Chatham, Ontario
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Chatham, Ontario

Chatham-Kent
Municipality of Chatham-Kent
Thames River in Chatham
Thames River in Chatham
Nickname(s): 
Classic Car Capital of Canada, The Maple City
Map of Ontario CHATHAM-KENT.svg
Coordinates: 42°24?00?N 82°11?00?W / 42.40000°N 82.18333°W / 42.40000; -82.18333Coordinates: 42°24?00?N 82°11?00?W / 42.40000°N 82.18333°W / 42.40000; -82.18333
Country Canada
Province Ontario
County (historical)Kent
Formed by political merger1998
Government
 o MayorDarrin Canniff
 o Governing bodyChatham-Kent Municipal Council
 o MPsBev Shipley (CPC)
Dave Epp (CPC)
 o MPPsRick Nicholls (OPC)
Monte McNaughton (OPC)
Area
 o Land2,457.90 km2 (949.00 sq mi)
Elevation
198 m (650 ft)
Population
 o Municipality101,647 (Ranked 53rd)
 o Density41.4/km2 (107/sq mi)
 o Urban
43,550 (Chatham)
10,098 (Wallaceburg)
4,809 (Tilbury)
Time zoneUTC-5 (Eastern (EST))
 o Summer (DST)UTC-4 (EDT)
Forward sortation area
Area code(s)519 226
Websitechatham-kent.ca

Chatham-Kent (2016 population 101,647)[2] is a single-tier municipality in Southwestern Ontario, Canada. Mostly rural, its population centres are Chatham, Wallaceburg, Tilbury, Blenheim, Ridgetown, Wheatley and Dresden. The current Municipality of Chatham-Kent was created in 1998 by the merger of Kent County and its municipalities.

The Chatham-Kent census division, which includes the independent Delaware Nation at Moraviantown First Nation, had a population of 102,042 in the 2016 census.[2]

History

The former city of Chatham began as a naval dockyard in the 1790s, as it straddles the Thames River. The town was named after the Earl of Chatham, William Pitt (the Elder). It was built as a naval dockyard, a characteristic shared by Chatham, Kent, England. In England, the name Chatham came from the British root ceto and the Old English ham thus meaning a forest settlement.[3] Following the American Revolution and the Gnadenhutten Massacre, a group of Christian Munsee Indians settled in what is now Moraviantown. In the War of 1812, the Battle of the Thames took place between Moraviantown and Thamesville on October 5, 1813.

During the 19th century, the area was part of the Underground Railroad. As a result, Chatham-Kent is now part of the African-Canadian Heritage Tour. Uncle Tom's Cabin Historic Site is a museum of the Dawn Settlement, established in 1841 by Josiah Henson near Dresden as refuge for the many slaves who escaped to Canada from the United States.[4]John Brown, the abolitionist, planned his raid on the Harpers Ferry Arsenal in Chatham and recruited local men to participate in the raid. He held in Chatham a constitutional convention in The small village of North Buxton, part of the African Canadian Heritage Tour, also played an important role in the Underground Railroad. By the 1850's, the city of Chatham was referred to as the "Black Mecca of Canada".[5] A museum in the city, the Black Mecca Museum, still bears this name.[6] Chatham was home to a number of black churches and business, with Black Canadians making up 1/3 of the city's population and controlling a significant portion of the city's political power. Nearby Dresden and Buxton were also home to thousands of land-owning black residents.[7] However, after the abolition of slavery in the United States, many black families left the area. Today the city of Chatham is just 3.3% black, with Chatham-Kent as a whole being 2.1% black. Few of the black-owned institutions are still in operation.[8]

In 1846, the town of Chatham had a population of about 1500, with part of it called Chatham North. There were four churches, a theatre, a weekly newspaper and a cricket club. The road between London and Amherstburg was open, and transportation by stagecoach was available. A fast boat also provided transportation to Detroit and Buffalo. Chatham had many tradesman, a foundry, two banks, three schools, a tavern and a library where one could read books and newspapers.[9] By 1869, the population was 3,000 in this industrial area with several mills, foundries, and breweries; a great deal of wood was being produced. A steamboat offered transportation to Windsor and Detroit. There was one bank office.[10]

Between 1906 and 1909, the city was home to the Chatham Motor Car Company,[11] and from 1919 to 1921, Denby Motor Truck Company of Canada.[12] It was also where the Hyslop and Ronald steam fire engine manufacturer was located; the factory would be taken over by Chatham Motor Car.[11] In addition, it hosted meat packer O'Keefe and Drew.[13]

Before 1998, Kent County consisted of the townships of Camden, Chatham, Dover, Harwich, Howard, Orford, Raleigh, Romney, Tilbury East and Zone. In some of Canada's earliest post-Confederation censuses, some residences in Kent County were incorrectly reported as being in Bothwell "County", which was a separate electoral district comprising parts of Kent and Lambton counties but not a distinct county in its own right.

In 1998 the County of Kent and the city of Chatham were amalgamated to form the Municipality of Chatham-Kent. Most services were also combined. Since then, bus service has begun to serve all of Chatham-Kent. Starting in 2007, routes were set up to include the former towns of Wallaceburg and Dresden. Before 1998, each town had their own fire department. It then became the Chatham-Kent Fire Department upon amalgamation. The county also had separate police departments until 1998. The city of Chatham, as well as the towns of Wallaceburg, Dresden, and Tilbury, each had their own departments. The Chatham-Kent Police Service was formed on September 1, 1998.

Chatham-Kent has many historic festivals throughout the year, such as the Battle of Longwoods reenactment, which takes place on Labour Day weekend at Fairfield Museum on Longwoods road. Chatham Kent is also home to many historic buildings which are part of an annual ghost tour offered each year at Halloween. The participants go on a guided walk of downtown while the guide informs them of various ghost stories tied to the local buildings in which they pass. Chatham-Kent was a major part of the Underground Railroad and as such hosts the Buxton Homecoming each September. This celebrates the areas black culture and the roots laid by early black settlers in the Buxton area.

Communities

The Municipality of Chatham-Kent currently consists of the following communities:

  • Camden Township:
  • Chatham Township:
    • Chatham, Wallaceburg; Appledore, Arkwood, Darrell, Eberts, Kent Bridge, Louisville, Oldfield, Thornecliffe, Tupperville, Turnerville, Whitebread; Ennett, Riverside
  • Dover Township:
    • Mitchell's Bay, Pain Court; Bagnall, Baldoon, Bearline, Bradley, Dover Centre, Electric, Grande Pointe, Oungah; Bass Haven
  • Harwich Township:
    • Blenheim, Erieau, Shrewsbury; Bates Subdivision, Eatonville, Erie Beach, Fargo Station, Guilds, Huffman Corners, Kent Centre, Lake Morningstar Estates, McKay's Corners, Mull, New Scotland, Northwood, Pinehurst, Raglan, Rondeau Bay Estates, Troy, Van Horne, Vosburg, Wilson's Bush; Blenheim Junction, Lynnwood Subdivision, Porkies Corners, Richardson Station, Rushton's Corners
  • Howard Township:
  • Orford Township:
    • Highgate; Clearville, Duart, Muirkirk, Palmyra, Turin; Austen's, Clachan, Henderson's, Lee's
  • Raleigh Township:
  • Romney Township:
    • Wheatley; Coatsworth, Port Alma, Renwick; Holiday Harbour
  • Tilbury East Township:
    • Merlin, Tilbury; Fletcher, Glenwood, Jeannette, Jeannette's Creek, Port Crewe, Quinn, Stevenson, Stewart, Valetta
  • Zone Township:
    • Bothwell; Bothwell Station, Briarwood Estates; Fairfield, Zone Centre

Geography

At 2,458 square kilometres, Chatham-Kent is the 12th largest municipality by area in Canada and the largest in southwestern Ontario. Over 44,000 of the 107,000 residents live in the former City of Chatham. Other population centres in the municipality include Wallaceburg, Blenheim and Tilbury, Ridgetown and Dresden.

The Lower Thames River runs through Chatham-Kent to Lake St. Clair in the west, while the Sydenham River flows through Wallaceburg and Dresden. The municipality has approximately 88 kilometres of shoreline along lake Erie and 24 kilometres along lake St. Clair.

The Indian reserve of Bkejwanong (commonly referred to as Walpole Island) borders on Chatham-Kent, whereas the Indian reserve of Moravian 47 is an enclave within the city and is part of the Chatham-Kent census agglomeration and census division.

Climate

Chatham-Kent has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfa),[14] with cold, snowy winters and warm to hot, humid summers. A typical summer will feature heat waves with temperatures exceeding 30 °C (86 °F) often. Winters are cold, and feature occasional cold snaps bringing temperatures below -15 °C (5 °F), but also commonly include mild stretches of weather above freezing.

Climate data for Chatham-Kent, Ontario, Canada (1981-2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 14.0
(57.2)
19.0
(66.2)
25.0
(77.0)
30.0
(86.0)
32.5
(90.5)
38.5
(101.3)
37.5
(99.5)
36.5
(97.7)
33.5
(92.3)
29.0
(84.2)
22.5
(72.5)
19.0
(66.2)
38.5
(101.3)
Average high °C (°F) -0.3
(31.5)
1.2
(34.2)
6.0
(42.8)
13.5
(56.3)
19.9
(67.8)
25.5
(77.9)
27.7
(81.9)
26.5
(79.7)
22.7
(72.9)
15.5
(59.9)
8.5
(47.3)
2.1
(35.8)
14.1
(57.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) -3.6
(25.5)
-2.4
(27.7)
1.9
(35.4)
8.5
(47.3)
14.6
(58.3)
20.3
(68.5)
22.6
(72.7)
21.6
(70.9)
17.8
(64.0)
11.3
(52.3)
5.2
(41.4)
-0.9
(30.4)
9.8
(49.6)
Average low °C (°F) -6.9
(19.6)
-5.9
(21.4)
-2.2
(28.0)
3.6
(38.5)
9.4
(48.9)
15.0
(59.0)
17.5
(63.5)
16.7
(62.1)
13.0
(55.4)
6.9
(44.4)
1.8
(35.2)
-3.9
(25.0)
5.4
(41.7)
Record low °C (°F) -32
(-26)
-23.5
(-10.3)
-22
(-8)
-8
(18)
-2.5
(27.5)
1.5
(34.7)
6.0
(42.8)
6.0
(42.8)
1.5
(34.7)
-4.5
(23.9)
-10
(14)
-23
(-9)
-32
(-26)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 62.7
(2.47)
54.1
(2.13)
59.9
(2.36)
79.7
(3.14)
79.7
(3.14)
77.9
(3.07)
85.4
(3.36)
79.3
(3.12)
89.1
(3.51)
70.7
(2.78)
76.8
(3.02)
67.0
(2.64)
882.3
(34.74)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 31.6
(1.24)
36.5
(1.44)
48.6
(1.91)
78.3
(3.08)
79.7
(3.14)
77.9
(3.07)
85.4
(3.36)
79.3
(3.12)
89.1
(3.51)
70.7
(2.78)
75.0
(2.95)
51.1
(2.01)
803.1
(31.62)
Average snowfall cm (inches) 31.1
(12.2)
17.6
(6.9)
11.3
(4.4)
1.4
(0.6)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
1.7
(0.7)
15.9
(6.3)
79.2
(31.2)
Average precipitation days 12.5 9.3 11.0 13.5 13.3 10.9 9.7 9.6 10.2 11.9 12.6 12.7 137.1
Average rainy days 5.4 5.2 8.4 13.1 13.3 10.9 9.7 9.6 10.2 11.9 11.9 8.3 118.0
Average snowy days 7.5 4.7 3.5 0.83 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.04 0.88 5.0 22.4
Source: Environment Canada[15]

Adjacent counties and municipalities

Demographics

Population trends

Racial statistics

  • White: 92%
  • Black: 2.1%
  • First Nations: 2%
  • Metis: 1.5%
  • South Asian: 0.6%
  • Other groups: 1.8%

[19]

Ethnocultural statistics

For all groups that comprise at least 1% of the population. Note that a person can report more than one ethnic origin.[20]

  • "Canadian": 34.7%
  • English: 32.9%
  • French: 21.9%
  • Scottish: 20.2%
  • Irish: 19.1%
  • German: 12.2%
  • Dutch: 11.1%
  • Belgian: 5.9%
  • First Nations: 3.1%
  • Italian: 2.1%
  • African descent: 2.1%
  • Polish: 2.1%
  • Ukrainian: 2.0%
  • Welsh: 1.5%
  • Czech: 1.4%
  • Metis: 1.2%
  • American (modern immigrant): 1.2%
  • Hungarian: 1.2%
  • Portuguese: 1.2%
  • Mexican: 1.0%

Language

Although most of the population of Chatham-Kent is English-speaking, a few of its communities and Catholic parishes were settled by francophone (French-speaking) farmers in the mid-nineteenth century. These include Pain Court, Tilbury and Grande Pointe, where French is still spoken by a significant percentage of the population. These communities are designated French language service areas under Ontario's French Language Services Act.

Approximately 8,500 residents of Chatham-Kent have French as a mother tongue and 1,500 have French as their home language. Essex County also has a relatively large francophone population, especially in the municipality of Lakeshore. Together, Chatham-Kent and Essex Counties make up one of the concentrations of Franco-Ontarians in the province of Ontario.

Both elementary and secondary francophone schools exist across the municipality. A French cultural organization, La Girouette, which is based in Pain Court, promotes French-Canadian culture and language in the area.

Knowledge of official language statistics:[21]

  • English only: 92.2%
  • French only: <0.1%
  • English and French: 7.2%
  • Neither English nor French: 0.5%

Economy and industry

Chatham-Kent's economy has a base in the agricultural and automotive sectors. The municipality and senior levels of government are keen to promote continuing diversification. The CP railway splits Chatham city in two, and the unstaffed Chatham railway station attends to Via Rail passengers.

Agribusiness and chemical

At the outskirts of Chatham is the headquarters for Pioneer Hi-Bred Limited (a division of DuPont), a major agricultural seed breeding and biotechnology company.

GreenField Specialty Alcohols Inc.'s Commercial Alcohols division, Canada's largest ethanol plant and one of the world's largest, opened in Chatham in 1996. The plant produces ethanol for industrial, medical, and beverage uses.

There are a number of vineyards in the municipality.

Automotive

Chatham's roots in the automotive sector go back to Gray-Dort Motors Ltd., one of Canada's earliest automobile manufacturers. In the 21st century, auto industry plants in the municipality include AutoLiv Canada in Tilbury (airbags), Mahle in Tilbury (emissions controls and plastics), in Ridgetown (automotive electronic pedal assembly and sensors), Dana Canada in Chatham (heat shields for thermal and acoustic management of exhaust manifolds, catalytic converters, and turbochargers), and Continental Corporation in Chatham (design and testing for clean, efficient vehicles).

Chatham-Kent also is home to RM Auctions, a vintage automobile auction house, and RM Restorations, a vintage automobile restoration company.[22] The nickname "The Classic Car Capital of Canada"comes from the abundance of classic car events in the community.[23]

Energy

Chatham is home to the headquarters of Union Gas, a natural gas utility and Enbridge company. Other energy related companies include wind farms near the shores of Lake Erie.

Public sector

The Canadian Federal government is one of the largest employers in the Chatham-Kent area with over 450 employees in several departments in the area. The Canada Pension Plan (CPP) Disability Unit is housed in the Judy Lamarsh (see Notable Residents) Building in downtown Chatham. This federal office is the single largest disability processing centre in Canada, processing 50% of all CPP Disability benefits. The office also processes Old Age Security benefit claims.

Retail hub

Chatham serves as a retail centre for the municipality and surrounding area. This includes the large big-box stores in Super Centre on St. Clair Street and arguably the north end of Communication Road in Blenheim.

Attractions

Capitol theatre

The long, white sandy beaches, fishing, hiking trails and conservation areas make Erieau a popular vacation spot.

There are two Provincial Parks in Chatham-Kent: Rondeau Provincial Park and Wheatley Provincial Park, There are also numerous local conservation areas.

Downtown Chatham is home to the annual "Retrofest" organized by the Historic Downtown Chatham BIA, in partnership with the Kent Historic Auto Club.[24] Hundreds of classic car enthusiasts travel to downtown Chatham to showcase their classic cars and vintage vehicles.

Downtown Chatham is also home to the Chatham Capitol Theatre, a theatre that, when it opened in 1930, was the largest in the region. The theatre is run by the Municipality of Chatham-Kent and hosts world class shows and entertainers. [25]

Chatham was home to the iconic Wheels Inn, a family resort for four decades until its closure in 2010. In 2011, the Chatham-Kent John D. Bradley Convention Centre was constructed on the site of the Wheels Inn.[26] In July 2019, a new Cascades casino was opened in Chatham, close to the Convention Centre on Richmond Street.

Health care

Chatham-Kent is served by the Chatham-Kent Health Alliance. The Public General Hospital and St. Joseph Hospital in Chatham were moved to a single campus in 2004, while the former Sydenham District Hospital remains in Wallaceburg. The eastern portion of the municipality is served by the Four Counties Health Services in Newbury in nearby Middlesex County.

Research published in 2002 by the Heart and Stroke Foundation cited Chatham-Kent as a hotspot for heart disease in Ontario.[27] Further research is underway to determine the reasons for this and other hotspots. The Chatham-Kent Public Health Unit launched a campaign in fall 2007 to tackle other ailments prevalent throughout the community, including asthma, chronic allergies, sinus problems, many types of cancer, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, alcoholism, and obesity.[28]

In October 2008, Chatham-Kent Health Alliance was named one of "Canada's Top 100 Employers" by Mediacorp Canada Inc., and was featured in Maclean's newsmagazine.[29]

Chatham-Kent features one of the 14 provincial Local Health Integration Networks (LHIN). The Erie St. Clair (ESC) LHIN services the Chatham-Kent Community as well as Sarnia/Lambton and Windsor/Essex. The ESC LHIN is located in the town of Chatham.

Media

Television stations

OTA virtual channel (PSIP) OTA actual channel Call sign Network Notes
16.1 16 (UHF) CHWI-DT CTV Two
33.1 33 (UHF) CICO-DT-59 TVOntario Rebroadcaster of CICA-DT (Toronto)
42 (UHF) CKCO-TV-3 CTV Rebroadcaster of CKCO-DT (Kitchener); transmitted from Oil Springs

Chatham-Kent is also served by stations coming from Windsor, London, Detroit, Toledo, and Cleveland.

Radio broadcast stations

Frequency Call sign Branding Format Owner Notes
AM 630 CFCO CFCO 92.9 Country music Blackburn Radio Also broadcasts at FM 92.9
FM 88.1 CBEE-FM CBC Radio One Talk radio, public radio Canadian Broadcasting Corporation Rebroadcaster of CBEW-FM (Windsor)
FM 89.3 CKGW-FM UCB Canada Christian radio United Christian Broadcasters Canada
FM 94.3 CKSY-FM 94-3 CKSY Adult contemporary Blackburn Radio
FM 95.1 CKUE-FM Canada's Cool FM Classic rock Blackburn Radio
FM 99.1 CKXS-FM 99.1 Hot adult contemporary Five Amigos Broadcasting

Print media

The Chatham Daily News is the only daily newspaper in Chatham-Kent. There are several weeklies located in Chatham and the various communities in the municipality, including the Chatham Voice, Wallaceburg Courier Press, the Blenheim News Tribune, Chatham-Kent This Week, Ridgetown Independent News, Tilbury Times, and the Wheatley Journal.

The Chatham Daily News, Chatham-Kent This Week, and Wallaceburg Courier Press are all owned by Postmedia.

Online media

The Chatham Daily News,[30]Chatham-Kent This Week,[31]Wallaceburg Courier Press,[32]Chatham Voice[33] and CKReview[34] are daily online news media in Chatham-Kent with coverage of local news, sports, entertainment, and cultural events as well as a number of regular contributing columnists. The Chatham-Kent Sports Network[35] is an online source covering local sports news, scores, and highlights from each of Chatham-Kent's communities. CKSN also follows Chatham-Kent athletes who have progressed to the Junior, College, International, or Professional ranks.

Education

Elementary and secondary

Chatham Regional Education Center of the Lambton Kent District School Board

There are two anglophone school boards and one francophone school board in Chatham-Kent. These are the Lambton Kent District School Board (headquartered in both Chatham and Sarnia), the St. Clair Catholic District School Board (headquartered in Wallaceburg) and the Conseil scolaire catholique Providence (CSC Providence).[36] The LKDSB is a public school board, and consists of 13 secondary and 53 elementary schools. Chatham-Kent Secondary School is the largest public high school in Lambton-Kent.[37] The St. Clair Catholic board consists of two secondary schools, one in Chatham and one in Sarnia, and 26 elementary schools. There are also independent schools, such as Wallaceburg Christian School and Chatham Christian Schools--an elementary and secondary school in the same building.

The French Catholic board, headquartered in Windsor, has its Chatham-Kent regional office in Pain Court.[38]

Post-secondary

Chatham-Kent is the home of two colleges - St. Clair College and University of Guelph Ridgetown Campus, popularly known as Ridgetown College.

St. Clair College is a satellite of St. Clair College of Windsor. There are two campuses located in the municipality - Thames Campus (located in Chatham) and the Wallaceburg Campus (located in Wallaceburg). More than 5,000 full-time and 12,000 part-time students attend the college each year.

The Ridgetown Campus of the University of Guelph offers diplomas in agriculture, horticulture, and veterinary technology. It is part of the University of Guelph's Ontario Agricultural College, and formerly known as Ridgetown College of Agricultural Technology.

Sports

Hockey

The Chatham Maroons are a team in the Greater Ontario Junior Hockey League.

There are also four teams in the Great Lakes Junior C Hockey League

Other teams in Chatham-Kent include the Chatham Outlaws Girls Hockey Association, the Chatham AAA Cyclones and the AA Kent Cobras.

Canadian football

The Chatham-Kent Cougars Football Club started in 2006. In 2006 Chatham-Kent entered a team into the inaugural season of the Allstar Peewee Football League, and in 2007 entered a team into the Jr. Ontario Varsity Football League. Now Chatham-Kent plays in the OFC with 4 spring/summer teams.

Rugby Union football

Founded in 2001, the Chatham-Kent Havoc rugby team plays in the Southwest Rugby Union.

Transportation

St. Clair Street (Hwy 40) in Chatham

Road

Chatham-Kent is situated just off Highway 401, connecting Montreal, Toronto, Kitchener-Waterloo, London, and Windsor, Ontario; and Detroit, Michigan via the Ambassador Bridge. Blenheim, Chatham and Wallaceburg are linked with Sarnia, Ontario and the Blue Water Bridge to the United States by Highway 40.

The sections of Highway 2 and Highway 3 (the Talbot Trail) in Chatham-Kent were downloaded by the province in 1998, becoming local roads 2 and 3, but they remain significant through routes and are still locally known by their old names.

The first gas station in Canada to sell E85 fuel to the public is located on Park Avenue East in Chatham.[39]

Rail

Chatham station is served by Via Rail passenger services between Toronto and Windsor, part of the Quebec City - Windsor Corridor with four trips in each direction daily, and the community is served by both the Canadian National Railway and the Canadian Pacific Railway for freight transportation.

Bus

Within Chatham public bus services are provided by CK Transit. Chatham-Kent has an intercity bus service, also provided by CK Transit, between all communities in the municipality except Wheatley.

In addition, Chatham-Kent also has intercity bus services, with Greyhound Canada services to and from Windsor, London and Toronto, and through Detroit, Michigan to Chicago, Illinois. These services stop at Thamesville, Chatham and Tilbury.

Air

There is a municipal airport located 14 km south east of Chatham featuring a 1500m paved, lighted runway, with refuelling facilities, tie-down services, pilot training and chartered flights. The nearest airports served by regional carriers are Windsor and London.

Notable people

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Chatham-Kent, Municipality Ontario (Census Subdivision)". Census Profile, Canada 2011 Census. Statistics Canada. February 8, 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  2. ^ a b "Census Profile, 2016 Census Chatham-Kent, Municipality". Statistics Canada, August 25, 2017.
  3. ^ The Place Names of Kent, Judith Glover, 1976, Batsford. ISBN 0905270 614
  4. ^ Uncle Tom's Cabin Historic Site Archived October 6, 2016, at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ Schoolman, Martha; Hickman, Jared. Abolitionist places (1st ed.). ISBN 9780415814539.
  6. ^ "Black Mecca Museum". Ontario By Bike. Retrieved 2018.
  7. ^ "Black Community - Chatham". Chatham-Kent. Retrieved 2018.
  8. ^ Canada, Government of Canada, Statistics. "Census Profile, 2016 Census - Chatham-Kent, Municipality [Census subdivision], Ontario and Ontario [Province]". www12.statcan.gc.ca.
  9. ^ Smith, Wm. H. (1846). SMITH'S CANADIAN GAZETTEER - STATISTICAL AND GENERAL INFORMATION RESPECTING ALL PARTS OF THE UPPER PROVINCE, OR CANADA WEST:. Toronto: H. & W. ROWSELL. p. 31.
  10. ^ https://archive.org/stream/provinceontario00mcevgoog#page/n116/mode/2up, p. 97
  11. ^ a b Rhodes, John. "Car company made 35 units", written June 17, 2008, at : Chatham This Week online Archived September 20, 2017, at the Wayback Machine (retrieved June 13, 2017)
  12. ^ Windsor Public Library online (retrieved June 13, 2017)
  13. ^ Rhodes, John. "Chatham was home to luxury car manufacturer that took on city's name", written October 18, 2016, at Chatham This Week online (retrieved June 13, 2017)
  14. ^ Peel, M. C.; Finlayson B. L.; McMahon, T. A. (2007). "Updated world map of the Köppen–Geiger climate classification" (PDF). Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 11: 1633-1644. doi:10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007. ISSN 1027-5606.
  15. ^ "Chatham WPCP". Canadian Climate Normals 1981-2010. Environment Canada. Retrieved 2013.
  16. ^ "2011 Community Profiles". 2011 Canadian Census. Statistics Canada. July 5, 2013. Retrieved 2012.
  17. ^ "2006 Community Profiles". 2006 Canadian Census. Statistics Canada. March 30, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  18. ^ "2001 Community Profiles". 2001 Canadian Census. Statistics Canada. February 17, 2012.
  19. ^ Canada, Government of Canada, Statistics. "Census Profile, 2016 Census - Chatham-Kent, Municipality [Census subdivision], Ontario and Ontario [Province]". www12.statcan.gc.ca.
  20. ^ Ethnocultural Portrait of Canada - Data table Archived May 28, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
  21. ^ Community Profiles from the 2006 Census, Statistics Canada - Census Division Archived August 28, 2016, at the Wayback Machine
  22. ^ Guzman, Zack (February 16, 2017). "How this self-made millionaire started a classic car empire out of his garage". CNBC. Retrieved 2019.
  23. ^ "Classic Car Shows in Chatham-Kent - Tourism - Chatham-Kent". www.chatham-kent.ca. Retrieved 2019.
  24. ^ Chatham Annual Retrofest Archived October 16, 2016, at the Wayback Machine
  25. ^ "Chatham Capitol Theatre". October 3, 2016.
  26. ^ Ron Stang (April 28, 2011). "Wheels Inn now reborn as Chatham, Ontario convention centre". Daily Commercial News. Retrieved 2019.
  27. ^ Realty Times - Real Estate News and Advice Archived September 24, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
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  • Barbara Coltart & Beverly Easton 'History of Erieau Yacht Club' (Erieau, ON : Erieau Yacht Club, 1967)

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