Close-mid Central Rounded Vowel
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Close-mid Central Rounded Vowel
Close-mid central rounded vowel
IPA Number323
Entity (decimal)ɵ
Unicode (hex)U+0275
Braille? (braille pattern dots-356)? (braille pattern dots-135)
Audio sample

The close-mid central rounded vowel, or high-mid central rounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨?⟩, a lowercase barred letter o.

The character ? has been used in several Latin-derived alphabets such as the one for Yañalif, but in that language it denotes a different sound than it does in the IPA. The character is homographic with Cyrillic ?. The Unicode code point is Ɵ LATIN CAPITAL LETTER O WITH MIDDLE TILDE (HTML Ɵ).

This vowel occurs in Cantonese, Dutch, French, Russian and Swedish as well as in a number of English dialects as a realization of /?/ (as in foot), /?:/ (as in nurse) or /o?/ (as in goat).

This sound rarely contrasts with the near-close front rounded vowel. For this reason, it may be sometimes transcribed with the symbol ⟨?⟩.

Close-mid central protruded vowel

The close-mid central protruded vowel is typically transcribed in IPA simply as ⟨?⟩, and that is the convention used in this article. As there is no dedicated diacritic for protrusion in the IPA, symbol for the close central rounded vowel with an old diacritic for labialization, ⟨  ?⟩, can be used as an ad hoc symbol ⟨⟩ for the close central protruded vowel. Another possible transcription is ⟨⟩ or ⟨⟩ (a close central vowel modified by endolabialization), but this could be misread as a diphthong.



Because central rounded vowels are assumed to have protrusion, and few descriptions cover the distinction, some of the following may actually have compression.

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Azerbaijani Tabriz[2] göz [dz] 'eye' Typically transcribed as /oe/.
Chinese Cantonese ?/ceot7 [tst?] 'to go out' See Cantonese phonology
Dutch Standard[3][4] hut [t] 'hut' See Dutch phonology
English Cardiff[5] foot [f?t] 'foot' More often unrounded ;[6] corresponds to in other dialects. See English phonology
General South African[7] Younger, especially female speakers.[7] Other speakers have a less front vowel . May be transcribed in IPA with ⟨⟩ or ⟨⟩. See South African English phonology
Received Pronunciation[8] [ft] Younger speakers. Others pronounce [?]. See English phonology
Hull[9] goat [:t] 'goat' Corresponds to /o?/ in other dialects.
New Zealand[10] bird [b?:d] 'bird' Corresponds to /?/ in other dialects. See New Zealand English phonology
French[11] je [] 'I' May be transcribed in IPA with ⟨?⟩ or ⟨?⟩. Also described as mid .[12][13] May be more front for a number of speakers. See French phonology
German Swabian[14] wird [?d?] 'becomes' Allophone of /i/ before /?/.[14]
Upper Saxon[15] Wunder ['vn(d?)o?] 'wonder' The example word is from the Chemnitz dialect.
Hiw[16] yöykön? [j?jk] 'forget'
Irish Munster[17] dúnadh ['du:n] 'closing' Allophone of /?/ adjacent to broad consonants, when the vowel in the preceding syllable is either /u:/ or /?/.[17] See Irish phonology
Limburgish Most dialects[18][19][20] bluts [bl?ts] 'bump' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨?⟩. The example word is from the Weert dialect.[18][19][20]
Maastrichtian[19] beuk [b?:k] 'books' Sometimes realized as a narrow diphthong [];[19] typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ø:⟩. Front in other dialects.[18][21]
Mongolian[22] ???? [x] 'to give'
Norwegian Urban East[23] søt [s?:t] 'sweet' Also described as front ;[24] typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ø:⟩. See Norwegian phonology
Ripuarian Kerkrade dialect[25] sjuts [ts] 'marksman'
Russian[26] ?? 'aunt' Allophone of /o/ following a palatalized consonant. See Russian phonology
Tajik[27] ??? [k:h] 'mountain' Merges with /u/ in central and southern dialects.
Toda ? [p?:r?] 'name'
Uzbek ko?z [k?z] 'eye'
West Frisian Standard[28][29] put [p?t] 'well' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ø⟩. See West Frisian phonology
Southwestern dialects[30] fuotten ['f?tn?] 'feet' Corresponds to [wo] in other dialects.[30] See West Frisian phonology
Xumi Lower[31] [RPts?][clarification needed] 'to filter tea' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨?⟩.[31]
Upper[32] [Ht?] 'way to do things' Allophone of /o/ after alveolar consonants; may be realized as or instead.[32]

Close-mid central compressed vowel

Close-mid central compressed vowel

As there is no official diacritic for compression in the IPA, the centering diacritic is used with the front rounded vowel [ø], which is normally compressed. Other possible transcriptions are ⟨?⟩ (simultaneous [?] and labial compression) and ⟨⟩ ([?] modified with labial compression).



Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Swedish Central Standard[33] full [fø?l:] 'full' More often described as mid .[34][35] See Swedish phonology

See also


  1. ^ While the International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".
  2. ^ Mokari & Werner (2016).
  3. ^ van Heuven & Genet (2002).
  4. ^ Verhoeven (2005), p. 245.
  5. ^ Collins & Mees (1990:92-93)
  6. ^ Collins & Mees (1990:92)
  7. ^ a b Lass (2002), pp. 115-116.
  8. ^ "Received Pronunciation Phonology". The British Library.
  9. ^ Williams & Kerswill (1999), pp. 143 and 146.
  10. ^ Bauer et al. (2007), pp. 98-99.
  11. ^ "english speech services | Le FOOT vowel". Retrieved 2018.
  12. ^ Fougeron & Smith (1993), p. 73.
  13. ^ Lodge (2009), p. 84.
  14. ^ a b Khan & Weise (2013), p. 237.
  15. ^ Khan & Weise (2013), p. 236.
  16. ^ François (2013), p. 207.
  17. ^ a b Ó Sé (2000).
  18. ^ a b c Verhoeven (2007), p. 221.
  19. ^ a b c d Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999), p. 159.
  20. ^ a b Heijmans & Gussenhoven (1998), p. 110.
  21. ^ Peters (2006), p. 119.
  22. ^ Iivonen & Harnud (2005), pp. 62, 66-67.
  23. ^ Kristoffersen (2000), pp. 16-17, 33-35, 37, 343.
  24. ^ Vanvik (1979), pp. 13, 20.
  25. ^ Stichting Kirchröadsjer Dieksiejoneer (1997:16). The source describes this vowel as the same as the short u in Standard Dutch lucht, which is close-mid central [?] (van Heuven & Genet (2002)).
  26. ^ Jones & Ward (1969), pp. 62-63.
  27. ^ Ido (2014), pp. 91-92.
  28. ^ Sipma (1913), pp. 6, 8, 10.
  29. ^ Tiersma (1999), p. 11.
  30. ^ a b Hoekstra (2003:202), citing Hof (1933:14)
  31. ^ a b Chirkova & Chen (2013), pp. 369-370.
  32. ^ a b Chirkova, Chen & Kocjan?i? Antolík (2013), p. 389.
  33. ^ Andersson (2002), p. 272.
  34. ^ Engstrand (1999), p. 140.
  35. ^ Rosenqvist (2007), p. 9.


External links

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