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Charter, also called air taxi or ad-hoc flights require certification from the associated country's regulating body such as the FAA in the U.S. The regulations are differentiated from typical commercial/passenger service by offering a non-scheduled service. In the U.S. these flights are regulated under FAA Part 135. There are some cases where a charter operator can sell scheduled flights, but only in limited quantities.
The same regulations also apply to Air Ambulance and cargo operators.
There are several business models which offer air charter services from the traditional charter operator to brokers and jet card programs:
Charter aircraft categories include:
There are an estimated 15,000 business jets available for charter in the world. The US market is the largest, followed by the European market with growing activity in the Middle East, Asia, and Central America.
Media related to Charter airlines at Wikimedia Commons