A close-in weapon system (CIWS SEE-wiz) is a point-defense weapon system for detecting and destroying short-range incoming missiles and enemy aircraft which have penetrated the outer defenses, typically mounted shipboard in a naval capacity. Nearly all classes of larger modern warships are equipped with some kind of CIWS device.
There are two types of CIWS systems. A gun-based CIWS usually consists of a combination of radars, computers, and rapid-firing multiple-barrel rotary cannons placed on a rotating turret. Missile-based CIWSs use either infra-red, passive radar/ESM, or semi-active radar terminal guidance to guide missiles to the targeted enemy aircraft or other threats. In some cases, CIWS are used on land to protect military bases. In this case, the CIWS can also protect the base from shell and rocket fire.
A gun-based CIWS usually consists of a combination of radars, computers and rotary or revolver cannon placed on a rotating, automatically aimed gun mount. Examples of gun-based CIWS products in operation are:
|DARDO||Goalkeeper CIWS||Kashtan CIWS||Millennium||Phalanx CIWS||Type 730 CIWS|
|Weight||5,500 kg (12,100 lb)||9,902 kg (21,830 lb)||15,500 kg (34,200 lb)||3,300 kg (7,300 lb)||6,200 kg (13,700 lb)||9,800 kg (21,600 lb)|
|Armament||40 mm (1.6 in) 2 barreled Bofors 40 mm||30 mm (1.2 in) 7 barreled GAU-8 Gatling Gun||30 mm (1.2 in) 6 barreled GSh-6-30 Gatling Gun
8 × 9M311K + 32 missiles
|35 mm (1.4 in) 1 barreled Oerlikon Millennium 35 mm Naval Revolver Gun System||20 mm (0.79 in) 6 barreled M61 Vulcan Gatling Gun||30 mm (1.2 in) 7 barreled Gatling Gun|
|Rate of fire||600/900 rounds per minute||4,200 rounds per minute||10,000 rounds/min (5,000 per gun)
1-2 (salvo) missiles per 3-4 sec
|200/1000 rounds per minute||4,500 rounds per minute||7,000 rounds per minute|
|(effective/ flat-trajectory) Range||4,000 m (13,000 ft)||3,600 m (11,800 ft)||By missiles:
1,500-10,000 m (4,900-32,800 ft)
300-5,000 m (980-16,400 ft)
|3,500 m (11,500 ft)||2,000 m (6,600 ft)||3,000 m (9,800 ft)|
|Ammunition storage||736 rounds||1,190 rounds||2 x 2,000 rounds||252 rounds||1,550 rounds||640 or 2 x 500 rounds (depending on model)|
|Muzzle velocity||1,000 m (3,300 ft) per second||1,109 m (3,638 ft) per second||960-1100 m/s (3,150-3,610 ft/s)||1,050 m (3,440 ft) per second / 1,175 m (3,855 ft) per second||1,100 m (3,600 ft) per second||1,100 m (3,600 ft) per second|
|Elevation||-13 to +85 degrees||-25 to +85 degrees||3,000m (9,840 ft)||-15 to +85 degrees||-25 to +85 degrees||-25 to +85 degrees|
|Speed in elevation||60 degrees per second||100 degrees per second||50 degrees per second||70 degrees per second||115 degrees per second||100 degrees per second|
|Traverse||360 °||360 °||360 °||360 °||360 °||360 °|
|Speed in Traverse||90 degrees per second||100 degrees per second||70 degrees per second||120 degrees per second||115 degrees per second||100 degrees per second|
CIWS are also used on land in the form of C-RAM. On a smaller scale, active protection systems are used in some tanks (to destroy rocket propelled grenades (RPGs), and several are in development. The Drozd system was deployed on Soviet Naval Infantry tanks in the early 1980s, but later replaced by explosive reactive armour. Other systems that are available or under development are the Russian (Arena), Israeli (Trophy), American (Quick Kill) and the South African-Swedish (LEDS-150).
Laser-based CIWS systems are being researched. In August 2014 an operational prototype was deployed to the Persian Gulf aboard USS Ponce. The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye Bilimsel ve Teknolojik Ara?t?rma Kurumu, TÜB?TAK) is the second organisation after the US to have developed and tested a High Power Laser CIWS prototype System which is intended to be used on the TF-2000 class frigate and on Turkish airborne systems.