Colorado Springs, Colorado
Get Colorado Springs, Colorado essential facts below, Events, or join the Colorado Springs, Colorado discussion. Add Colorado Springs, Colorado to your topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.
Colorado Springs, Colorado

Colorado Springs, Colorado
City of Colorado Springs
Colorado Springs with the Front Range in the background.
Colorado Springs with the Front Range in the background.
Olympic City USA,[3]
The Springs[4][5]
Location of the City of Colorado Springs in El Paso County, Colorado.
Location of the City of Colorado Springs in
Colorado Springs is located in the United States
Colorado Springs
Location of the City of Colorado Springs in the
Coordinates: 38°50?02?N 104°49?31?W / 38.83389°N 104.82528°W / 38.83389; -104.82528Coordinates: 38°50?02?N 104°49?31?W / 38.83389°N 104.82528°W / 38.83389; -104.82528
Country United States
State Colorado
CountyEl Paso County seat[2]
IncorporatedJune 19, 1886[6]
 o TypeHome rule municipality[1]
 o MayorJohn Suthers (R)[a]
 o Total195.761 sq mi (507.019 km2)
 o Land195.399 sq mi (506.082 km2)
 o Water0.362 sq mi (0.937 km2)
 o Total478,961
 o Rank2nd in Colorado
40th in the United States
 o Density2,400/sq mi (940/km2)
 o Metro
755,105 (79th)
 o Front Range
Time zoneUTC-07:00 (MST)
UTC-06:00 (MDT)
ZIP codes[8]
80901-80951, 80960, 80962, 80970, 80977, 80995, 80997
Area code719
FIPS code08-16000
GNIS feature ID0204797

Colorado Springs is a home rule municipality in, and the county seat of, El Paso County, Colorado, United States.[1] It is the most populous city in El Paso County, with a population of 478,961 at the 2020 United States Census, a 15.02% increase since 2010.[7][9] Colorado Springs is the second-most populous city and the most extensive city in the state of Colorado, and the 40th-most populous city in the United States.[10] It is the principal city of the Colorado Springs, CO Metropolitan Statistical Area and the second-most prominent city of the Front Range Urban Corridor. It is located in east-central Colorado, on Fountain Creek, 70 miles (113 km) south of Denver.

At 6,035 feet (1,839 m) the city stands over 1 mile (1.6 km) above sea level, though some areas are significantly higher and lower. Colorado Springs is near the base of Pikes Peak, which rises 14,115 feet (4,302.31 m) above sea level on the eastern edge of the Southern Rocky Mountains.

The United States Air Force Academy opened just north of Colorado Springs in 1958. The city is home to 24 national sports governing bodies, including the United States Olympic & Paralympic Committee, the United States Olympic Training Center, USA Swimming, and USA Hockey.

In 2018, U.S. News & World Report named it the most desirable place to live in the United States.[11] The previous year, Colorado Springs placed second on U.S. News list of the 125 Best Places to Live in the USA.[12] The Metropolitan Policy Program at Brookings found that Colorado Springs was the fastest-growing city for millennials.[13] Thumbtack's annual Small Business Friendliness Survey found Colorado Springs to be the fourth most business-friendly city in the country.[14]


President Richard Nixon gives a commencement ceremony speech at the Air Force Academy in Colorado Springs, June 4, 1969

The Ute, Arapaho and Cheyenne peoples were the first recorded inhabiting the area which would become Colorado Springs.[15] Part of the territory included in the United States' 1803 Louisiana Purchase, the current city area was designated part of the 1854 Kansas Territory. In 1859, after the first local settlement was established, it became part of the Jefferson Territory on October 24 and of El Paso County on November 28. Colorado City at the Front Range confluence of Fountain and Camp creeks was "formally organized on August13, 1859"[16] during the Pike's Peak Gold Rush. It served as the capital of the Colorado Territory from November 5, 1861, until August 14, 1862, when the capital was moved to Golden, before it was finally moved to Denver in 1867.[17] So many immigrants from England had settled in Colorado Springs by the early 1870s that Colorado Springs was locally referred to as "Little London."[18] In 1871 the Colorado Springs Company laid out the towns of La Font (later called Manitou Springs) and Fountain Colony, upstream and downstream respectively, of Colorado City.[19] Within a year, Fountain Colony was renamed Colorado Springs and officially incorporated.[20] The El Paso County seat shifted from Colorado City in 1873 to the Town of Colorado Springs.[21] On December 1, 1880, Colorado Springs expanded northward with two annexations.[22][23]

The second period of annexations was during 1889-90, and included Seavey's Addition, West Colorado Springs, East End, and another North End addition.[22] In 1891 the Broadmoor Land Company built the Broadmoor suburb, which included the Broadmoor Casino, and by December 12, 1895, the city had "four Mining Exchanges and 275 mining brokers."[24] By 1898, the city was designated into quadrants by the north-south Cascade Avenue and the east-west Washington/Pike's Peak avenues.[23]

From 1899 to 1901 Tesla Experimental Station operated on Knob Hill,[25] and aircraft flights to the Broadmoor's neighboring fields began in 1919.[26] Alexander Airport north of the city opened in 1925, and in 1927 the original Colorado Springs Municipal Airport land was purchased east of the city.[26]

In World War II the United States Army Air Forces leased land adjacent to the municipal airfield, naming it Peterson Field in December 1942. This was only one of several military presences in and around Colorado Springs during the war.[27][28]

In November 1950, Ent Air Force Base was selected as the Cold War headquarters for Air Defense Command (ADC). The former WWII Army Air Base, Peterson Field, which had been inactivated at the end of the war, was re-opened in 1951 as a U.S. Air Force base.[29] The 1950s through 1970s saw a continued expansion of the military presence in the area, with the establishment of NORAD's headquarters in the city, as well as the ADCOM headquarters.

Between 1965 and 1968, the University of Colorado Colorado Springs, Pikes Peak Community College and Colorado Technical University were established in or near the city.[30][31] In 1977 most of the former Ent AFB became a US Olympic training center. The Libertarian Party was founded within the city in the 1970s.[32]

On October 1, 1981, the Broadmoor Addition,[22] Cheyenne Canon, Ivywild, Skyway, and Stratton Meadows were annexed after the Colorado Supreme Court "overturned a district court decision that voided the annexation". Further annexations expanding the city include the Nielson Addition and Vineyard Commerce Park Annexation in September 2008.[22]


View of Colorado Springs and Pikes Peak from the eastern plains

The city lies in a semi-arid Steppe climate region[33] with the Southern Rocky Mountains to the west, the Palmer Divide to the north, high plains further east, and high desert lands to the south when leaving Fountain and approaching Pueblo.[34] Colorado Springs is 69 miles (111 km) or one hour and five minutes south of Denver by car using I-25.[35]

Colorado Springs has the greatest total area of any municipality in Colorado. At the 2020 United States Census, the city had a total area of 125,287 acres (507.019 km2) including 232 acres (0.937 km2) of water.[7]

Metropolitan area

Colorado Springs has many features of a modern urban area such as parks, bike trails, and open spaces. However, it is not exempt from problems that typically plague cities experiencing tremendous growth such as overcrowded roads and highways, crime, sprawl, and government budgetary issues. Many of the problems are indirectly or directly caused by the city's difficulty in coping with the large population growth experienced since 1997, and the annexation of the Banning Lewis Ranch area to accommodate further population growth of 175,000 future residents.[36]


Colorado Springs has a cooler, dry-winter semi-arid climate (Köppen BSk), and its location just east of the Rocky Mountains affords it the rapid warming influence from chinook winds during winter but also subjects it to drastic day-to-day variability in weather conditions.[37] The city has abundant sunshine year-round, averaging 243 sunny days per year,[38][39] and receives approximately 16.5 inches (419 mm) of annual precipitation. Due to unusually low precipitation for several years after flooding in 1999, Colorado Springs enacted lawn water restrictions in 2002. These were lifted in 2005[34] but permanently reinstated in December 2019.[40]

Nikola Tesla sitting in the Colorado Springs Experimental Station with his "magnifying transmitter" generating millions of volts

Colorado Springs is one of the most active lightning strike areas in the United States.[33] This natural phenomenon led Nikola Tesla to select Colorado Springs as the preferred location to build his lab and study electricity.[41]

Seasonal climate

Winters range from mild to moderately cold, with December, the coldest month, averaging 30.8 °F (-0.7 °C); historically January has been the coldest month, but, in recent years, December has had both lower daily maxima and minima.[42] Typically, there are 5.2 nights with sub-0 °F (-18 °C) lows and 23.6 days where the high does not rise above freezing.[43]

Snowfall is usually moderate and remains on the ground briefly because of direct sun, with the city receiving 38 inches (97 cm) per season, although the mountains to the west often receive in excess of triple that amount; March is the snowiest month in the region, both by total accumulation and number of days with measurable snowfall. In addition, 8 of the top 10 heaviest 24-hour snowfalls have occurred from March to May.[43] Summers are warm, with July, the warmest month, averaging 70.9 °F (21.6 °C), and 18 days of 90 °F (32 °C)+ highs annually. Due to the high elevation and aridity, nights are usually relatively cool and rarely does the low remain above 70 °F (21 °C).[43] Dry weather generally prevails, but brief afternoon thunderstorms are common, especially in July and August when the city receives the majority of its annual rainfall, due to the North American Monsoon.[44]

The first autumn freeze and the last freeze in the spring, on average, occur on October 2 and May 6, respectively; the average window for measurable snowfall (>=0.1 in or 0.25 cm) is October 21 through April 25. Extreme temperatures range from 101 °F (38 °C) on June 26, 2012 and most recently on June 21, 2016, down to -27 °F (-33 °C) on February 1, 1951, and December 9, 1919.[45]

Climate data

Climate data for Colorado Springs, Colorado (Airport), 1991-2020 normals,[b] extremes 1894-present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 73
Mean maximum °F (°C) 64.5
Average high °F (°C) 45.0
Daily mean °F (°C) 31.8
Average low °F (°C) 18.5
Mean minimum °F (°C) -1.4
Record low °F (°C) -26
Average precipitation inches (mm) 0.29
Average snowfall inches (cm) 4.9
Average precipitation days 3.6 4.6 6.7 8.2 10.3 9.8 12.1 12.4 6.6 4.8 4.5 3.7 87.3
Average snowy days 3.9 4.4 4.9 3.6 0.6 0 0 0 0.3 1.7 3.7 4.0 27.1
Mean monthly sunshine hours 217 224 279 300 310 330 341 310 270 248 210 217 3,256
Source 1: NOAA[43][46][47]
Source 2: Weather-US[48][49][50]


Panoramic View of Downtown Colorado Springs


Map of racial distribution in Colorado Springs, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, Asian, Hispanic (of any race), or Other (yellow)

As of the 2020 United States Census, the population of the City of Colorado Springs was 478,961 (40th most populous U.S. city), the population of the Colorado Springs Metropolitan Statistical Area was 755,105 (79th most populous MSA), and the population of the Front Range Urban Corridor was 5,055,344.[7]

As of the April 2010 census,[51] 78.8% of the population of the city was White (non-Hispanic Whites were 70.7% of the population,[52] compared with 86.6% in 1970[53]), 16.1% Hispanic or Latino of any race (compared with 7.4% in 1970), 6.3% Black or African American, 3.0% Asian, 1.0% descended from indigenous peoples of the Americas, 0.3% descended from indigenous Hawaiians and other Pacific islanders, 5.5% of some other race, and 5.1% of two or more races. Mexican Americans made up 14.6% of the city's population, compared with 9.1% in 1990. The median age in the city was 35 years.[54][nb 1]


Colorado Springs's economy is driven primarily by the military, the high-tech industry, and tourism, in that order. The city is experiencing growth in the service sectors. Its unemployment rate as of October 2015 was 3.9%, a decrease from 4.8% in October 2014 and 7.3% in November 2013,[56] compared to 3.8% for the state[57] and 5.0% for the nation.[58]

Defense industry

The defense industry forms a significant part of the Colorado Springs economy, with some of the city's largest employers being defense contractors.[59] A large segment of this industry is dedicated to the development and operation of various projects for space and missile defense. With its close ties to defense, the aerospace industry has also influenced Colorado Springs's economy.

Some defense corporations have left or downsized city campuses, but slight growth has been recorded. Significant defense corporations in the city include Northrop Grumman, Boeing, General Dynamics, L3Harris Technologies, SAIC, ITT, Lockheed Martin, and Bluestaq.[60][61][62][63] The Space Foundation is based in Colorado Springs.[64]

On January 13, 2021, the Air Force announced a new permanent home for Space Command, moving it from Colorado Springs to Huntsville, Alabama.[65] Political leaders in Colorado plan to ask President Biden's administration to review the merits of the decision.[66] Huntsville also has to pass an environmental review before the decision is final.[67] Air Force documents show Alabama ranked higher than Colorado in 11 of 21 comparisons used by the government in seeking the best site for the new U.S. Space Command's permanent headquarters. In the Space Command headquarters comparison, Alabama ranks in top third in nine of the 21 categories. Colorado ranks in the top third in five categories. Alabama ranks in bottom third in three of the 21 categories and Colorado ranks in bottom third in 10 of the 21 categories.[68]

High-tech industry

A large percentage of Colorado Springs's economy is still based on manufacturing high-tech and complex electronic equipment. The high-tech sector in the Colorado Springs area has decreased its overall presence from 2000 to 2006 (from around 21,000 to around 8,000), with notable reductions in information technology and complex electronic equipment.[69] Current trends project the high-tech employment ratio will continue to decrease.[70][71][72][73][needs update]

High-tech corporations with connections to the city include: Verizon Business, a telecommunications firm, at its height had nearly 1300 employees in 2008.[74] Hewlett-Packard still has some sales, support, and SAN storage engineering center for the computer industry.[75][76][77] Storage Networking Industry Association is the home of the SNIA Technology Center.[78] Keysight Technologies, spun off in 2014 from Agilent,[79] which was itself spun off from HP in 1999 as an independent, publicly traded company,[80] has its oscilloscope research and development division based in Colorado Springs. Intel had 250 employees in 2009.[81] The Intel facility is now used for the centralized unemployment offices, social services, El Paso county offices, and a bitcoin mining facility.[82] Microchip Technology (formerly Atmel), is a chip fabrication organization.[83] Cypress Semiconductor Colorado Design Center is a chip fabrication research and development site.[] The Apple Inc. facility was sold to Sanmina-SCI in 1996.[84]

The National Cybersecurity Center(NCC) was established in Colorado Springs in March 2016. Its core purpose is to provides collaborative cybersecurity knowledge and services to the United States. Currently, the NCC has four active collaboration initiatives: Secure the Vote, NCC Student Alliance, Space ISAC Operations, and its annual Cyber Symposium.

Culture and contemporary life


Pikes Peak, the easternmost "fourteener" in the United States

Almost immediately following the arrival of railroads beginning in 1871, the city's location at the base of Pikes Peak and the Rocky Mountains made it a popular tourism destination. Tourism is the third largest employer in the Pikes Peak region, accounting for more than 16,000 jobs.[85] In 2018, 23 million day and overnight visitors came to the area, contributing $2.4 billion in revenue.[86]

Colorado Springs has more than 55 attractions and activities in the area,[87] including Garden of the Gods park, United States Air Force Academy, the ANA Money Museum, Cheyenne Mountain Zoo, Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center at Colorado College, Old Colorado City, The National Museum of World War II Aviation, and the U.S. Olympic & Paralympic Training Center.[88] In 2020, the U.S. Olympic & Paralympic Museum opened;[89] the Flying W Ranch Chuckwagon Dinner & Western Show reopened in 2020.[90] A new Pikes Peak Summit Complex opened at the 14,115-foot summit in 2021.[91] The Manitou and Pike's Peak Railway also reopened in 2021.[92] Popular hikes in the area include the Manitou Incline and many throughout North Cheyenne Cañon Park.

The downtown Colorado Springs Visitor Information Center offers free area information to leisure and business travelers.[87] The Cultural Office of the Pikes Peak Region (COPPeR), also downtown, supports and advocates for the arts throughout the Pikes Peak Region. It operates the PeakRadar website to communicate city events.[93]

Annual cultural events

The Saturday morning launch, overlooking Prospect Lake, in downtown Colorado Springs.

Colorado Springs is home to the annual Colorado Springs Labor Day Liftoff, a hot air balloon festival that takes place over Labor Day weekend at the city's Memorial Park.[94]

Other annual events include: a comic book convention and science fiction convention called GalaxyFest in February,[95] a pride parade called PrideFest in July,[96] the Greek Festival, the Pikes Peak Ascent and Marathon, and the Steers & Beers Whiskey and Beer Festival in August,[97][98][99] and the Emma Crawford Coffin Races and Festival in nearby Manitou Springs and Arts Month in October.[100][101]

The Colorado Springs Festival of Lights is held every December.[102] The Festival includes the Festival of Lights Parade which runs along Tejon Street in Downtown Colorado Springs.[103]


In 2017, Colorado had the third-most craft breweries at 348.[104] Breweries and microbreweries have become popular in Colorado Springs, which hosts over 30 of them.[105][106]

Religious institutions

Although houses of worship of almost every major world religion are within the city, Colorado Springs has in particular attracted a large influx of Evangelical Christians and Christian organizations in recent years. At one time Colorado Springs was the national headquarters for 81 different religious organizations, earning the city the tongue-in-cheek nicknames "the Evangelical Vatican"[107] and "The Christian Mecca."

Religious groups with regional or international headquarters in Colorado Springs include:


Although Colorado voters approved Colorado Amendment 64, a constitutional amendment in 2012 legalizing retail sales of marijuana for recreational purposes, the Colorado Springs city council voted not to permit retail shops in the city, as was allowed in the amendment.[128] Medical marijuana outlets continue to operate in Colorado Springs.[129] In 2015, there were 91 medical marijuana clinics in the city, which reported sales of $59.6 million in 2014, up 11 percent from the previous year but without recreational marijuana shops.[130] On April 26, 2016, Colorado Springs city council decided to extend the current six-month moratorium to eighteen months with no new licenses to be granted until May 2017. A scholarly paper suggested the city will give up $25.4 million in tax revenue and fees if the city continues to thwart the industry from opening within the city limits.[131][132] As of March 1, 2018, there were 131 medical marijuana centers and no recreational cannabis stores.[133] As of 2019 Colorado Springs is still one of seven towns that have only allowed for medical marijuana[134]

In popular culture

Colorado Springs has been the subject of or setting for many books, movies and television shows, and is a frequent backdrop for political thrillers and military-themed stories because of its many military installations and vital importance to the United States' continental defense. Notable television series using the city as a setting include Dr. Quinn, Medicine Woman, Homicide Hunter and the Stargate series Stargate SG-1, as well as the films WarGames, The Prestige, and BlacKkKlansman.[135]

In a North Korean propaganda video released in April 2013, Colorado Springs was inexplicably singled out as one of four targets for a missile strike. The video failed to pinpoint Colorado Springs on the map, instead showing a spot somewhere in Louisiana.[136]


Olympic sports

United States Olympic Committee headquarters and training facility

Colorado Springs, dubbed Olympic City USA, is home to the United States Olympic Training Center and the headquarters of the United States Olympic Committee and the United States Anti-Doping Agency.[137] Colorado Springs recently opened the United States Olympic & Paralympic Museum. In addition, 24 of the United States' national federations for individual Olympic sports have their headquarters in Colorado Springs, including: US bobsled, fencing, figure skating, basketball, boxing, cycling, judo, field hockey, hockey, swimming, shooting, table tennis, taekwondo, triathlon, volleyball, pentathlon, handball, and wrestling associations and organizations.

Further, over 50 national sports organizations (non-Olympic) headquarter in Colorado Springs. These include the National Strength and Conditioning Association, Sports Incubator, a various non-Olympic Sports (such as USA Ultimate), and more.[138]

Colorado Springs and Denver hosted the 1962 World Ice Hockey Championships.[nb 2]

The city has a long association with the sport of figure skating, having hosted the U.S. Figure Skating Championships six times and the World Figure Skating Championships five times. It is home to the World Figure Skating Museum and Hall of Fame and the Broadmoor Skating Club, a notable training center for the sport. In recent years, the Broadmoor World Arena has hosted skating events such as Skate America and the Four Continents Figure Skating Championships.[139]


The Colorado Springs Snow Sox professional baseball team is based in Colorado Springs. The team is a member of the Pecos League, an independent baseball league which is not affiliated with Major or Minor League Baseball.[140][141]

Pikes Peak International Hill Climb

The Pikes Peak International Hill Climb (PPIHC), also known as The Race to the Clouds, is an annual invitational automobile and motorcycle hill climb to the summit of Pikes Peak, every year on the last Sunday of June.[142] The highway wasn't completely paved until 2011.[143]

Local professional teams

Local collegiate teams

The local colleges feature many sports teams. Notable among them are several nationally competitive NCAA Division I teams: United States Air Force Academy (Falcons) Football, Basketball and Hockey[146] and Colorado College (Tigers) Hockey, and Women's Soccer.[147]

The Mountain West Conference and the National Collegiate Hockey Conference is based in Colorado Springs.


Colorado Springs is home to the Pro Rodeo Hall of Fame and the headquarters of the Professional Rodeo Cowboys Association.

Colorado Springs was the original headquarters of the Professional Bull Riders (PBR) from its founding in 1992 until 2005, when the organization was moved to Pueblo.[148]

Colorado Springs Sports Hall of Fame

Colorado Springs Sports Hall of Fame at the Broadmoor World Arena.

The Colorado Springs Sports Hall of Fame was established in 2000 by the Colorado Springs Sports Corporation and is dedicated to honoring athletes, teams, coaches, sports administrators or contributors that have brought significant recognition and distinction to the city and region through their success, leadership and notable achievement. It exists as well to salute and spotlight the city and area's unique sports legacy, traditions and national reputation. Nominees for induction must have lived, trained, worked or competed in the Greater Pikes Peak Region during their athletic careers or service. In addition, candidates for induction must exemplify the highest standards of sportsmanship, ethical conduct and character, and through these characteristics, inspired others.

Notable inductees include Peggy Fleming, Goose Gossage, William Thayer Tutt, Bobby Unser, Bob Mathias, Dave Ogrean, Bonnie Blair, 1980 USA Olympic Ice Hockey Team, Bill Hybl, Marty Louthan, Ben Martin, Amy Van Dyken, Ken Hatfield, Fisher DeBerry, Earl "Dutch" Clark, David and Hayes Jenkins, Chris Fowler, Rulon Gardner, and many great high school and collegiate championship teams.

The plaques for those inducted into the Colorado Springs Sports Hall of Fame are located inside The Broadmoor World Arena on the concourse near Gate C.

Parks, trails and open space

The city's Parks, Recreation and Cultural Services manage 136 neighborhood parks, eight community parks, seven regional parks, and five sports complexes, totaling 9,000 acres (3,600 ha). They also manage 500 acres (200 ha) of trails, of which 160 miles (260 km) are park trails and 105 miles (169 km) are urban. There are 5,000 acres (2,000 ha) of open space in 48 open-space areas.[149]


Ackerman Overlook near United States Air Force Academy off Interstate 25 in Colorado Springs is named for Jasper D. Ackerman (1896-1988), a banker and rancher.[150]
Pulpit Rock, in Pikeview (North Colorado Springs)

Garden of the Gods is on Colorado Springs's western edge. It is a National Natural Landmark, with 300 foot (91 m) red/orange sandstone rock formations often viewed against a backdrop of the snow-capped Pikes Peak. This park is free to the public and offers many recreational opportunities, such as hiking, rock climbing, cycling, horseback riding and tours.[151] It offers a variety of annual events, one of the most popular of which is the Starlight Spectacular, a recreational bike ride held every summer to benefit the Trails and Open Space Coalition of Colorado Springs.[152]

Colorado Springs has several major city parks, such as Palmer Park, America the Beautiful Park in downtown Colorado Springs, Memorial Park, which includes many sports fields, an indoor swimming pool and skating rink, a skateboard bowl and two half-pipes, and Monument Valley Park, which has walking and biking paths, an outdoor swimming pool and pickleball courts.[153] Monument Valley Park also has Tahama Spring, the original spring in Colorado Springs.[154][155] Austin Bluffs Park affords a place of recreation in eastern Colorado Springs. El Paso County Regional Parks include Bear Creek Regional Park, Bear Creek Dog Park, Fox Run Regional Park and Fountain Creek Regional Park and Nature Center.[156] Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa),[157][158] Gambel oak (Quercus gambelii),[159][160] narrowleaf yucca (Yucca angustissima, syn. Yucca glauca)[161] and prickly pear cactus (Opuntia macrorhiza)[162] are some of the more common flora endemic to the Front Range in Colorado Springs.[]


Three trails, the New Santa Fe Regional Trail, Pikes Peak Greenway and Fountain Creek Regional Trail, form a continuous path from Palmer Lake, through Colorado Springs, to Fountain, Colorado. The majority of the trail between Palmer Lake and Fountain is a soft surface breeze gravel trail. A major segment of the trail within the Colorado Springs city limits is paved. The trails, except Monument Valley Park trails, may be used for equestrian traffic. Motorized vehicles are not allowed on the trails. Many of the trails are interconnected, having main spine trails, like the Pikes Peak Greenway, that lead to secondary trails.[163][164][165] The Urban Trail system within Colorado Springs consists of more than 110 miles (180 km) of multi-use trail for biking, jogging, roller blading and walking.[]


On November 2, 2010, Colorado Springs voters adopted a council-strong mayor form of government. The City of Colorado Springs transitioned to the new system of government in 2011. Under the council-strong mayor system of government, the mayor is the chief executive and the city council is the legislative branch. The mayor is a full-time elected position and not a member of the council. The council has nine members, six of whom represent one of six equally populated districts each. The remaining three members are elected at-large.[166] The mayor has veto authority, and the city council can override a mayoral veto by a two-thirds majority vote.

Colorado Springs City Hall was built from 1902 to 1904 on land donated by W. S. Stratton.[167]

City Council

The Colorado Springs City Council consists of 9 elected officials, 6 of whom represent districted seats and 3 of whom represent the city at-large.[168]

  • District 1 - Dave Donelson
  • District 2 - Randy Helms
  • District 3 - Richard Skorman - Council President
  • District 4 - Yolanda Avila
  • District 5 - Nancy Henjum
  • District 6 - Mike O'Malley
  • At-Large - Bill Murray
  • At-Large - Tom Strand - Council President Pro-Tem
  • At-Large - Wayne Williams


In 2017 Caleb Hannan wrote in Politico that Colorado Springs was "staunchly Republican", "a right-wing counterweight to liberal Boulder", and that a study ranked it "the fourth most conservative city in America".[169] In the 2016 presidential election, Donald Trump's margin of victory in El Paso County was 22 points. That year Hannan wrote that downtown Colorado Springs had a different political vibe from the overall area's and that there were "superficial signs of changing demographics".[169] In 2020 the shift toward the political center continued as the incumbent Republican, Donald Trump, edged out Democrat Joe Biden by only 10.8% in El Paso County [170]

Nearby military sites


Primary and secondary education

Higher education

Bachelors and graduate degree programs are offered at these colleges and universities in the city:

Doolittle Hall on the campus of the United States Air Force Academy

The United States Air Force Academy is a military school for officer candidates.[176]

IntelliTec College is a technical training school. Pikes Peak Community College offers a two-year degree program.[177][178]


In March 2016 there were six newspapers actively publishing in Colorado Springs including the newspaper with the largest circulation in the state. Colorado-Pueblo MSA is the 90th largest broadcast market in the US. There are 24 digital television stations in Colorado Springs and 34 radio stations.[]


Major highways and roads

Interstate highways

Colorado Springs is primarily served by one interstate highway. I-25 runs north and south through Colorado, and traverses the city for nearly 18 miles (29 km), entering the city south of Circle Drive and exiting north of North Gate Boulevard. In El Paso County it is known as Ronald Reagan Highway.[nb 3] US 24 runs across the central mountains, through the city, and onto the plains. From west to east in Colorado Springs, US 24 includes the western portion of Cimarron Street and the Midland Expressway, a 2 miles (3.2 km) concurrent section with I-25/US 87 between exits 139 and 141, part of Fountain Blvd, an expressway called the Martin Luther King Bypass, part of South Powers Blvd (where it is concurrent with Colorado 21), and the easternmost portion of Platte Avenue out of the city.[] Powers Boulevard, or SH21, is a 22.6 mile state highway that is planned to be converted to a freeway in the long-term future.

State highways

A number of state highways serve the city. State Highway 21 is a major east side semi-expressway from Black Forest to Fountain. It is widely known as Powers Boulevard. State Highway 83 runs north-south from Denver to northern Colorado Springs. State Highway 94 runs east-west from western Cheyenne County to eastern Colorado Springs. State Highway 115 begins in Cañon City and runs up Nevada Avenue. US 85 and SH 115 are concurrent between Lake Avenue and I-25. US 85 enters the city at Fountain and was signed at Venetucci Blvd, Lake Avenue, and Nevada Avenue.[nb 4]

County and city roads

In November 2015, voters in Colorado Springs overwhelmingly passed ballot measure 2C, dedicating funds from a temporary sales tax increase to much needed road and infrastructure improvements over five years. This temporary increase is estimated to bring in approximately $50 million annually, which will be used solely to improve roads and infrastructure. The ballot measure passed by a margin of approximately 65-35%.[183]

In 2004, the voters of Colorado Springs and El Paso County established the Pikes Peak Rural Transportation Authority[184] and adopted a 1% sales tax dedicated to improving the region's transportation infrastructure. Together with state funding for the Colorado Springs Metro Interstate Expansion (COSMIX) (2007 completion) and the I-25 interchange with Highway 16 (2008 completion), significant progress has been made since 2003 in addressing the transportation needs of the area.[]

In early 2010, the city of Colorado Springs approved an expansion of the northernmost part of Powers Boulevard in order to create an Interstate 25 bypass commonly referred to as the Copper Ridge Expansion.[185][nb 5]

Air transport

Colorado Springs Airport (COS; ICAO: KCOS) has been in operation since 1925. It is the second-largest commercial airport in the state, after Denver International Airport (DEN; ICAO: KDEN). It covers 7,200 acres (2,900 ha) of land at an elevation of approximately 6,200 feet (1,900 m). COS is considered to be a joint-use civilian and military airport, as Peterson Space Force Base is a tenant of the airport.[187] It has three paved runways: 17L/35R is 13,501 by 150 feet (4,115 by 46 m), the runway 17R/35L is 11,022 by 150 feet (3,360 by 46 m) and the runway 13/31 is 8,270 by 150 feet (2,521 by 46 m).[188] In 2020 Southwest Airlines announced 13 daily flights with five destinations from COS would begin in early 2021. Flights began in March 2021.[189] In 2021 United Airlines announced expanded services at COS.[190]


Freight service is provided by Union Pacific and BNSF. Currently there is no intercity passenger service. The city last had passenger service in 1967 with the Denver to Dallas Texas Zephyr run by the Colorado & Southern Railway and the Fort Worth & Denver Railway (both subsidiaries of the Burlington Route).[]


A 20-kilometer upright bike race during the inaugural Warrior Games at the Olympic Training Center in Colorado Springs, Colo., May 13, 2010. The Warrior Games is a Paralympics-style competition where the services compete against each other in events such as sitting volleyball, wheelchair basketball, archery, shooting and swimming.

In April 2018, the Colorado Springs City Council approved a Bike Master Plan.[191] The vision of the city's Bike Master Plan is "a healthy and vibrant Colorado Springs where bicycling is one of many transportation options for a large portion of the population, and where a well-connected and well-maintained network of urban trails, single-track, and on-street infrastructure offers a bicycling experience for present and future generations that is safe, convenient, and fun for getting around, getting in shape, or getting away." In October 2018, Bicycling ranked Colorado Springs the 28th best US city for bicycling.[192] Bike lanes in Colorado Springs have not been deployed without controversy. According to The Gazette, their readers "have mixed feelings for new bike lanes."[193] In December 2016, the City removed a bike lane along Research Parkway due to overwhelming opposition; an online survey found that 80.5% of respondents opposed the bike lane.[194] The Gazette has stated that since the Bike Master Plan was adopted by City Council, "no issue has elicited more argument in The Gazette pages," and due to this immense public interest, on February 25, 2019, The Gazette hosted a town hall meeting called "Battle of the Bike Lanes."[195][196]


A 2011 study by Walk Score ranked Colorado Springs 34th most walkable of fifty largest U.S. cities.[197]

A Metro bus drives past a parking garage in downtown Colorado Springs.

Mountain Metropolitan Transit

Mountain Metropolitan Transit (MMT) offers public transportation services in the Pikes Peak region providing over 11,000 one-way trips per day. In addition to bus routes within the City of Colorado Springs, Mountain Metro Transit provides service into Manitou Springs, north to the Chapel Hills Mall, east to Peterson Air Force Base and south into the Widefield area.[]. MMT is testing Battery Electric Buses (BEB), and if the buses perform well, the agency plans to acquire its first three BEBs in 2021 using funds from the Volkswagen emissions scandal and resulting lawsuit and settlement.[198]

Mountain Metro Mobility

Mountain Metro Mobility is an Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) federally mandated complementary ADA paratransit service, which provides demand-response service for individuals with mobility needs that prevent them from using the fixed-route bus system.[199][200]

Mountain Metro Rides

Mountain Metro Rides offers alternative transportation options to residents of the Pikes Peak Region. The program is designed to reduce congestion and pollution by encouraging people to commute by carpool, vanpool, bicycling or walking.[201]


Bustang provides intercity transportation to Colorado Springs. It is part of the South and Outrider lines, which connect to Denver and to Lamar. There is an additional line that connects Colorado Springs directly to the Denver Tech Center.[202]

Notable people

Sister cities

Bishkek mayor Arstanbek Nogoev presents a gift for Colorado Springs mayor Lionel Rivera to a US airman at Manas Air Base, in a ceremony aimed at reviving ties between the two sister cities.[203]

Colorado Springs' sister cities are:[204]

Colorado Springs's sister city organization began when it became partners with Fujiyoshida. The torii gate erected to commemorate the relationship stands at the corner of Bijou Street and Nevada Avenue, and is one of the city's most recognizable landmarks. The torii gate, crisscrossed bridge and shrine, in the median between Platte and Bijou Streets downtown, were a gift to Colorado Springs, erected in 1966 by the Rotary Club of Colorado Springs to celebrate the friendship between the two communities. A plaque near the torii gate states that "the purpose of the sister city relationship is to promote understanding between the people of our two countries and cities". The Fujiyoshida Student exchange program has become an annual event.[205]

To strengthen relations between the two cities, the Colorado Springs Youth Symphony regularly invites taiko drummers from the city to participate in a joint concert in the Pikes Peak Center. The orchestra played in Bankstown, Australia, in 2002 and again in June 2006 as part of their tours to Australia and New Zealand.[]

In 2006 and 2010, the Bankstown TAP (Talent Advancement Program) performed with the Youth Symphony and the Colorado Springs Children's Chorale as part of the annual "In Harmony" program.[205] A notable similarity between Colorado Springs and its sister cities is their geographic positions: three of the seven cities are near the foot of a major mountain or mountain range, as is Colorado Springs.[206]

See also


  1. ^ As of the census[55] of 2000 (limited only to the city limits and not including the very diverse Fort Carson area which many view as being a part of the Colorado Springs metropolitan area), there were 360,890 people, 141,516 households, and 93,117 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,942.9 people per square mile (750.2/km²). There were 148,690 housing units at an average density of 800.5 per square mile (309.1/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 80.7% White, 6.6% African American, 0.9% Native American, 2.8% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 5.0% from other races, and 3.9% from two or more races. 12.0% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 141,516 households, out of which 34.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.5% were married couples living together, 10.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.2% were non-families. 27.0% of all households were made up of individuals, and 6.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 3.06. In the city, the population was spread out, with 26.5% under the age of 18, 10.3% from 18 to 24, 32.8% from 25 to 44, 20.8% from 45 to 64, and 9.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.2 males. (Note: City statistics do not include the demographic influence of five local military bases). The median income for a household in the city was $45,081, and the median income for a family was $53,478. Males had a median income of $36,786 versus $26,427 for females. The per capita income for the city was $22,496. About 6.1% of families and 8.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.8% of those under age 18 and 7.2% of those age 65 or over.
  2. ^ This nullifies a popular Canadian claim that the 2008 IIHF World Championships in Quebec City and Halifax marked the first time this event was organized on the American continent. However, the 2008 event was the first World Championship on the American continent in which NHL players were eligible to compete.
  3. ^ In order to combat congestion the Colorado Department of Transportation widened the Interstate 25 corridor throughout the city from four lanes (two in each direction) to six lanes in a program called COSMIX. Ultimately, the plan is to make the interstate eight lanes through the city when funding becomes available.[179] This plan is similar in nature to Denver's T-Rex expansion plan.[] Work has been completed to expand Interstate 25 from 4 to 6 lanes between Woodmen Road (exit 149, the northern terminus for the COSMIX project) and Monument (exit 161).[180][181]
  4. ^ In addition, there were plans to develop a "Front Range Toll Road", a privately owned turnpike, which would begin south of Pueblo and end around Fort Collins. This toll road would allow rail and truck traffic to avoid the more highly traveled parts of I-25 along the Front Range. Initially, the project had support but has since been highly contested because of the need to condemn the land of many private citizens, through the use of eminent domain, to make room for the corridor.[182]
  5. ^ The project developers also have hopes of increasing business at the future I-25 Powers Boulevard connection by building a 2.8 million cu ft (79 thousand m3) shopping mall on the East side of the Powers exit.[185] Developers hope to have the project finished by 2013, but have a deadline of 2018.[186]
  1. ^ The mayor of Colorado Springs is officially nonpartisan; party affiliation is for informational purposes only.
  2. ^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1991 to 2020.


  1. ^ a b c "Active Colorado Municipalities". Colorado Department of Local Affairs. Retrieved 2021.
  2. ^ "Colorado Counties". State of Colorado, Colorado Department of Local Affairs, Division of Local Government. Retrieved 2021.
  3. ^ "Olympic City USA". City of Colorado Springs. Retrieved 2017.
  4. ^ "Summer in the Springs". City of Colorado Springs. Retrieved 2017.
  5. ^ "Best of the Springs". The Gazette. Colorado Springs. January 29, 2016. Retrieved 2017.
  6. ^ "Colorado Municipal Incorporations". State of Colorado, Department of Personnel & Administration, Colorado State Archives. December 1, 2004. Retrieved 2007.
  7. ^ a b c d e "QuickFacts Colorado Springs city, Colorado; United States". United States Census Bureau, United States Department of Commerce. August 12, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  8. ^ "ZIP Code Lookup". United States Postal Service. Archived from the original (JavaScript/HTML) on September 3, 2007. Retrieved 2007.
  9. ^ "2020 Population and Housing State Data". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2021.
  10. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places of 50,000 or More, Ranked by July 1, 2018 Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2018". United States Census Bureau, Population Division. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved 2019.
  11. ^ "The 25 Most Desirable Places to Live in the U.S. in 2018". U.S. News. Retrieved 2019.
  12. ^ "125 Best Places to Live in the USA". U.S. News. Archived from the original on February 8, 2017. Retrieved 2019.
  13. ^ "The Millennial Generation: A demographic bridge to America's diverse future" (PDF). Retrieved 2019.
  14. ^ "2018 Small Business Friendliness Survey". Thumbtack. Retrieved 2019.
  15. ^ "Colorado Springs History and Heritage". Visit Colorado Springs. Retrieved 2013.
  16. ^ "El Paso County". History Colorado. Archived from the original on December 4, 2013. Platted by his Colorado Springs Company in 1876 [sic] Manitou Springs retains its winding roads, spa, and many of its grand hotels and residences. Of the approximately 1001 buildings, 752 are considered to be contributing... Miramont Castle...housed a sanitarium operated by the Sisters of Mercy.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link) (in 1916, the Sisters of Mercy operated the Montcalm Sanitarium).
  17. ^ Smiley, Jerome Constant (1913). Semi-centennial History of the State of Colorado. Brookhaven Press. pp. 367-369. ISBN 978-1-4035-0045-8.
  18. ^ The Rocky Mountain Region edited by Rick Newby pg. 108
  19. ^ Harrison, Deborah (2012). Manitou Springs. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 9780738595962. Retrieved 2014.
  20. ^ "Downtown Historic Survey". City of Colorado Springs. Archived from the original on February 3, 2015. Retrieved 2014.
  21. ^ Capace, Nancy (March 1, 1999). Encyclopedia of Colorado (Google books). North American Book Dist LLC. p. 173. ISBN 978-0-403-09813-2. Retrieved 2013.
  22. ^ a b c d "annexdata.xls" (XLS) (spreadsheet). Retrieved 2013.
  23. ^ a b Directory of Colorado Springs (PDF) (almanac), The Out West Printing and Stationery Co., 1898, archived from the original (PDF) on November 12, 2013, retrieved 2013, SANATARIUMS ... St. Francis Hospital--On Institute Heights, east end of Pike's Peak avenue, near Knob Hill street car line ... Pike's Peak Camp, No. 5 (Pacific jurisdiction)--Meets in K. of P. Hall every Tuesday evening
  24. ^ "Colorado's Mining Craze" (PDF). The New York Times. December 2, 1895. Retrieved 2013.
  25. ^ Report of the Commission on the Colorado Springs Union Depot (available at PPLD Special Collections and the Colorado College Tutt Library)
  26. ^ a b Hartman, James Edward (June 28, 1996). Original Colorado Springs Municipal Airport (NRHP Inventory--Nomination Form). Contributing 4...Non-contributing 1 ... Nichols Field and the Pine Valley Air Strip were located on north Nevada Avenue. ... In 1942 the hangar was purchased by the City of Colorado Springs. The Air Force began leasing the [Broadmoor] hangar as a storage area in 1958. ... 1951 o Facility usage is re-leased to the Military (383 acres) for the 4600 Air Base Group (Jan.). ... 1966...The City of Colorado Springs renegotiates with Air Force total of 992 acres (until June 30, 2066).
  27. ^ Prinzo (Corporal, 2nd Grp payroll clerk) (c. 1945), [description of sites used by 2nd Photo Grp] (document with quotation)
  28. ^ Colorado Springs, Colorado City and Manitou City Directory. XIII. The R. L. Polk Directory Co. 1916. Pike's Peak Ocean-to-Occan Highway
  29. ^ Mueller, Robert (1989). "Active Air Force Bases Within the United States of America on 17 September 1982". Air Force Bases (Report). Office of Air Force History. I. ISBN 0-912799-53-6.
  30. ^ Hellmann, Paul T (November 1, 2004). Historical Gazetteer of the United States (Google books). Taylor & Francis. p. 129. ISBN 978-0-203-99700-0. Retrieved 2013.
  31. ^ Annual Report to Congress of the Federal Board for Vocational Education (Report). Retrieved 2013.
  32. ^ Sydney Herdle - The Daily Collegian. "A guide to the major platforms of the Libertarian Party".
  33. ^ a b "Colorado Springs - SKYbrary Aviation Safety".
  34. ^ a b "City of Colorado Springs - Drought". November 3, 2010. Archived from the original on December 1, 2010. Retrieved 2010.
  35. ^ "Distance between Denver, CO and Colorado Springs, CO". Retrieved 2020.
  36. ^ "Another strange twist in Banning Lewis Ranch bankruptcy". Colorado Springs Gazette. Archived from the original on February 27, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  37. ^ "Colorado Climate Center - Climate of Colorado". Archived from the original on July 3, 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  38. ^ "Colorado Springs, Colorado Climate". BestPlaces. Retrieved 2015.
  39. ^ "Colorado sunshine is more myth than science". The Denver Post. January 3, 2012. Archived from the original on October 31, 2015. Retrieved 2015.
  40. ^ "New "water-wise" rules now in effect". Colorado Springs. January 22, 2020. Archived from the original on July 13, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  41. ^ "Tesla, Life and Legacy". Retrieved 2014.
  42. ^ "Colorado Springs". Retrieved 2010.
  43. ^ a b c d "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2019.
  44. ^ "Evolution of the North American Monsoon". DRI Desert Research Institute. Archived from the original on February 27, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  45. ^ "Colorado Springs, CO climate in February". Archived from the original on February 27, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  46. ^ "Station Name: CO COLORADO SPRINGS MUNI AP". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2019.
  47. ^ "Summary of Monthly Normals 1991-2020". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2021.
  48. ^ "Monthly weather forecast and climate Colorado Springs, CO". Weather Atlas. Retrieved 2020.
  49. ^ "Station Name: CO COLORADO SPRINGS MUNI AP". Weather Atlas. Retrieved 2020.
  50. ^ Candelaria, Esteban (June 17, 2021). "Colorado Springs hits 100 degrees, marking milestone". Retrieved 2021.
  51. ^ Bureau, U.S. Census. "American FactFinder - Results". Archived from the original on February 12, 2020.
  52. ^ "Colorado Springs (city), Colorado". State & County QuickFacts. U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on May 31, 2012.
  53. ^ "Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on August 12, 2012.
  54. ^ "Detailed tables". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2010.
  55. ^ "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008.
  56. ^ "Bureau of Labor Statistics website". Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved 2016.
  57. ^ "Colorado Department of Labor and Employment". Colorado, the official web portal. Archived from the original on October 17, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  58. ^ "U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics". U.S. Gov. Retrieved 2016.
  59. ^ "Colorado Springs Gazette". Archived from the original on January 8, 2008.
  60. ^ "Bluestaq-an-overnight-success-in-military-contracting".
  61. ^ Gazette, Colorado Springs (February 14, 2009). "Boeing adds jobs in Colorado Springs - The Denver Post". Retrieved 2017.
  62. ^ "General Dynamics subsidiary shutters 60-person office in Colorado Springs". Colorado Springs Gazette. Retrieved 2017.
  63. ^ "Harris Corp. helping small Colorado Springs defense contractor grow into bigger role". Colorado Springs Gazette. Retrieved 2017.
  64. ^ "Moon Rock has Landed at Space Foundation Discovery Center in Colorado Springs". June 15, 2013.
  65. ^ "US Space Command site to be located in Huntsville, Alabama". January 13, 2021.
  66. ^ "Chamber of Commerce and state officials fight to keep U.S. Space Command in Colorado Springs". January 22, 2021.
  67. ^ "U.S. Space Command Headquarters May Land in Alabama". NPR.
  68. ^ "Opposition grows to putting Space Command HQ in Alabama". April 2, 2021.
  69. ^ "2006-2007 Southern Colorado Economic Forum Publication". p. 18. Archived from the original on May 14, 2008. Retrieved 2010.
  70. ^ SCEF - Southern Colorado Economic Forum Archived May 14, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  71. ^ "A barren Garden of the Gods". Archived from the original on September 29, 2007. Retrieved 2009.
  72. ^ Heilman, Wayne (July 18, 2008). "Colorado jobless rate at its highest since 2005 | percent, rate, colorado". Colorado Springs Gazette. Archived from the original on October 7, 2008. Retrieved 2009.
  73. ^ Heilman, Wayne (August 30, 2008). "Manufacturing, tech jobs slipping away from Springs | manufacturing, springs, technology". Colorado Springs Gazette. Archived from the original on September 7, 2008. Retrieved 2009.
  74. ^ Wayne Heilman September 19, 2008 email
  75. ^ Laden, Rich (June 20, 2008). "HP plans to open centers in Arkansas, New Mexico| springs, colorado, new". Colorado Springs Gazette. Archived from the original on February 17, 2009. Retrieved 2009.
  76. ^ Heilman, Wayne (June 25, 2008). "HP to 800 Springs workers: Move to New Mexico or lose jobs | center, springs, employees". Colorado Springs Gazette. Archived from the original on October 11, 2008. Retrieved 2009.
  77. ^ Heilman, Wayne (June 27, 2008). "HP to IT workers: Move to Fort Collins or lose job | move, workers, employees". Colorado Springs Gazette. Retrieved 2009.[permanent dead link]
  78. ^ "SNIA | Advancing Storage and Information Technology".
  79. ^ Drake, Michele. "Agilent Technologies Spins Off Its Electronic Measurement Business, Keysight Technologies". Agilent Technologies, Inc. Agilent Technologies, Inc. Retrieved 2021.
  80. ^ "Agilents shares soar on first day". Money. November 18, 1999. Retrieved 2020.
  81. ^ Heilman, Wayne (July 28, 2008). "1,000 Intel workers will get job-hunting help | intel, help, workers". Colorado Springs Gazette. Archived from the original on August 9, 2008. Retrieved 2009.
  82. ^ "Comprehensive Annual Financial Report for the year ended December 31, 2010" (PDF). Budget Administration, Finance Division El Paso County, Colorado. 2011. Retrieved 2021.
  83. ^ Wayne Heilman (December 15, 2008). "Atmel lays off 245 employees in Springs | atmel, employees, company". Colorado Springs Gazette. Retrieved 2009.[permanent dead link]
  84. ^ [1][dead link][]
  85. ^ "DOLA Planning and Management Region 4 Socioeconomic Profile" (PDF). State Demography Office.
  86. ^ Longwoods Staff (June 1, 2019). "Longwoods Travel Research - Pikes Peak Region".
  87. ^ a b "Colorado Springs Vacation & Tourism Information - Colorado Springs Colorado". Retrieved 2012.
  88. ^ Leslie Weddell (May 21, 2000), "There's more to Colorado Springs than just that beautiful mountain", The Gazette, Colorado Springs
  89. ^ Rich, Laden. "Olympic Museum now slated for 2020 opening". The Gazette. Retrieved 2020.
  90. ^ Stanton, Billie (June 29, 2019). "Flying W Ranch to soar once more in Colorado Springs". The Gazette. Retrieved 2020.
  91. ^ "Officials Break Ground on New Pikes Peak Summit Complex". GE Johnson Construction Company. Retrieved 2020.
  92. ^ Evan Ochsner (July 2, 2021). "Updated Cog Railway and new summit house officially open at Pikes Peak". The Gazette. Colorado Springs. Retrieved 2021.
  93. ^ Culture Office of the Pikes Peak Region Overview. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
  94. ^ "The Colorado Springs Convention & Visitors Bureau". Visit Colorado Springs. Retrieved 2021.
  95. ^ "GalaxyFest". GalaxyFest. Archived from the original on February 16, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  96. ^ "Colorado Springs PrideFest". Colorado Springs PrideFest. Retrieved 2019.
  97. ^ Greek Festival, retrieved 2019
  98. ^ The Pikes Peak Ascent and Marathon, retrieved 2019
  99. ^ Steers and Beers Whiskey and Beer Festival, archived from the original on February 9, 2019, retrieved 2019
  100. ^ Emma Crawford Coffin Races and Festival, retrieved 2019
  101. ^ Arts Month, retrieved 2019
  102. ^ "Colorado Springs Festival of Lights". The Colorado Springs Festival of Lights. Retrieved 2019.
  103. ^ Hancock, A. (December 6, 2019). "Festival of Lights Parade to be bigger than ever; 50,000 expected in downtown Colorado Springs". The Gazette.
  104. ^ Mapped & Ranked: The States with the Most Craft Breweries in 2017, October 10, 2018, retrieved 2019
  105. ^ A map of Colorado Springs area breweries, distilleries, wineries and cider products, Colorado Springs Independent, retrieved 2019[permanent dead link]
  106. ^ Colorado Springs Breweries, Colorado Brewery List, retrieved 2019
  107. ^ Ridgeway, James (January 15, 2010). "Day eight Sunday morning in the 'evangelical Vatican'". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 2010.
  108. ^ Contact ASCI Archived August 27, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  109. ^ "Biblica - The International Bible Society". May 13, 2016. Archived from the original on May 9, 2012. Retrieved 2013.
  110. ^ "Contact us - Children's Hopechest". Archived from the original on September 1, 2013. Retrieved 2013.
  111. ^ "Contact Us".
  112. ^ "Community Bible Study".
  113. ^ "Contact Compassion International".
  114. ^ "About David C. Cook". Archived from the original on September 7, 2013. Retrieved 2013.
  115. ^ "Development Associates International - Promoting Servant Leadership". DAI.
  116. ^ "eMi - Contact Us". Archived from the original on September 7, 2013. Retrieved 2013.
  117. ^ "Dr. James Dobson's Family Talk".
  118. ^ "How do I contact Focus on the Family?". Archived from the original on December 9, 2013. Retrieved 2013.
  119. ^ "Home". Global Action.
  120. ^ "Reach Beyond". Archived from the original on July 27, 2013. Retrieved 2013.
  121. ^ "Hope & Home - Foster Care Colorado Springs". Hope & Home - Foster Care Colorado Springs.
  122. ^ "Making Disciples: Using Everything I Have - The Navigators". January 25, 2016.
  123. ^ "One Child Matters". Archived from the original on August 24, 2013. Retrieved 2013.
  124. ^ "Home - Diocese of Colorado Springs".
  125. ^ "Products Archive - VisionTrust". VisionTrust. Archived from the original on August 29, 2012. Retrieved 2013.
  126. ^ "WAY Media Network Services". WAY Media Network Services.
  127. ^ Contact Young Life Archived August 20, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  128. ^ Martinez, Michael (December 28, 2013). "10 things to know about Colorado's recreational marijuana shops - CNN". CNN.
  129. ^ "Pot may be legal in Colorado, but it can't be purchased in most large cities" Archived April 10, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, Tacoma News Tribune, March 16, 2016.
  130. ^ "Medical marijuana industry still growing in Colorado Business comparison El Paso County Medical Society policy statement on marijuana use". Op/Ed. The Gazette.
  131. ^ "Inside a wild week in weed for Colorado Springs". The Cannabist. July 27, 2017. Retrieved 2018.
  132. ^ "The Economic Impact of Allowing Retail Marijuana Establishments in Colorado Springs" (PDF). Daniels School of Business, University of Denver. Miller Chair of Applied Economics – via
  133. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 4, 2018. Retrieved 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  134. ^ Fuego, Herbert (January 29, 2019). "Ask a Stoner: How Many Towns in Colorado Still Ban Weed Sales?". Westword. Retrieved 2019.
  135. ^ "26 Things People From Colorado Springs Have To Explain To Out-Of-Towners". Movoto. Retrieved 2016.
  136. ^ "Video: North Korea threatens to strike Colorado Springs but doesn't know where it is". The Washington Post. April 12, 2013. Retrieved 2013.
  137. ^ "Olympic City USA | Colorado Springs". Retrieved 2016.
  138. ^ "Colorado Springs Sports Industry Competitive Advantages" (PDF). Colorado Springs Business Alliance. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 12, 2015. Retrieved 2016.
  139. ^ "Team USA". Team USA Home. Retrieved 2016.
  140. ^ "The Colorado Springs SnowSox coming to our area-From the Sidelines". The Tribune. January 12, 2021.
  141. ^ "Give a big welcome to CO Springs new baseball team, the Snow Sox". June 15, 2021.
  142. ^ "What is the PPIHC?". Pikes Peak International Hill Climb. Retrieved 2019.
  143. ^ "Paving completed on Pike's Peak road, 13 years after Sierra Club suit". The Denver Post. September 30, 2011.
  144. ^ "City of Colorado Springs Parks Department Unanimously Approves Sand Creek Stadium Renaming to Switchbacks Stadium". March 7, 2016. Archived from the original on May 3, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  145. ^ "New Name on Tap for Colorado Springs Pioneer League Team". Ballpark Digest. June 13, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  146. ^ "". Air Force Academy Athletics Official Athletic Site - Football. Archived from the original on October 12, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  147. ^ "Varsity Athletics o Colorado College". Archived from the original on October 18, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  148. ^ "Professional Bull Riders - PBR National Headquarters move to Pueblo, Colorado". Professional Bull Riders. Archived from the original on January 19, 2019. Retrieved 2018.
  149. ^ "Parks, Trails and Open Spaces". City of Colorado Springs. Archived from the original on July 25, 2013. Retrieved 2013.
  150. ^ Colorado historical marker, Interstate 25, Colorado Springs, Colorado
  151. ^ "Garden of the Gods Park". City of Colorado Springs. Retrieved 2020.
  152. ^ "Starlight Spectacular". May 18, 2017. Archived from the original on January 19, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  153. ^ "Community Parks". City of Colorado Springs. Archived from the original on April 28, 2013. Retrieved 2013.
  154. ^ "Used Spring 33 Years Ago". Colorado Springs Gazette. December 26, 1904. p. 5.
  155. ^ "New Pavilion at Tahama Spring" (PDF). Sunday Gazette and Telegraph. May 16, 1926. Retrieved 2018.
  156. ^ "Parks and Recreation - El Paso County Community Services". Retrieved 2021.
  157. ^ Recommended Trees for Colorado Front Range Communities, p. 11, s.v. Ponderosa pine
  158. ^ Kaufmann, M. R.; Huckaby, L. S.; Gleason, P., (2000), Ponderosa pine in the Colorado Front Range: long historical fire and tree recruitment intervals and a case for landscape heterogeneity. In: Neuenschwander, Leon F.; Ryan, Kevin C., tech. eds. Proceedings from the Joint Fire Science Conference and Workshop: Crossing the Millennium: Integrating spatial technologies and ecological principles for a new age in fire management; Boise, Idaho, June 15-17, 1999. Moscow, Idaho: University of Idaho: 153-160.
  159. ^ Colorado State University (Fact Sheet), Gambel oak (Quercus gambelii)
  160. ^ Low-Water Native Plants for Colorado Gardens: Front Range and Foothills, p. 14
  161. ^ USDA (United States Department of Agriculture), Yucca angustissima Engelm. ex Trel.
  162. ^ Low-Water Native Plants for Colorado Gardens: Front Range and Foothills, p. 14
  163. ^ "Trails and hking in Colorado Springs". City of Colorado Springs. Archived from the original on May 17, 2013. Retrieved 2013.
  164. ^ "Pikes Peak Greenway Trail". City of Colorado Springs. Archived from the original on August 22, 2013. Retrieved 2013.
  165. ^ "Pikes Peak Greenway Trail Map, and its submaps". City of Colorado Springs. Archived from the original on January 31, 2013. Retrieved 2013.
  166. ^ "Mayor-Council Form of Government". Archived from the original on December 22, 2015.
  167. ^ "1904 - Colorado Springs City Hall - Colorado Springs, CO - Dated Buildings and Cornerstones on". December 5, 2009. Retrieved 2013.
  168. ^ "City Council Members".
  169. ^ a b Hannan, Caleb (June 30, 2017). "The Short, Unhappy Life of a Libertarian Paradise". Politico. Retrieved 2020.
  170. ^ "Colorado Election Results 2020". Politico. Retrieved 2021.
  171. ^ "The Colorado Springs School homepage". Retrieved 2010.
  172. ^ "About UCCS - About UCCS - University of Colorado Colorado Springs". Archived from the original on January 15, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  173. ^ "Remington College | Adopt Our School". Retrieved 2011.
  174. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on January 3, 2016. Retrieved 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  175. ^ Education, Bridgepoint. "History". Archived from the original on January 16, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  176. ^ "A Quick Look at the U.S. Air Force Academy, Archived July 23, 2010, at the Wayback Machine,"USAFA Fact Sheet, May 2008
  177. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on January 15, 2016. Retrieved 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  178. ^ "Associate of Science Degree (AS)".
  179. ^ "Litter Removal Program". Colorado Department of Transportation's (CDOT). Archived from the original on January 14, 2010. Retrieved 2010.
  180. ^ "I-25 North Design Build (Colorado Springs) - CDOT". Archived from the original on January 26, 2013. Retrieved 2013.
  181. ^ Zubeck, Pam (December 29, 2012). "I-25 widening project coming soon | IndyBlog". Archived from the original on January 3, 2013. Retrieved 2013.
  182. ^ "?". Archived from the original on March 3, 2014.
  183. ^ "El Paso County Clerk and Recorder". 2015 Coordinated Election Results. Retrieved 2016.
  184. ^ "PPRTA Homepage". September 28, 2009. Retrieved 2009.
  185. ^ a b Sealover, Ed (February 3, 2011). "For the love of a road; Colorado Springs Independent, The (Colorado Springs)". Archived from the original on July 8, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  186. ^ Sealover, Ed (May 13, 2010). "Copper Ridge takes a step; Colorado Springs Independent, The (Colorado Springs) | Find Articles". Archived from the original on July 8, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  187. ^ "About the Airport". FLY COS. October 9, 2015.
  188. ^ "AirportIQ 5010". AirportIQ 5010. Archived from the original on February 3, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  189. ^ Reed, Ted. "Southwest Airlines' Arrival Is The Best Thing That Ever Happened To Colorado Springs Airport". Retrieved 2021.
  190. ^ Heins, Nicole (January 22, 2021). "United Airlines set to launch more services at Colorado Springs Airport". Retrieved 2021.
  191. ^ Bike Master Plan, City of Colorado Springs, July 27, 2016, retrieved 2019
  192. ^ The Best Bike Cities in America, Hearst Magazine Media, Inc., October 10, 2018, retrieved 2019
  193. ^ Bike Master Plan, City of Colorado Springs, retrieved 2019
  194. ^ "Colorado Springs terminating disputed bike lane project", The Gazette, retrieved 2019
  195. ^ "Battle of the Bike Lanes in Colorado Springs: A Community Conversation", The Gazette, retrieved 2019
  196. ^ WATCH: Battle of the bike lanes in Colorado Springs, a community conversation, KKTV, retrieved 2019
  197. ^ "2011 City and Neighborhood Rankings". Walk Score. 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  198. ^ "Mountain Metro testing electric buses in Colorado Springs". KRDO News. October 15, 2019. Retrieved 2021.
  199. ^ "Mountain Metro Mobility". Colorado Springs. February 27, 2014. Retrieved 2020.
  200. ^ "Colorado's Mountain Metropolitan Transit Wins Transit Agency Of The Year". Colorado Springs, CO Patch. October 29, 2019. Retrieved 2020.
  201. ^ "Metro Rides -- Alternative Commuting". Colorado Springs. December 5, 2018. Retrieved 2020.
  202. ^ "Bustang Routes | Denver Bus | Colorado Springs Bus Routes". Bustang. Retrieved 2020.
  203. ^ Nathaniel, Daniel (March 19, 2007). "Manas Airmen reunite sister cities Bishkek, Colorado Springs". Air Force Link. United States: Department of Defense. Archived from the original on October 11, 2007. Retrieved 2007.
  204. ^ "Colorado Springs Sister Cities International". City of Colorado Springs. April 30, 2018. Retrieved 2020.
  205. ^ a b "TOMODACHI NAJAS Grassroots Exchange Program?Colorado Springs and Fujiyoshida". TOMODACHI. Retrieved 2020.
  206. ^ "City of Colorado Springs - Topic Pages". July 6, 2007. Archived from the original on May 14, 2008. Retrieved 2009.

External links

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



Music Scenes