Chief Justice of the Philippines
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Chief Justice of the Philippines

Chief Justice of the of
Punong Mahistrado ng Kataas-taasang Hukuman ng Pilipinas
Seal of the Supreme Court of the Republic of the Philippines.svg
Seal of the Supreme Court
Flag of the Supreme Court of the Philippines.svg
Flag of the Supreme Court
Peralta in robes.jpg
Incumbent
Diosdado Peralta

since October 23, 2019
StyleThe Honorable (formal)
Your Honor (when addressed directly in court)
Member of
AppointerPresidential appointment upon nomination by the Judicial and Bar Council
Term lengthRetirement at the age of 70
Inaugural holder1583 - Dr. Santiago de Vera y Rivas, Captain-General of the Spanish East Indies (Real Audiencia, Spanish East Indies)

1901 - Cayetano S. Arellano y Lonzón (Philippines under United States administration)

1935 - Ramón Avanceña y Quimson (Commonwealth of the Philippines)

1942 - José Yulo e Yulo (Japanese Military Administration)

1946 - Manuel V. Morán y Palisoc (Republic of the Philippines)
FormationJune 11, 1901
WebsiteOfficial Website
Coat of arms of the Philippines.svg

politics and government of
the Philippines

The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines (Filipino: Punong Mahistrado ng Kataas-taasang Hukuman ng Pilipinas) presides over the Supreme Court of the Philippines and is the highest judicial officer of the government of the Philippines. As of October 23, 2019, the position is currently held by Diosdado Peralta, who was appointed by President Rodrigo Duterte following the mandatory retirement of his predecessor Lucas Bersamin in October 2019.

The Chief Justice, who was first named in June 11, 1901 in the person of Cayetano Arellano, is the oldest existing major governmental office continually held by a Filipino, preceding the presidency and vice presidency (1935), senators (1916, or as the Taft Commission, in September 1, 1901) and the members of the House of Representatives (1907 as the Philippine Assembly).

Duties and powers

The power to appoint the chief justice lies with the president, who makes the selection from a list of three nominees prepared by the Judicial and Bar Council. There is no material difference in the process of selecting a chief justice from that in the selection of associate justices. As with the other justices of the Supreme Court, the chief justice is obliged to retire upon reaching the age of 70; otherwise there is no term limit for the chief justice. In the 1935 constitution, any person appointed by the president has to be confirmed by the Commission on Appointments; in the 1973 constitution, the person whom the president has appointed won't have to go confirmation under the Commission on Appointments.

The Constitution does not ascribe any formal role to the chief justice other than as an ex-officio chairman of the Judicial and Bar Council and as the presiding officer in any impeachment trial of the president. The chief justice is also required to personally certify every decision that is rendered by the court. He or she carries only 1 vote out of 15 in the court, and is generally regarded, vis-a-vis the other justices, as the primus inter pares rather than as the administrative superior of the other members of the court.

Still, the influence a chief justice may bear within the court and judiciary, and on the national government cannot be underestimated. In the public eye, any particular Supreme Court is widely identified with the identity of the incumbent chief justice, hence appellations such as "The Fernando Court" or "The Puno Court". Moreover, the chief justice usually retains high public visibility, unlike the associate justices, who tend to labor in relative anonymity, with exceptions such as Associate Justice J. B. L. Reyes in the 1950s to 1970s.

By tradition, it is also the chief justice who swears into office the President of the Philippines. One notable deviation from that tradition came in 1986, and later again in 2010. Due to the exceptional political circumstances culminating in the People Power Revolution, on February 25, 1986, Corazon Aquino took her oath of office as President before then Associate Justice Claudio Teehankee in San Juan just minutes before Ferdinand Marcos took his own oath of office also as President before Chief Justice Ramon Aquino. Marcos fled into exile later that night. More than two decades afterwards, Benigno Simeon Aquino III followed in his mother's footsteps (with almost similar reasons) by having then Associate Justice Conchita Carpio-Morales to administer his oath of office, rather than then Chief Justice Renato Corona (who was eventually impeached halfway through Aquino's term). Six years later, in 2016, Rodrigo Duterte took his oath of office before Associate Justice Bienvenido Reyes, his classmate at San Beda College of Law, instead of Chief Justice Maria Lourdes Sereno (who would eventually be removed thru quo warranto after it was determined that she had been unlawfully holding office ab initio).

The Chief Justice also names the three justices each from the Supreme Court in the memberships of the House of Representatives Electoral Tribunal and the Senate Electoral Tribunal.

The chief justice is the chief executive officer of the Philippine judiciary system and together with the whole Supreme Court, exercises administrative supervision over all courts and personnel.

List of chief justices

Portraits of the chief justices at the Supreme Court Building
The chief justice's judicial chambers
Reception room for the Office of the Chief Justice

The colors indicate the political party affiliation of each individual.

Key
Party English name Abbreviation
Kapisanan ng Paglilingkod sa Bagong Pilipinas Association for Service to the New Philippines KALIBAPI
Kilusang Bagong Lipunan New Society Movement KBL
Laban ng Makabayang Masang Pilipino Struggle of the Patriotic Filipino Masses LAMMP
Lakas ng Tao-Kabalikat ng Malayang Pilipino-Christian Muslim Democrats People Power-Partner of the Free Filipino-Christian Muslim Democrats Lakas-Kampi-CMD
Lakas ng Tao-National Union of Christian Democrats People Power-National Union of Christian Democrats Lakas-NUCD
Liberal Party Liberal
Nacionalista Party Nationalist Party Nacionalista
Partido Demokratiko Pilipino-Lakas ng Bayan Philippine Democratic Party-People's Power PDP-Laban
United Nationalist Democratic Organization UNIDO
Non-partisan N/A
Democratic Party N/A
Republican Party GOP (other name)
# Chief Justice Term
(Time In Office)
Appointed by
1 Cayetano Arellano.jpg Cayetano Arellano June 11, 1901 – April 12, 1920
(18 years, 306 days)
William McKinley Republican
2 Victorino Mapa.jpg Victorino Mapa July 1, 1920 – October 31, 1921
(1 year, 122 days)
Woodrow Wilson Democratic
3 Manuel Araullo.jpg Manuel Araullo November 1, 1921 – July 26, 1924
(2 years, 268 days)
Warren G. Harding Republican
4 Ramon Avancena.jpg Ramón Avanceña April 1, 1925 – December 24, 1941
(16 years, 267 days)
Calvin Coolidge Republican
5 Abad Santos.jpg José Abad Santos1 December 24, 1941 – May 2, 1942
(129 days)
Manuel L. Quezon Nacionalista
6 Jose Yulo Portrait.jpg José Yulo May 7, 1942 – July 9, 1945
(3 years, 63 days)
Japanese Military Administration
7 Manuel Moran.jpg Manuel Moran July 9, 1945 – March 20, 1951
(5 years, 254 days)
Sergio Osmeña Nacionalista
8 Ricardo Paras.jpg Ricardo Paras April 2, 1951 – February 17, 1961
(9 years, 321 days)
Elpidio Quirino Liberal
9 Cesar Bengzon.jpg César Bengzon April 28, 1961 – May 29, 1966
(5 years, 31 days)
Carlos P. Garcia Nacionalista
10 Roberto Concepcion.jpg Roberto Concepcion June 17, 1966 – April 18, 1973
(6 years, 305 days)
Ferdinand Marcos
11 Querube Makalintal.jpg Querube Makalintal October 21, 1973 – December 22, 1975
(2 years, 62 days)
12 Fred Ruiz Castro.jpg Fred Ruiz Castro January 5, 1976 – April 19, 1979
(3 years, 104 days)
KBL
13 Enrique Fernando.jpg Enrique Fernando July 2, 1979 – July 24, 1985
(6 years, 22 days)
14 Felix Makasiar.jpg Felix Makasiar July 25, 1985 – November 19, 1985
(117 days)
15 Ramon Aquino.jpg Ramon Aquino November 20, 1985 – March 6, 1987
(1 year, 106 days)
16 Caludio Teehankee.jpg Claudio Teehankee, Sr. April 2, 1987 – April 18, 1988
(1 year, 16 days)
Corazon Aquino UNIDO
17 Pedro Yap.jpg Pedro Yap April 19, 1988 – June 30, 1988
(72 days)
18 Marcelo Fernan.jpg Marcelo Fernan July 1, 1988 – December 6, 1991
(3 years, 158 days)
19 Andres Narvasa.jpg Andres Narvasa December 8, 1991 – November 30, 1998
(6 years, 357 days)
20 Scphil999jf (cropped).JPG Hilario Davide Jr. November 30, 1998 – December 20, 2005
(7 years, 20 days)
Joseph Estrada LAMMP
21 Artemio Panganiban.jpg Artemio Panganiban December 20, 2005 – December 7, 2006
(351 days)
Gloria Macapagal Arroyo Lakas
22 Reynato Puno.jpg Reynato Puno December 8, 2006 – May 17, 2010
(3 years, 160 days)
23 Renato Corona official portrait.jpg Renato Corona23 May 17, 2010 – May 29, 2012
(2 years, 12 days)
- Chief Justice Maria Lourdes Sereno.jpg Maria Lourdes Sereno34 August 25, 2012 – May 11, 2018
(5 years, 259 days)
(de facto)
Benigno Aquino III Liberal
24 CJ-Decastro-2018.jpg Teresita de Castro August 28, 2018 – October 10, 2018
(43 days)
Rodrigo Duterte PDP-Laban
25 Bersamin in robes.jpg Lucas Bersamin November 26, 2018 – October 18, 2019
(324 days)
26 Chief Justice Peralta.jpg Diosdado Peralta October 23, 2019 – present
(214 days)
^1 José Abad Santos was unable to preside over the Supreme Court due to the outbreak of World War II.
^2 Renato Corona was impeached on December 12, 2011, and convicted on May 29, 2012, removing him from office.
^3 Senior Associate Justice Antonio Carpio served as acting Chief Justice after the Impeachment of Renato Corona from May 30, 2012 to August 25, 2012[1] and after the removal of Maria Lourdes Sereno via quo warranto proceedings from May 14, 2018 to August 25, 2018.
^4 Maria Lourdes Sereno was removed on May 11, 2018 via quo warranto by a special en banc session; the petition alleged Sereno's appointment was void ab initio due to her failure in complying with the requirements of the Judicial and Bar Council. Hence her entire term as Chief Justice is considered a de facto tenure;[2] legally void since the ouster of her predecessor. Sereno filed an ad cautelam motion for reconsideration pleading for the reversal of the decision on May 31, 2018, but on June 19, 2018 was denied with finality (meaning no further pleading shall be entertained, as well as for the immediate entry for judgment) for lack of merit.[3]

[4]

Demographics

Longevity

OL
OO
Chief Justice
Birth Death Age Longevity
1 9 César Bengzon May 29, 1896 September 3, 1992 96 years, 97 days 35,160 days
2 8 Ricardo Paras February 17, 1891 October 10, 1984 93 years, 236 days 34,203 days
3 11 Querube Makalintal December 11, 1910 November 8, 2002 91 years, 333 days 33,571 days
4 13 Enrique Fernando July 25, 1915 October 3, 2004 89 years, 70 days 31,482 days
5 17 Pedro Yap July 1, 1918 November 20, 2003 86 years, 142 days 31,554 days
6 4 Ramón Avanceña April 13, 1872 June 12, 1957 85 years, 60 days 31,105 days
7 2 Andres Narvasa November 30, 1928 October 31, 2013 84 years, 335 days 31,016 days
8 20 Hilario Davide 'December 20, 1935 Living 84 years, 156 days 30,837 days
9 10 Roberto Concepcion June 7, 1903 May 3, 1987 83 years, 330 days 30,646 days
10 21 Artemio Panganiban December 7, 1936 Living 83 years, 169 days 30,484 days
11 6 José Yulo September 24, 1894 October 27, 1976 82 years, 33 days 29,983 days
12 22 Reynato Puno May 17, 1940 Living 80 years, 7 days 29,227 days
13 14 Felix Makasiar August 31, 1917 February 19, 1992 74 years, 172 days 27,200 days
14 15 Ramon Aquino November 20, 1915 March 31, 1993 77 years, 131 days 27,850 days
15 1 Cayetano Arellano March 2, 1847 December 20, 1920 73 years, 293 days 26,956 days
16 18 Marcelo Fernán October 24, 1926 July 11, 1999 72 years, 260 days 26,558 days
17 2 Victorino Mapa February 25, 1855 April 12, 1927 72 years, 46 days 26,343 days
18 3 Manuel Araullo January 1, 1853 July 26, 1924 71 years, 207 days 26,138 days
19 24 Teresita de Castro October 8, 1948 Living 71 years, 229 days 26,161 days
20 16 Claudio Teehankee, Sr. April 18, 1918 July 11, 1989 71 years, 84 days 26,017 days
21 25 Lucas Bersamin October 18, 1949 Living 70 years, 219 days 25,786 days
22 26 Diosdado Peralta March 27, 1952 Living 68 years, 58 days 24,895 days
23 7 Manuel Moran October 27, 1893 August 23, 1961 67 years, 300 days 24,771 days
24 23 Renato Corona October 15, 1948 April 29, 2016 67 years, 197 days 24,668 days
25 12 Fred Ruiz Castro September 2, 1914 April 19, 1979 64 years, 229 days 23,605 days
26 - Maria Lourdes Sereno July 2, 1960 Living 59 years, 327 days 21,876 days
27 5 José Abad Santos February 19, 1886 May 2, 1942 56 years, 72 days 20,525 days

[5]

Oldest Living Chief Justice

Chief Justice
Date of Birth
Became Oldest living
Age
Ceased to be Oldest Living
Age
Time as Oldest Living
Date of Death
Age
(OO) In office
Cayetano Arellano March 2, 1847 June 11, 1901 54 years, 101 days 19 years, 192 days December 20, 1920 73 years, 293 days (1) 1901–1920
Victorino Mapa February 25, 1855 99 years, 156 days 65 years, 299 days November 1, 1921 66 years, 249 days 316 days April 12, 1927 72 years, 46 days (2) 1920–1921
Manuel Araullo January 1, 1853 November 1, 1921 68 years, 304 days 2 years, 268 days July 26, 1924 71 years, 207 days (3) 1921–1924
Victorino Mapa February 25, 1855 July 26, 1924 69 years, 152 days 2 years, 260 days April 12, 1927 72 years, 46 days (2) 1920–1921
Ramón Avanceña April 13, 1872 April 12, 1927 54 years, 364 days 30 years, 61 days June 12, 1957 85 years, 60 days (4) 1925–1941
Ricardo Paras February 17, 1891 June 12, 1957 66 years, 115 days 27 years, 120 days October 10, 1984 93 years, 236 days (8) 1951–1961
César|Bengzon}} May 29, 1896 October 10, 1984 88 years, 134 days 7 years, 329 days September 3, 1992 96 years, 97 days (9) 1961–1966
Querube Makalintal December 11, 1910 September 3, 1992 81 years, 267 days 10 years, 66 days November 8, 2002 91 years, 333 days (11) 1973–1975
Enrique Fernando July 25, 1915 November 8, 2002 87 years, 106 days 1 year, 330 days October 3, 2004 89 years, 70 days (13) 1979–1995
Andres Narvasa November 30, 1928 October 3, 2004 75 years, 308 days 9 years, 58 days October 31, 2013 84 years, 335 days (19) 1991–1998
Hilario Davide December 20, 1935 October 31, 2013 77 years, 315 days 6 years, 206 days Living 84 years, 156 days (19) 1998–2005

[6]

By age group

Age Group Number of Chief Justices Percent
Centenarians 0 0%
Nonagenarians 3 11.54%
Octogenarians 8 30.77%
Septugenarians 9 34.62%
Sexagenarian 6 23.08%
Quincagenarian 1 3.85%
Chief Justices: 27

By appointing president

President Number of Appointed CJ Percent
6 22.22%
Corazon Aquino (UNIDO) 4 14.81%
3 11.11%
3 11.11%
1 3.7%
1 3.7%
1 3.7%
1 3.7%
1 3.7%
1 3.7%
Japanese Military Administration 1 3.7%
1 3.7%
1 3.7%
1 3.7%
1 3.7%
Chief Justices: 27 100%

Notable chief justices

  • José Yulo is the only former Speaker of the House of Representatives to be subsequently appointed as chief justice. Another, Querube Makalintal, would be elected as Speaker of the Interim Batasang Pambansa (parliament) after his retirement from the court. On the other hand, Marcelo Fernan would, after his resignation from the court, be elected to the Senate and later serve as President of the Senate. Other chief justices served in prominent positions in public service after their retirement include Manuel Moran (Ambassador to Spain and the Vatican), and Hilario Davide, Jr. (Ambassador to the United Nations). In addition, César Bengzon was elected as the first Filipino to sit as a judge on the International Court of Justice shortly after his retirement in 1966.
  • Roberto Concepcion was reputedly so disappointed with the court's ruling in Javellana v. Executive Secretary where the majority affirmed the validity of the 1973 Constitution despite recognizing the flaws in its ratification, that he retired two months prior to his reaching the mandatory retirement age of 70. Thirteen years later, after the ouster of Marcos, the 83-year-old Concepcion was appointed a member of the 1986 Constitutional Commission tasked with drafting a new constitution. Drawing from his experiences as chief justice in the early days of martial law, Concepcion introduced several new innovations designed to assure the independence of the Supreme Court, such as the Judicial and Bar Council and the express conferment on the court the power to review any acts of government.
  • The longest period one person served as chief justice was 18 years, 294 days in the case of Cayetano Arellano, who served from 1901 to 1920. Arellano was 73 years, 29 days old upon his resignation, the greatest age ever reached by an incumbent chief justice, and a record unlikely to be broken with the current mandatory retirement age of 70.
  • The shortest tenure of any chief justice was of Teresita Leonardo-de Castro, who served as chief justice for a mere 43 days upon reaching her mandatory retirement age of 70. The previous record was that of Pedro Yap, who served as chief justice for 73 days in 1988. Other chief justices who served for less than a year were Felix Makasiar (85 days), Ramon Aquino (78 days), and Artemio Panganiban (352 days). Of these chief justices, all but Aquino left office upon reaching the mandatory retirement age of 70; Aquino resigned in 1986 after the newly installed President Corazon Aquino asked for the courtesy resignations of all the members of the court.
  • The oldest person appointed as chief justice was Teresita Leonardo-de Castro, who was 69 years, 324 days old upon his appointment in 2018. Other persons appointed as chief justice in their 69th year were Pedro Yap (69 years, 292 days old); Felix Makasiar (69 years, 280 days old); Artemio Panganiban (69 years, 13 days old); and Lucas Bersamin (69 years, 41 days). The youngest person named as chief justice was Manuel Moran, who was 51 years, 256 days old upon his appointment.
  • Claudio Teehankee had to wait for nearly 18 years as Associate Justice before he was appointed as chief justice. He was twice bypassed by Ferdinand Marcos in favor a more junior associate justice before he was finally appointed chief justice by Corazon Aquino. Of the Filipino associate justices, Florentino Torres and J. B. L. Reyes served over 18 years in the court without becoming chief justice. In contrast, Pedro Yap had served as associate justice for only 2 years, 10 days before he was promoted as chief justice.
  • The longest-lived chief justice was César Bengzon, who died in 1992 aged 96 years, 97 days old. Two other chief justices lived past 90: Ricardo Paras (93 years, 235 days) and Querube Makalintal (91 years, 322 days).
  • The youngest chief justice to die was José Abad Santos, who was executed by the Japanese army in 1942 at age 56 years, 77 days. The youngest chief justice to die from non-violent causes was Fred Ruiz Castro, who died in 1979 of a heart attack inflight to India, at age 64 years, 231 days. Abad Santos, Castro, and Manuel Araullo are the only chief justices to die while in office.
  • The first chief justice to be impeached is Renato Corona. On December 12, 2011, 188 of the 285 members of House of Representatives voted to transmit to the Senate the Articles of Impeachment filed against him. On May 29, 2012, the Senate, voting 20-3, convicted Corona under Article II pertaining to his failure to disclose to the public his statement of assets, liabilities, and net worth.[7]
  • Maria Lourdes Sereno was the first female appointed to serve as chief justice, following the impeachment of Renato Corona and deliberations by the Judicial and Bar Council in 2012 (her successor Teresita Leonardo-de Castro is the de jure first female chief justice). If not for the quo warranto petition which was granted on May 11, 2018 that removed her from the post as well as voiding her appointment and declaring her tenure as a de facto term[2], she would have been the second chief justice to similarly undergo impeachment proceedings as her late predecessor, Corona. Her ouster was made final on June 19, 2018 by the denial with finality (meaning no further pleading would be entertained, as well as for the immediate entry for judgment) of her ad cautelam motion for reconsideration filed on May 31, 2018 pleading for the reversal of her ouster via quo warranto.[3]

Timeline

See also

References

  1. ^ "Carpio is acting chief justice under SC order". Philippine Daily Inquirer. May 30, 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  2. ^ a b "G.R. No. 237428. May 11, 2018" (PDF). Supreme Court of the Philippines. May 11, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  3. ^ a b "G.R. No. 237428. June 19, 2018" (PDF). Supreme Court of the Philippines. June 19, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  4. ^ Updated daily according to UTC.
  5. ^ Updated daily according to UTC.
  6. ^ Updated daily according to UTC.
  7. ^ "Senate votes 20-3 to convict Corona". Inquirer.net. May 29, 2012. Retrieved 2012.

Further reading


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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