Changhsingian
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Changhsingian
Changhsingian
254.14 ± 0.07 - 251.902 ± 0.024 Ma BP
Chronology
Etymology
Name formalityFormal
Name ratified1981
Alternate spelling(s)Changxingian
Usage Information
Celestial bodyEarth
Regional UsageGlobal (ICS)
Time scale(s) usedICS Time Scale
Definition
Chronological unitAge
Stratigraphic unitStage
Time span formalityFormal
Lower boundary definitionMeishan, Zhejiang, China
Lower boundary GSSPFAD of the Conodont Clarkina wangi
31°04?55?N 119°42?23?E / 31.0819°N 119.7064°E / 31.0819; 119.7064
GSSP ratified2005[1]
Upper boundary definitionFAD of the Conodont Hindeodus parvus.
Upper boundary GSSPMeishan, Zhejiang, China
31°04?47?N 119°42?21?E / 31.0798°N 119.7058°E / 31.0798; 119.7058
GSSP ratified2001[2]


In the geologic time scale, the Changhsingian or Changxingian is the latest age or uppermost stage of the Permian. It is also the upper or latest of two subdivisions of the Lopingian epoch or series. The Changhsingian lasted from 254.14 to 251.902 million years ago (Ma). It was preceded by the Wuchiapingian and followed by the Induan.[3]

The greatest mass extinction in the Phanerozoic eon, the Permian-Triassic extinction event, occurred during this age. The extinction rate peaked about a million years before the end of this stage.

Stratigraphic definitions

The Changhsingian is named after Changxing (Chinese: ; pinyin: Chángxìng; Wade-Giles: Ch'ang-hsing) in northern Zhejiang, China. The stage was named for the Changhsing Limestone.[4] The name was first used for a stage in 1970[5][6] and was anchored in the international timescale in 1981.[7]

The base of the Changhsingian stage is at the first appearance of the conodont species Clarkina wangi. The global reference profile is profile D at Meishan, in the type area in Changxing.[7] The top of the Changhsingian (the base of the Induan stage and the Triassic system is at the first appearance of the conodont species Hindeodus parvus.

The Changhsingian stage contains only one ammonite biozone: that of the genus Iranites.

Palaeontology

The Changhsingian ended with the Permian-Triassic extinction event when both global biodiversity and alpha diversity (community-level diversity) were devastated.[8] The world after the extinction was almost lifeless, deserted, hot, and dry. Ammonites, fishes, insects, and the tetrapods (cynodonts, amphibians, reptiles, etc.) remained rare and terrestrial ecosystems did not recover for 30 million years.[8]

Changhsingian Life

+Ammonoids

+Ammonoidea of the Changhsingian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Iran, Japan, China An araxoceratid ammonoid
Araxoceras latissimum

Actinopterygians

Actinopterygii of the Changhsingian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Lopingian Italy A neopterygian
Lopingian to Middle Triassic Italy A bobasatraniid non-neopterygian
Lopingian Australia A bobasatraniid non-neopterygian
Lopingian China A saurichthyid non-neopterygian
Permian Russia A palaeonisciform non-neopterygian with long pelvic fins

Coelacanths

Actinistia of the Changhsingian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Lopingian China
Lopingian China

Lungfishes

Dipnoi of the Changhsingian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Permian to Early Triassic Russia A gnathorhizid dipnoan

+Temnospondyls

Temnospondyli of the Changhsingian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Buena Vista Formation, Norte Basin, Uruguay A genus of temnospondyl amphibian. Arachana was a basal member of Stereospondyli that shared traits with more derived stereospondyl taxa like Lydekkerinidae and especially Rhinesuchidae. Its transitional features place it as part of an entire transitional fauna that existed around the Permo-Triassic boundary.
Inta Formation, Russia Intasuchus was a genus of temnospondyl amphibian, possibly an archegosauroid.
Moradi Formation, Niger A genus of edopoid temnospondyl within the family Cochleosauridae.
Moradi Formation, Niger A genus of basal temnospondyl.
Lopingian Normandien Formation, South Africa A rhinesuchid stereospondyl.

+Chroniosuchians

Chroniosuchia of the Changhsingian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Lopingian to Early Triassic Russia, China A reptiliomorph
Lopingian Russia A reptiliomorph
Lopingian Russia A reptiliomorph

+Seymouriamorphs

Seymouriamorpha of the Changhsingian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Lopingian Russia A seymouriamorph reptiliomorph

+Millerosaurs

Millerosauria of the Changhsingian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Lopingian South Africa A parareptile
Lopingian South Africa A parareptile
Lopingian South Africa A parareptile

+Procolophonomorphs

Diapsids

Diapsida of the Changhsingian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Lopingian to Early Triassic Madagascar An aquatic claudiosaurid reptile
Lopingian to Early Triassic Madagascar An aquatic tangasaurid younginiform reptile
Lopingian to Early Triassic Madagascar An aquatic younginid younginiform reptile
Lopingian Madagascar An aquatic tangasaurid younginiform reptile
Lopingian Madagascar An aquatic younginid younginiform reptile

Therapsids

References

  1. ^ Jin, Yugan; Wang, Yue; Henderson, Charles; Wardlaw, Bruce; Shen, Shuzhong; Cao, Changqun (September 2006). "The Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the base of Changhsingian Stage (Upper Permian)". Episodes. 29 (3): 175-182. doi:10.18814/epiiugs/2006/v29i3/003. Retrieved 2020.
  2. ^ Hongfu, Yin; Kexin, Zhang; Jinnan, Tong; Zunyi, Yang; Shunbao, Wu (June 2001). "The Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) of the Permian-Triassic Boundary" (PDF). Episodes. 24: 102-114. Retrieved 2020.
  3. ^ Gradstein, F.M.; Ogg, J.G. & Smith, A.G.; 2004: A Geologic Time Scale 2004, Cambridge University Press
  4. ^ Grabau, A.W.; 1923: Stratigraphy of China, Part 1: Palaeozoic and lower, Geological Survey of China, 529 pp.
  5. ^ Furnish, W.M. & Glenister, B.F.; 1970: Permian ammonite Cyclolobus from the Salt Range, West Pakistan, in: Kummel, B. & Teichert, G. (eds.): Stratigraphic boundary problems, Permian and Triassic of west Pakistan, Geological Department of Kansas University, Special Publication 4, pp 158-176.
  6. ^ Furnish, W.M. & Glenister, B.F.; 1973: Permian stages names, in: Logan, A. & Hills, L.V.: The Permian and Triassic systems and their mutual boundary, Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 2, pp 522-548.
  7. ^ a b Jin, Y.; Wang, Y.; Henderson, C.; Wardlaw, B.R.; Shen, S. & Cao, C.; 2006: The Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the base of Changhsingian Stage (Upper Permian) Episodes 29(3), p. 175-182, PDF.
  8. ^ a b Sahney, S.; Benton, M.J. (2008). "Recovery from the most profound mass extinction of all time" (PDF). Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 275 (1636): 759-65. doi:10.1098/rspb.2007.1370. PMC 2596898. PMID 18198148.

External links

Coordinates: 31°04?55?N 119°42?23?E / 31.0819°N 119.7064°E / 31.0819; 119.7064


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Changhsingian
 



 



 
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