Circuit Intendant of Shanghai
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Circuit Intendant of Shanghai

Circuit intendant of Shanghai
Traditional Chinese
Simplified Chinese

The circuit intendant[1] or daotai[2] of Shanghai, also formerly romanized as taotai or tao tai, was an imperial Chinese official who oversaw the circuit of Shanghai, then part of Jiangsu Province, in the Qing Empire. He oversaw the area's courts, law enforcement, civic defense, canals, and customs collection. As well as areas within modern Shanghai, his remit also included Qidong in present-day Jiangsu.

The position was only compensated at the 4a level[clarify] (????) but, in addition to other sources of income, it was seen as a springboard to higher office within the empire.

History

The original seat of the circuit was at Taicang. It was moved to Shanghai in the 18th century. The first foreign settlement in Shanghai, the British Concession, was established by the Land Regulations () undertaken on the initiative of the intendant Gong Mujiu.[3] His was the one who signed it on behalf of the Qing government on 29 November 1845. Lin Gui approved the British consul Rutherford Alcock's proposal to extend the British boundary west from Barrier Road (??, today's Henan Rd.)[4] to Thibet Road (?, now Xizang Rd.)[5] on 27 November 1848. On 6 April 1849, he signed the agreement with Charles de Montigny formalizing and delineating the city's French Concession.[6] An intendant was also involved with the establishment of the Shanghai International Settlement upon the merging of the British and American settlements in 1863.[7]

The intendant was forced to flee the Small Sword Society in 1853 amid the chaos surrounding the Taiping Rebellion.[8]

The intendants of the 1870s and '80s resisted French plans to expand their concession southwest, particularly the construction of a road through Shanghai's Ningbo Cemetery to connect the French Concession with Xujiahui (then "Siccawei"). One of the intendants in the 1890s finally yielded upon an agreement by the French to pay the duly assessed value of the land condemned, but the demolition of the cemetery walls in July 1898 prompted riots which killed twelve and the landing of French troops to protect the construction workers.[9]

List

Installed Name Origin Notes
1730 Xu Yongyou
1731 Wang Chenghui Henan
1735 Li Shan Manchu army
1735 Cui Lin Shanxi
1736 Weng Zao Zhejiang
1740 Li Shijie Hubei Acting
1740 Weng Zao Zhejiang
1740 Wang Yunming Shandong
1743 Wang Dexin Henan
1745 Tuo Enduo Manchu
1747 Fu Chun Manchu
1748 Tao Shihuang Hunan
1748 Zhu Lin Manchu army Acting
1749 Guang An Manchu
1843 Gong Mujiu Dongping in Shandong
March 1847 Xian Ling
April 1848 Wu Jianzhang Xiangshan in Guangdong Acting
1848 Lin Gui Manchu
August 1851 Wu Jianzhang Xiangshan in Guangdong Acting
August 1854 Lan Weiwen Acting
October 1857 Xue Huan
1858 Wu Xu
1862 Huang Fang Acting
July 1864 Ding Richang
September 1865 Ying Baoshi
1869 Tu Zongying
1872 Shen Bingcheng
1875 Fen Junguang
May 1877 Liu Ruifen
April 1882 Shao Youlian
October 1896 Lü Haihuan
July 1897 Cai Jun
April 1899 Li Guangjiu
1899 Yu Lianyuan
1901 Yuan Shuxun Transferred
1906 Rui Cheng Itinerant

See also

References

Citations

  1. ^ Murakami, Ei (December 2013), "A Comparison of the End of the Canton and Nagasaki Trade Control Systems", Itinerario, 37, Leiden: Leiden University, pp. 39-48.
  2. ^ Fox, Josephine (Autumn 2000), "Common Sense in Shanghai: The Shanghai General Chamber of Commerce and Political Legitimacy in Republican China", History Workshop Journal, No. 50, pp. 22-44.
  3. ^ Cassel, Pär (2003), "Excavating Extraterritoriality: The "Judicial Sub-Prefect" as a Prototype for the Mixed Court in Shanghai", Late Imperial China, 24, pp. 156-182.
  4. ^ French (2010), p. 63.
  5. ^ French (2010), p. 165.
  6. ^ French (2010), p. 215.
  7. ^ French (2010), p. 49.
  8. ^ Hamashita, Takeshi (2002), "Tribute and Treaties: East Asian Treaty Ports Networks in the Era of Negotiation, 1834-1894", European Journal of East Asian Studies, 1, pp. 59-87.
  9. ^ French (2010), pp. 52-3.

Bibliography


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