|Close-mid back rounded vowel|
The close-mid back rounded vowel, or high-mid back rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨o⟩.
For the close-mid back rounded vowel that is usually transcribed with the symbol ⟨?⟩ or ⟨u⟩, see near-close back rounded vowel. If the usual symbol is ⟨o⟩, the vowel is listed here.
The close-mid back protruded vowel is the most common variant of the close-mid back rounded vowel. It is typically transcribed in IPA simply as ⟨o⟩, and that is the convention used in this article. As there is no dedicated diacritic for protrusion in the IPA, the symbol for the close-mid back rounded vowel with an old diacritic for labialization, ⟨ ?⟩, can be used as an ad hoc symbol ⟨o?⟩ for the close-mid back protruded vowel. Another possible transcription is ⟨o?⟩ or ⟨⟩ (a close-mid back vowel modified by endolabialization), but this could be misread as a diphthong.
For the close-mid near-back protruded vowel that is usually transcribed with the symbol ⟨?⟩, see near-close back protruded vowel. If the usual symbol is ⟨o⟩, the vowel is listed here.
Because back rounded vowels are assumed to have protrusion, and few descriptions cover the distinction, some of the following may actually have compression.
|Afrikaans||Standard||bok||[bok]||'goat'||Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨?⟩. The height varies between close-mid [o] and mid . See Afrikaans phonology|
|Bavarian||Amstetten dialect||[example needed]||Contrasts close , near-close , close-mid [o] and open-mid back rounded vowels in addition to the open central unrounded . Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨?⟩.|
|Bulgarian||?/usta||[os?'t?a]||'mouth'||Unstressed allophone of /u/ and /?/. See Bulgarian phonology|
|Catalan||sóc||[sok]||'I am'||See Catalan phonology|
|Chinese||Shanghainese||?/kò||[ko?]||'melon'||Height varies between close and close-mid; contrasts with a close to close-mid back compressed vowel.|
|Czech||Bohemian||oko||['oko]||'eye'||Backness varies between back and near-back; may be realized as mid instead. See Czech phonology|
|Danish||Standard||kone||['k?o:n?]||'wife'||Also described as near-close . See Danish phonology|
|Dutch||Standard Belgian||kool||'cabbage'||In the Netherlands often diphthongized to [o?]. See Dutch phonology|
|English||Australian||yawn||[jo:n]||'yawn'||See Australian English phonology|
|Estuary||May be [o?] or [?o] instead.|
|New Zealand||See New Zealand English phonology|
|Received Pronunciation||Typically transcribed with ⟨?:⟩. See English phonology|
|South African||General and Broad varieties. Cultivated SAE has a more open vowel. See South African English phonology|
|General Pakistani||Varies between [o: ~ ~ ?].|
|Estonian||tool||[to:l?]||'chair'||See Estonian phonology|
|Faroese||tola||['t?o:la]||'to endure'||May be a diphthong [o?: ~ o?:] instead. See Faroese phonology|
|French||réseau||'network'||See French phonology|
|German||Standard||oder||'or'||See Standard German phonology|
|Upper Saxon||sondern||['snd?o?n]||'except'||Pharyngealized; corresponds to in Northern Standard German. The example word is from the Chemnitz dialect.|
|Greek||Sfakian||?/metafráz?||[metafrázo]||'translate'||Corresponds to mid in Modern Standard Greek. See Modern Greek phonology|
|Hungarian||kór||[ko:r]||'disease'||See Hungarian phonology|
|Italian||ombra||['ombrä]||'shade'||See Italian phonology|
|Korean||/ norae||[no]||'song'||See Korean phonology|
|Kurdish||Kurmanji (Northern)||rôj||[ro:?]||'day'||See Kurdish phonology|
|Limburgish||Most dialects||hoof||[?o:f]||'garden'||The example word is from the Maastrichtian dialect.|
|Lower Sorbian||wocy||['ots]||'(two) eyes'||Diphthongized to [u] in slow speech.|
|Luxembourgish||Sonn||[zon]||'sun'||Sometimes realized as open-mid . See Luxembourgish phonology|
|Norwegian||Most dialects||lov||[lo:?]||'law'||The quality varies among dialects; in Urban East Norwegian, it has been variously described as close-mid back [o:] and mid , in Stavangersk it is a close-mid near-back [o?:], whereas in Telemark it is a back open-mid vowel . In some dialects it is replaced by the diphthong . See Norwegian phonology|
|Portuguese||outro||[owt?u]||'other'||"outro" can be spoken without the "u" /w/.See Portuguese phonology|
|Saterland Frisian||doalje||['do?:lj?]||'to calm'||Near-back; typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨?:⟩. Phonetically, it is nearly identical to /?/ . The vowel typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨o:⟩ is actually near-close .|
|Shiwiar||[example needed]||Allophone of /a/.|
|Slovak||Some speakers||telefón||['tlfo:n]||'telephone'||Realization of /?:/ reported to occur in dialects spoken near the river Ipe?, as well as - under Hungarian influence - in some other speakers. Corresponds to mid in standard Slovak. See Slovak phonology|
|Slovene||moj||[mò:j]||'my'||See Slovene phonology|
|Sotho||pontsho||[p'on?t?s]||'proof'||Contrasts close, near-close and close-mid back rounded vowels. See Sotho phonology|
|Swedish||Central Standard||åka||'travel'||Often diphthongized to [o]. See Swedish phonology|
|Ukrainian||?/molod'||['m?lod?]||'youth'||See Ukrainian phonology|
|Upper Sorbian||Bóh||[box]||'god'||Diphthongized to [u] in slow speech. See Upper Sorbian phonology|
|Welsh||nos||[no:s]||'night'||See Welsh phonology|
|West Frisian||bok||[bok]||'billy-goat'||See West Frisian phonology|
|Yoruba||egba mi o||[egba mi o]||'help'|
|Close-mid back compressed vowel|
There is no dedicated diacritic for compression in the IPA. However, compression of the lips can be shown with ⟨⟩ as ⟨?⟩ (simultaneous [?] and labial compression) or ⟨⟩ ([?] modified with labial compression). The spread-lip diacritic ⟨ ? ⟩ may also be used with a rounded vowel letter ⟨o?⟩ as an ad hoc symbol, but 'spread' technically means unrounded.
|Chinese||Shanghainese||?/tè||[t]||'capital'||Height varies between close and close-mid; contrasts with a close to close-mid back protruded vowel.|