Chinese Buddhist Canon
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Chinese Buddhist Canon

The Tripi?aka Koreana, an early edition of the Chinese Buddhist canon
Evolution of the Taish? Tripi?aka from previous editions of the Chinese Buddhist canon

The Chinese Buddhist canon refers to the total body of Buddhist literature deemed canonical in Chinese, Japanese, Korean and Vietnamese Buddhism.[1][2] The traditional term for the canon (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: Dàzàngj?ng; Japanese: ; r?maji: Daiz?ky?; Korean: ; romaja: Daejanggyeong; Vietnamese: i t?ng kinh)."

Contents

The Chinese Buddhist canon includes ?gama, Vinaya and Abhidharma texts from Early Buddhist schools, as well as the Mah?y?na s?tras and scriptures from Esoteric Buddhism.

Versions

There are many versions of the canon in East Asia in different places and time. An early version is the Fangshan Stone Sutras (?) from the 7th century.[3] The earlier Qianlong Tripitaka () and Jiaxing Tripitaka () are still completely extant in printed form. The Zhaocheng Jin Tripitaka is the most complete earliest tripitaka to survive to this day.[4] The Tripi?aka Koreana and the Qianlong Tripitaka are the only tripitakas for which we still have the complete set of wood blocks. The Tripi?aka Koreana or Palman Daejanggyeong was carved between 1236 and 1251, during Korea's Goryeo Dynasty, onto 81,340 wooden printing blocks with no known errors in the 52,382,960 characters. It is stored at the Haeinsa temple, South Korea.[5]

One of the most used version is Taish? Shinsh? Daiz?ky? (Taish? Tripi?aka, ?).[6] Named after the Taish? era, a modern standardized edition originally published in Tokyo between 1924 and 1934 in 100 volumes. It is also one of the most completely punctuated tripitaka.[7]

The Xuzangjing () version, which is a supplement of another version of the canon, is often used as a supplement for Buddhist texts not collected in the Taish? Tripi?aka. The Jiaxing Tripitaka is a supplement for Ming dynasty and Qing dynasty Buddhist texts not collected,[8] and a Dazangjing Bu Bian () published in 1986 are supplements of them.[9]

The Chinese Manuscripts in the Tripitaka Sinica (-? Zhonghua Dazangjing: Hanwen bufen), a new collection of canonical texts, was published by Zhonghua Book Company in Beijing in 1983-97, with 107 volumes of literature, are photocopies of early versions[10][11] and include many newly unearthed scriptures from Dunhuang.[12] There are newer Tripitaka Sinica projects.[13]

Languages

Mostly written in Classical Chinese. The Mi Tripitaka (?) is the Tangut canon.[14]Eric Grinstead published a collection of Tangut Buddhist texts under the title The Tangut Tripitaka in 1971 in New Delhi. The Taish? edition contains classical Japanese works. The Dunhuang edition contains some works in old Western Regions languages.[15] The Tripitaka Sinica mentioned above features a Tibetan section.

Non-collected works

A number of apocryphal sutras composed in China are excluded in the earlier canons, such as composed stories the Journey to the West and Chinese folk religion texts,[16][17][18][19][20] and High King Avalokiteshvara Sutra. Modern religious and scholarly works are also excluded but they are published in other book series.

Translations

Samples

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Han, Yongun; Yi, Yeongjae; Gwon, Sangro (2017). Tracts on the Modern Reformation of Korean Buddhism. Jogye Order of Korean Buddhism (published September 20, 2017).
  2. ^ Storch, Tanya (2014). The History of Chinese Buddhist Bibliography: Censorship and Transformation. Cambria Press (published March 25, 2014).
  3. ^ ? Archived 2010-12-04 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ Li, Fuhua [] (May 19, 2014). [Studies of the "Zhaocheng Jin Tripitaka"]. www.liaotuo.org (in Chinese). Retrieved 2019. Currently the Beijing Library has 4813 scrolls...regional libraries have a total of 44 scrolls...555 scrolls belonging to the Jin Tripitaka were discovered in Tibet's Sakya Monastery in 1959--[in total approximately 5412 scrolls of the Jin Tripitaka (which if complete would have had approximately 7000 scrolls) have survived into the current era. The earliest dated scroll was printed in 1139; its wood block was carved ca. 1139 or a few years before.]
  5. ^ Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. "Haeinsa Temple Janggyeong Panjeon, the Depositories for the Tripitaka Koreana Woodblocks" (PDF). whc.unesco.org.
  6. ^ "". ccbs.ntu.edu.tw.
  7. ^ "No.2". www.china.com.cn.
  8. ^ ? Archived 2010-09-12 at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ :?---- Archived 2009-03-29 at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ " (?)_". www1.china.com.cn.
  11. ^ ? Archived 2010-06-12 at the Wayback Machine
  12. ^ Archived 2011-07-18 at the Wayback Machine
  13. ^ "(?)." (PDF).
  14. ^
  15. ^ Archived 2011-07-23 at the Wayback Machine
  16. ^ "A Research on the Authenticity of the Bhikhuni Seng Fa from Jiangmi " (PDF).
  17. ^ ?(:) Archived 2007-05-15 at Archive.today
  18. ^ "_?_?". blog.sina.com.cn.
  19. ^ "zz? - ?". bbs.sjtu.edu.cn.
  20. ^ - ? Archived 2011-07-11 at the Wayback Machine


Further reading

  • Wu, Jiang; Chia, Lucille, eds. (2016). Spreading Buddha's Word in East Asia: The Formation and Transformation of the Chinese Buddhist Canon. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0231171601.

External links

General

Texts

Non-collected works

  • (in Chinese) ? (A collection of many modern Buddhist works outside the existing canon versions)
  • (in Chinese) (Another collection of modern Buddhist works)
  • (in Chinese) ? (Another collection of modern Buddhist works)
  • (in Chinese) (Book list)
  • (in Chinese) (Book list)
  • (in Chinese) (Book list)
  • (in Chinese) ? (Book list)
  • (in Chinese) (Book list)
  • (in Chinese) ? (Book list)
  • (in Chinese) Center for Buddhist Studies (Book list)
  • (in Chinese) ? (Book list)
  • (in Chinese) - Buddhistdoor - ?- Buddhist Glossary (Book list)
  • (in Chinese) (Book list)
  • (in Chinese) (Book list)
  • (in Chinese) (3?) (Book list)
  • Chinese buddhism works
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