Chinese Academy of Sciences
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Chinese Academy of Sciences

Chinese Academy of Sciences
CAS logo 2.png
Agency overview
Formed1949; 72 years ago (1949)
HeadquartersBeijing, China
Annual budget$15.2 billion (2020)[1]
Agency executive
Parent agencyState Council of China
Websiteenglish.cas.cn
Chinese Academy of Sciences
Simplified Chinese
Traditional Chinese

The Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS; Chinese: ) is the national academy for the natural sciences of the People's Republic of China. It has historical origins in the Academia Sinica during the Republican era and was formerly also known by that name. Collectively known as the "Two Academies ()" along with the Chinese Academy of Engineering, it functions as the national scientific think tank and academic governing body, providing advisory and appraisal services on issues stemming from the national economy, social development, and science and technology progress. It is headquartered in Xicheng District, Beijing,[2] with branch institutes all over mainland China. It has also created hundreds of commercial enterprises, Lenovo being one of the most famous.

It is the world's largest research organisation, comprising around 60,000 researchers working in 114 institutes,[3][4] and has been consistently ranked among the top research organisations around the world.[5][6][7]

The Chinese Academy of Sciences has been consistently ranked the No. 1 research institute in the world by Nature Index since the list's inception in 2016 by Nature Research.[8]

Organization

Chinese Academy of Sciences headquarters

The Chinese Academy originated in the Academia Sinica founded, in 1928, by the Republic of China. After the Communist Party took control of mainland China, the residual of Academia Sinica was renamed Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), while others relocated to Taiwan.

The Chinese Academy of Sciences has six academic divisions:

The CAS has thirteen regional branches, in Beijing, Shenyang, Changchun, Shanghai, Nanjing, Wuhan, Guangzhou, Chengdu, Kunming, Xi'an, Lanzhou, Hefei and Xinjiang. It has over one hundred institutes and two universities (the University of Science and Technology of China at Hefei, Anhui, and the University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing). Backed by the institutes of CAS, UCAS is headquartered in Beijing, with graduate education bases in Shanghai, Chengdu, [Wuhan, Guangzhou and Lanzhou, four Science Libraries of Chinese Academy of Sciences, three technology support centers and two news and publishing units. These CAS branches and offices are located in 20 provinces and municipalities throughout China. CAS has invested in or created over 430 science- and technology-based enterprises in eleven industries, including eight companies listed on stock exchanges.

Being granted a Fellowship of the Academy represents the highest level of national honor for Chinese scientists. The CAS membership system includes Academicians (), Emeritus Academicians (?) and Foreign Academicians (?).

Research reputation and rankings

The Chinese Academy of Sciences was ranked #1 in the 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, and 2020 Nature Index Annual Tables, which measure the largest contributors to papers published in 82 leading journals.[9][10][11][12][13][14][15]

List of presidents

Academy members

Membership of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (also known by the title Academician (CAS), Chinese: ?) is a lifelong honor given to Chinese scientists who have made significant achievements in various fields. According to Bylaws for Members of the Chinese Academy of Sciences adopted in 1992 and recently amended in 2014, it is the highest academic title in China. A formal CAS member must hold Chinese citizenship, although foreigners can be elected as foreign CAS members. Members older than 80 are designated as "senior members" and may no longer hold leading positions in the organization.[16] Academicians of the Chinese Academy of Sciences carry an obligation to advance science and technology, to advocate and uphold scientific spirit, to develop a scientific and technological workforce, to attend member meetings and receive consultation and evaluation tasks, and to promote international exchanges and cooperation. Academicians can give suggestions and influence Chinese state policy related to science and technology.[17]

Research institutes

Main entrance to Ningbo Institute of Industrial Technology, CAS, in Ningbo, Zhejiang
Institute of Computing Technology Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing

Scientific integrity

On 26 February 2007, CAS published a Declaration of Scientific Ideology and set up a commission for scientific integrity to promote transparency, autonomy and accountability of scientific research in the country. The Ministry of Science and Technology had at the same time also initiated measures to address misconduct in state-funded programs.[21]

Publications

Science China
LanguageEnglish
Standard abbreviations
ISO 4Sci. China

Together with the National Natural Science Foundation of China, the academy publishes the peer-reviewed academic journal, Science China (also known as Science in China). Science China comprises seven series:[22]

  • A: Mathematics
  • B: Chemistry
  • C: Life Sciences
  • D: Earth Sciences
  • E: Technological Sciences
  • F: Information Sciences
  • G: Physics, Mechanics and Astronomy

CAS also promotes the China Open Access Journals (COAJ) platform,[23] a national variant of the international Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ).

Awards

Since 1999 the CAS has issued the annual State Preeminent Science and Technology Award, presented by the President of China to the recipient.[24]

International cooperation

The Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth is a branch of CAS. The Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth was a customer of Swedish Space Corporation (SSC), which provides data transmission services from satellites for a wide range of societal functions. [25]> It was reported by Reuters on 21 September 2020 that SSC decided not to renew the contracts with China to help operate Chinese satellites from SSC's ground stations, or seek new business with China.[26]

See also

References

Citations

  1. ^ https://www.scmp.com/news/china/science/article/3111714/chinas-big-task-scientist-small-things
  2. ^ "Contact." Chinese Academy of Sciences. Retrieved on 31 May 2018. "Add 52 Sanlihe Rd., Xicheng District, Beijing, China Postcode: 100864" - Address in Chinese: ":?52? ?:100864"
  3. ^ "Ten institutions that dominated science in 2015".
  4. ^ Cao, Cong (2015). UNESCO Science Report (PDF). Paris: UNESCO. pp. 621-641. ISBN 978-92-3-100129-1.
  5. ^ "Nature Global Institutions Ranking, 2013-2014". Nature. 522 (7556): S34-S44. 2015. doi:10.1038/522S34a. ISSN 0028-0836.
  6. ^ "Nature Global Institutions Ranking, 2016 tables".
  7. ^ "Nature Index". natureindex.com.
  8. ^ "Nature Index". Retrieved 2020.
  9. ^ "Ten institutions that dominated science in 2015". Retrieved 2019.
  10. ^ "2016 tables: Institutions Nature Index". www.natureindex.com. Retrieved 2020.
  11. ^ Conroy, Gemma (12 June 2018). "10 institutions that dominated science in 2017". Nature Index. Retrieved 2020.
  12. ^ "The top 10 global institutions for 2018". Nature. 19 June 2019. doi:10.1038/d41586-019-01922-z.
  13. ^ "Nature Index's top research institutions rankings of 2019". www.natureindex.com. Retrieved 2020.
  14. ^ Crew, Bec; Jia, Hepeng (29 April 2020). "Leading research institutions 2020". Nature. doi:10.1038/d41586-020-01230-x.
  15. ^ "Institution outputs | Nature Index". www.natureindex.com. Retrieved 2020.
  16. ^ " [Bylaws for Members of the Chinese Academy of Sciences]". Chinese Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 2014.
  17. ^ "Obligations and Rights of a CAS Member". Academic Divisions of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 2014.
  18. ^ "?", ?,? (in Chinese), 7 March 2020, retrieved 2020
  19. ^ Cyranoski, David (24 January 2018). "First monkeys cloned with technique that made Dolly the sheep". Nature. 553 (7689): 387-388. Bibcode:2018Natur.553..387C. doi:10.1038/d41586-018-01027-z. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 29368720. "This paper really marks the beginning of a new era for biomedical research," says Xiong Zhi-Qi, a neuroscientist who studies brain disease at the Chinese Academy of Sciences Institute of Neuroscience (ION) in Shanghai.
  20. ^ "Director's Introduction". Institute of Neuroscience. Retrieved 2018. As part of a major drive for excellence in basic research in the new millennium, the Chinese Academy of Sciences founded the Institute of Neuroscience (ION) on November 27, 1999.
  21. ^ The Lancet (17 March 2007). "Reforming research in China". The Lancet. 369 (9565): 880. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60419-X. PMID 17368128. S2CID 205948464.
  22. ^ "Science in China Press".
  23. ^ [1]
  24. ^ "China in Brief - Science and Technology - Awards". China Internet Information Center (State Council Information Office and the China International Publishing Group). Retrieved 2012. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  25. ^ SSC. "Appendix of SSC's Chinese customers" (PDF). SSC. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 September 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  26. ^ Ahlander, Johan; Barrett, Jonathan. "Swedish space agency halts new business helping China operate satellites". Reuters. Archived from the original on 21 September 2020. Retrieved 2020.

Sources

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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