, compared with Themistius' (p. 360) ? ..."
^Roger D. Woodard, The Ancient Languages of Asia Minor, 2008, p. 72: "... The Phrygian elite (like the Galatian) was quickly Hellenized linguistically; the Phrygian tongue was devalued and found refuge only ..."
^ abcdefghijPrifysgol Cymru, University of Wales, A Detailed Map of Celtic Settlements in Galatia, Celtic Names and La Tène Material in Anatolia, the Eastern Balkans, and the Pontic Steppes.
^The Osi's categorization as Celtic is disputed; see Osi; also may have been a Dacian or Germanic tribe.
^Adrian Goldsworthy, How Rome Fell: Death of a Superpower, ISBN0-300-13719-2, 2009, p. 105: "... who had moved to the Hungarian Plain. Another tribe, the Bastarnae, may or may not have been Germanic. ..."
^Christopher Webber and Angus McBride, The Thracians 700 BC-AD 46 (Men-at-Arms), ISBN1-84176-329-2, 2001, p. 12: "... never got near the main body of Roman infantry. The Bastarnae (either Celts or Germans), and `the bravest nation on earth' - Livy ..."
^Charles Anthon, A Classical Dictionary: Containing The Principal Proper Names Mentioned In Ancient Authors, Part One, 2005, p. 539: "... Tor, " elevated," " a mountain. (Strabo, 293)"; "the Iapodes (Strabo, 313), a Gallo-Illyrian race occupying the valleys of ..."
^J. J. Wilkes, The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN0-631-19807-5, p. 79: "along with the evidence of name formulae, a Venetic element among the Japodes. A group of names identified by Alföldy as of Celtic origin: Ammida, Andes, Iaritus, Matera, Maxa,"
^J. J. Wilkes, Dalmatia, Tome 2 of History of the Provinces of the Roman Empire, 1969, pp. 154 and 482.
^Géza Alföldy, Noricum, Tome 3 of History of the Provinces of the Roman Empire, 1974, p. 24-5.
^Cowles Prichard, James (1841). Researches Into the Physical History of Mankind: 3, Volume 1. Sherwood, Gilbert and Piper. p. 240.
^Markey, Thomas (2008). Shared Symbolics, Genre Diffusion, Token Perception and Late Literacy in North-Western Europe. NOWELE.
Sims-Williams, Patrick. "The location of the Celts according to Hecataeus, Herodotus, and other Greek writers". In: Études Celtiques, vol. 42, 2016. pp. 7-32. [DOI:https://doi.org/10.3406/ecelt.2016.2467]; [www.persee.fr/doc/ecelt_0373-1928_2016_num_42_1_2467]
https://dc.uwm.edu/ekeltoi/ - electronic Journal of Interdisciplinary Celtic Studies by the Center for Celtic Studies at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee.