Climate of New England
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Climate of New England
Köppen climate types in New England
The White Mountains of New Hampshire are part of the Appalachian Mountains.

The climate of New England varies greatly across its 500-mile (800 km) span from northern Maine to southern Connecticut. Extreme southern New England is considerably warmer, sunnier, and sees far less snow, than the northernmost points of northern New England.

Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, and most of Massachusetts have a humid continental climate (Dfb in Köppen climate classification). In this region, the winters are long, cold, and heavy snow is common (most locations receive 60 to 120 inches (1,500 to 3,000 mm) of snow annually in this region). The summer's months are moderately warm, though summer is rather short. Annual rainfall is spread evenly throughout the year. Cities like Bangor, Maine, Concord, New Hampshire; and Burlington, Vermont average around 45 inches (1,100 mm) of rainfall and 60 to 80 inches (1,500 to 2,000 mm) of snow annually. The frost-free growing season ranges from 90 days in far northern Maine and the mountains of New Hampshire and Vermont to 140 days along the Maine coast and in most of western Massachusetts.[]

In central and eastern Massachusetts, northern Rhode Island, and northern Connecticut, the same humid continental prevails (Dfa), though summers are warm to hot, winters are shorter, and there is less snowfall. Cities like Worcester, Massachusetts, Hartford, and Providence receive 30 to 50 inches (760 to 1,270 mm) of snow annually. Summers can occasionally be hot and humid, with high temperatures in the lower Connecticut River valley of Massachusetts and northern Connecticut between 90 and 95 °F (32 and 35 °C). Summer thunderstorms are common between June and August. The frost-free growing season ranges from 140 days in parts of central Massachusetts to near 160 days across interior Connecticut and most Rhode Island[].

Coastal Rhode Island, and southern Connecticut are the broad transition zone from continental climates to the north, to temperate climates to the south. In this region, summers are long, hot and humid, and tropical air masses are common. The coast of Connecticut from Stamford, through the New Haven area to New London is the mildest area of New England in winter. Winter precipitation is often rain as much as snow, or a mix of precipitation types, and seasonal snowfall is far less than interior areas. Most cities along the Connecticut coast average only 24 to 28 inches (610 to 710 mm) of snow annually, though in some winters there is little snowfall. Winters also tend to be sunnier in southern Connecticut and southern Rhode Island compared to northern and central New England.[1]Tropical cyclones have struck southern Connecticut and coastal Rhode Island several times, including in 1938 and 1954 (Hurricane Carol) when several hundred people were killed. The frost-free growing season approaches 200 days along the Connecticut coast.[2]

Statistics for major cities

Northern

Climate data for Burlington International Airport, Vermont (1981-2010 normals,[a] extremes 1883-present[b])
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 66
(19)
72
(22)
84
(29)
91
(33)
93
(34)
100
(38)
100
(38)
101
(38)
98
(37)
85
(29)
75
(24)
68
(20)
101
(38)
Mean maximum °F (°C) 49.8
(9.9)
49.3
(9.6)
63.9
(17.7)
78.3
(25.7)
85.2
(29.6)
90.5
(32.5)
91.8
(33.2)
90.1
(32.3)
85.3
(29.6)
74.3
(23.5)
66.0
(18.9)
52.6
(11.4)
93.7
(34.3)
Average high °F (°C) 27.2
(-2.7)
30.6
(-0.8)
40.0
(4.4)
54.7
(12.6)
67.2
(19.6)
76.3
(24.6)
80.9
(27.2)
79.0
(26.1)
70.4
(21.3)
57.2
(14.0)
45.5
(7.5)
33.2
(0.7)
55.3
(12.9)
Daily mean °F (°C) 18.7
(-7.4)
21.5
(-5.8)
31.0
(-0.6)
44.8
(7.1)
56.3
(13.5)
65.8
(18.8)
70.6
(21.4)
68.8
(20.4)
60.5
(15.8)
48.1
(8.9)
38.2
(3.4)
25.8
(-3.4)
46.0
(7.8)
Average low °F (°C) 10.2
(-12.1)
12.5
(-10.8)
22.0
(-5.6)
34.8
(1.6)
45.4
(7.4)
55.3
(12.9)
60.3
(15.7)
58.5
(14.7)
50.7
(10.4)
39.1
(3.9)
30.9
(-0.6)
18.5
(-7.5)
36.6
(2.6)
Mean minimum °F (°C) -13.8
(-25.4)
-9.4
(-23.0)
-0.5
(-18.1)
21.2
(-6.0)
31.1
(-0.5)
40.8
(4.9)
48.8
(9.3)
45.1
(7.3)
35.5
(1.9)
25.0
(-3.9)
14.0
(-10.0)
-4.3
(-20.2)
-16.2
(-26.8)
Record low °F (°C) -30
(-34)
-30
(-34)
-24
(-31)
2
(-17)
24
(-4)
33
(1)
39
(4)
35
(2)
25
(-4)
15
(-9)
-3
(-19)
-29
(-34)
-30
(-34)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 2.06
(52)
1.76
(45)
2.22
(56)
2.82
(72)
3.45
(88)
3.69
(94)
4.16
(106)
3.91
(99)
3.64
(92)
3.60
(91)
3.13
(80)
2.38
(60)
36.82
(935)
Average snowfall inches (cm) 21.1
(54)
16.4
(42)
15.8
(40)
4.6
(12)
trace 0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
trace 0.3
(0.76)
5.1
(13)
17.9
(45)
81.2
(206)
Average precipitation days 14.5 11.2 12.9 12.8 14.2 13.3 12.0 12.3 11.3 12.9 14.0 14.4 155.8
Average snowy days 14.5 10.7 9.0 3.1 0.1 0 0 0 0 0.4 4.7 11.9 54.4
Mean monthly sunshine hours 126.9 146.8 190.7 206.2 251.4 270.1 301.9 258.2 201.0 159.2 91.1 91.6 2,295.1
Percent possible sunshine 44 50 52 51 55 58 64 59 53 47 32 33 51
Average ultraviolet index 1 2 3 5 7 8 8 7 5 3 2 1 4
Source #1: NOAA (sun 1961-1990)[3][4][5]
Source #2: Weather Atlas [6] (sunshine data)
Climate data for Portland International Jetport, Maine (1981-2010 normals,[e] extremes 1871-present[f])
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 67
(19)
64
(18)
88
(31)
92
(33)
94
(34)
98
(37)
100
(38)
103
(39)
95
(35)
88
(31)
74
(23)
71
(22)
103
(39)
Mean maximum °F (°C) 50.2
(10.1)
51.4
(10.8)
61.5
(16.4)
74.7
(23.7)
83.8
(28.8)
88.8
(31.6)
91.3
(32.9)
90.1
(32.3)
85.6
(29.8)
74.7
(23.7)
65.3
(18.5)
55.6
(13.1)
93.4
(34.1)
Average high °F (°C) 31.2
(-0.4)
34.6
(1.4)
42.1
(5.6)
53.3
(11.8)
63.5
(17.5)
73.2
(22.9)
78.8
(26.0)
77.7
(25.4)
70.0
(21.1)
58.7
(14.8)
48.0
(8.9)
37.3
(2.9)
55.8
(13.2)
Daily mean °F (°C) 22.3
(-5.4)
25.5
(-3.6)
33.5
(0.8)
44.0
(6.7)
53.9
(12.2)
63.4
(17.4)
69.1
(20.6)
68.0
(20.0)
60.1
(15.6)
48.8
(9.3)
39.4
(4.1)
28.8
(-1.8)
46.5
(8.1)
Average low °F (°C) 13.4
(-10.3)
16.4
(-8.7)
24.9
(-3.9)
34.7
(1.5)
44.2
(6.8)
53.6
(12.0)
59.4
(15.2)
58.2
(14.6)
50.3
(10.2)
38.9
(3.8)
30.9
(-0.6)
20.4
(-6.4)
37.2
(2.9)
Mean minimum °F (°C) -7
(-22)
-3.1
(-19.5)
5.9
(-14.5)
23.9
(-4.5)
32.2
(0.1)
42.6
(5.9)
49.9
(9.9)
46.7
(8.2)
36.5
(2.5)
25.6
(-3.6)
16.1
(-8.8)
2.1
(-16.6)
-9.9
(-23.3)
Record low °F (°C) -26
(-32)
-39
(-39)
-21
(-29)
8
(-13)
23
(-5)
33
(1)
40
(4)
33
(1)
23
(-5)
15
(-9)
3
(-16)
-21
(-29)
-39
(-39)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 3.38
(86)
3.25
(83)
4.24
(108)
4.32
(110)
4.01
(102)
3.79
(96)
3.61
(92)
3.14
(80)
3.69
(94)
4.87
(124)
4.93
(125)
4.02
(102)
47.25
(1,200)
Average snowfall inches (cm) 19.2
(49)
12.1
(31)
12.7
(32)
2.8
(7.1)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
trace 1.9
(4.8)
13.2
(34)
61.9
(157)
Average precipitation days 11.1 9.8 11.7 11.2 12.6 11.8 11.0 9.3 9.2 10.5 11.2 11.5 130.9
Average snowy days 7.9 6.1 5.1 1.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.5 6.1 27.7
Average relative humidity (%) 66.8 65.2 66.3 66.8 71.1 74.7 75.3 76.3 76.7 73.9 72.6 70.2 71.3
Mean monthly sunshine hours 164.8 172.8 205.2 213.5 243.2 259.1 282.2 267.6 229.1 195.7 138.7 140.9 2,512.8
Percent possible sunshine 57 59 55 53 53 56 60 62 61 57 48 51 56
Average ultraviolet index 1 2 3 5 7 8 8 7 5 3 2 1 4
Source #1: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961-1990)[12][13][14]
Source #2: Weather Atlas [15]
Climate data for Portland
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average sea temperature °F (°C) 41.3
(5.2)
38.8
(3.8)
38.0
(3.3)
41.6
(5.3)
46.7
(8.1)
54.6
(12.6)
61.3
(16.3)
63.7
(17.7)
60.5
(15.8)
54.9
(12.8)
49.6
(9.8)
45.3
(7.4)
49.7
(9.8)
Source: Weather Atlas [15]


Southern

Climate data for Boston
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average sea temperature °F (°C) 41.3
(5.2)
38.1
(3.4)
38.4
(3.5)
43.1
(6.2)
49.2
(9.5)
58.4
(14.7)
65.7
(18.7)
67.9
(20.0)
64.8
(18.2)
59.4
(15.3)
52.3
(11.3)
46.6
(8.2)
52.1
(11.2)
Source: Weather Atlas [20]
Climate data for Providence
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average sea temperature °F (°C) 41.4
(5.2)
38.1
(3.4)
38.7
(3.8)
44.1
(6.7)
50.9
(10.5)
59.6
(15.3)
67.0
(19.4)
69.3
(20.7)
66.7
(19.3)
61.6
(16.4)
54.2
(12.3)
47.7
(8.8)
53.3
(11.8)
Source: Weather Atlas [27]


See also

Notes

  1. ^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010.
  2. ^ Official records for Burlington were kept at downtown from December 1883 to 3 June 1943, and at Burlington Int'l since 4 June 1943. For more information, see ThreadEx
  3. ^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010.
  4. ^ Official records for Concord were kept at downtown from September 1868 to April 1941 and at Concord Municipal Airport since May 1941; snow records date from December 1942. For more information, see ThreadEx
  5. ^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010.
  6. ^ Official records for Portland were kept at downtown from March 1871 to 24 November 1940, and at Portland Int'l Jetport (PWM) since 25 November 1940. Temperature records are limited to the period that PWM was the official site (i.e. since 1940) and are based on the Monthly Weather Summary product issued by the NWS office in Gray, Maine.[11] precipitation and snowfall records date to 1871 and 1882, respectively.
  7. ^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010.
  8. ^ Official records for Boston were kept at downtown from January 1872 to December 1935, and at Logan Airport (KBOS) since January 1936.[16]
  9. ^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010.
  10. ^ Official records for Hartford kept at downtown from January 1905 to December 1948, Brainard Airport from January 1949 to December 1954, and at Bradley Int'l in Windsor Locks since January 1955.[21]
  11. ^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010.
  12. ^ Official records for Providence kept at downtown from November 1904 to May 1932 and at T. F. Green Airport since June 1932.[26]

Notes

  1. ^ "Intellicast - New London Historic Weather Averages in Connecticut (06320)". www.intellicast.com. Retrieved .
  2. ^ "New England's Fall Foliage". Discover New England. Archived from the original on August 16, 2007. Retrieved 2011.
  3. ^ "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved .
  4. ^ "Station Name: VT BURLINGTON INTL AP". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved .
  5. ^ "WMO Climate Normals for BURLINGTON/ETHAN ALLEN AIRPOR,VT 1961-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved .
  6. ^ "Burlington, Vermont, USA - Monthly weather forecast and Climate data". Weather Atlas. Retrieved 2019.
  7. ^ "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved .
  8. ^ "Station Name: NH CONCORD MUNI AP". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved .
  9. ^ "WMO Climate Normals for CONCORD MUNICIPAL AP, NH 1961-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved .
  10. ^ "Concord, New Hampshire, USA - Monthly weather forecast and Climate data". Weather Atlas. Retrieved 2019.
  11. ^ "Observed Weather Reports". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved .
  12. ^ "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved .
  13. ^ "Station Name: ME PORTLAND INTL JETPORT". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved .
  14. ^ "NOAA". NOAA.
  15. ^ a b "Portland, Maine, USA - Monthly weather forecast and Climate data". Weather Atlas. Retrieved 2019.
  16. ^ ThreadEx
  17. ^ "Station Name: MA BOSTON LOGAN INTL AP". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved .
  18. ^ "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved .
  19. ^ "WMO Climate Normals for BOSTON/LOGAN INT'L AIRPORT, MA 1961-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved .
  20. ^ a b "Boston, Massachusetts, USA - Monthly weather forecast and Climate data". Weather Atlas. Retrieved 2019.
  21. ^ ThreadEx
  22. ^ "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved .
  23. ^ "Station Name: CT HARTFORD BRADLEY INTL AP". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved .
  24. ^ "WMO Climate Normals for HARTFORD/BRADLEY INT'L ARPT CT 1961-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved .
  25. ^ "Springfield, Massachusetts, USA - Monthly weather forecast and Climate data". Weather Atlas. Retrieved 2019.
  26. ^ ThreadEx
  27. ^ a b "Providence, Rhode Island, USA - Monthly weather forecast and Climate data". Weather Atlas. Retrieved 2019.
  28. ^ "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved .
  29. ^ "Station Name: RI PROVIDENCE T F GREEN AP". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved .
  30. ^ "WMO Climate Normals for PROVIDENCE/GREEN STATE, RI 1961-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved .

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