Combining Macron Below
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Combining Macron Below
Macron below
Diacritics in Latin & Greek
accent
acute( ´ )
double acute( ? )
grave( ` )
double grave(  ? )
circumflex( ^ )
caron, há?ek( ? )
breve( ? )
inverted breve(   ̑  )
cedilla( ¸ )
diaeresis, umlaut( ¨ )
dot( · )
palatal hook(   ? )
retroflex hook(   ? )
hook above, d?u h?i(  ? )
horn(  ? )
iota subscript(  ͅ )
macron( ? )
ogonek, nosin?( ? )
perispomene(  ͂ )
overring( ? )
underring( ? )
rough breathing( ? )
smooth breathing( ? )
Marks sometimes used as diacritics
apostrophe( ' )
bar( )
colon( : )
comma( , )
period( . )
hyphen( ? )
prime( ? )
tilde( ~ )
Diacritical marks in other scripts
Arabic diacritics
Early Cyrillic diacritics
kamora(  ҄ )
pokrytie(  ? )
titlo(  ? )
Gurmukh? diacritics
Hebrew diacritics
Indic diacritics
anusvara( ? ? ? )
chandrabindu( ? ? )
nukta( ? )
virama( ? ? ? ? ? )
visarga( ? ? )
IPA diacritics
Japanese diacritics
dakuten( ? )
handakuten( ? )
Khmer diacritics
Syriac diacritics
Thai diacritics
Related
Dotted circle?
Punctuation marks
Logic symbols
A?aC?c?

Macron below, COMBINING MACRON BELOW, is a combining diacritical mark that is used in various orthographies.[1]

It is not to be confused with COMBINING MINUS SIGN BELOW, COMBINING LOW LINE and _ LOW LINE. The difference between "macron below" and "low line" is that the latter results in an unbroken underline when it is run together: compare ac? and a?b?c? (only the latter should look like abc).[2]

Unicode

Macron below character

Unicode defines several characters for the macron below:

macron below
combining spacing
character Unicode HTML character Unicode HTML

single
U+0331 ̱ _
letter
U+02CD ˍ

double
U+035F ͟

There are many similar marks covered elsewhere:

  • Spacing underscores, including
    • _ LOW LINE (HTML _)
    • DOUBLE LOW LINE (HTML ‗)
  • Combining underlines, including
    • COMBINING LOW LINE (HTML ̲)
    • COMBINING DOUBLE LOW LINE (HTML ̳)
    • COMBINING EQUALS SIGN BELOW (HTML ͇);
    • ?︫ COMBINING MACRON LEFT HALF BELOW (HTML ︫)
    • ?︬ COMBINING MACRON RIGHT HALF BELOW (HTML ︬)
    • ?︭ COMBINING CONJOINING MACRON BELOW (HTML ︭)
  • International Phonetic Alphabet mark for retracted or backed articulation:[1]
    • COMBINING MINUS SIGN BELOW (HTML ̠)
    • ˗ MODIFIER LETTER MINUS SIGN (HTML ˗)

Precomposed characters

Various precomposed letters with a macron below are defined in Unicode:

upper case lower case notes
letter Unicode HTML letter Unicode HTML
? U+1E06 Ḇ ? U+1E07 ḇ Used in the transliteration of Biblical Hebrew into the Roman alphabet to show the fricative value of the letter beth (?). representing [v], or perhaps .
? U+1E0E Ḏ ? U+1E0F ḏ Used in the transliteration of Biblical Hebrew, Syriac and Arabic into the Roman alphabet to show the fricative value of the letter dalet (?), , and in the romanization of Pashto, it is used sometimes to represent retroflex D.
? U+1E96 ẖ Sometimes used for Arabic ? ', Hebrew Heth (letter), Egyptian ?.

There is no precomposed upper case equivalent of ? so it uses a combining macron below instead: H?.

? U+1E34 Ḵ ? U+1E35 ḵ Used in Tlingit and Haida (among other Pacific Northwest languages) for the voiceless uvular stop . Close to Korean ? kk; closest English "shocking"
? U+1E3A Ḻ ? U+1E3B ḻ One possible transliteration of the Tamil letter ?. ? is used in the Seri language to represent , like English l, while unmodified "l" represents , like Welsh ll. It is also used in the proposed Unified Alphabet for Mapudungun.
? U+1E48 Ṉ ? U+1E49 ṉ Used in Pitjantjatjara to represent , and in Saanich to represent both plain and glottalized . In the romanization of Pashto, it is used sometimes to represent retroflex N.
? U+1E5E Ṟ ? U+1E5F ṟ Used in Pitjantjatjara to represent , and sometimes in the romanization of Pashto to represent the retroflex R.
? U+1E6E Ṯ ? U+1E6F ṯ Used in the proposed Unified Alphabet for Mapudungun language representing . In the romanization of Pashto, it is used sometimes to represent retroflex T. In the romanization of Arabic this letter is used to transcribe the letter .
? U+1E94 Ẕ ? U+1E95 ẕ
? U+20AB ₫

Note that the Unicode character names of precomposed characters whose decompositions contain COMBINING MACRON BELOW use "WITH LINE BELOW" rather than "WITH MACRON BELOW". Thus, LATIN SMALL LETTER B WITH LINE BELOW decomposes to b LATIN SMALL LETTER B and COMBINING MACRON BELOW.[3]

The Vietnamese ng currency sign resembles a lower case d with a stroke and macron below: DONG SIGN (HTML ₫) but is neither a letter nor decomposable.[4]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Combining Diacritical Marks Code Chart, Range: 0300-036F" (PDF). The Unicode Standard. Retrieved .
  2. ^ "6.2 General Punctuation" (PDF). The Unicode Standard. Version 11.0.0. Mountain View, CA: The Unicode Consortium. 2018. p. 273. ISBN 978-1-936213-19-1. Retrieved . Spacing Overscores and Underscores. U+203E OVERLINE is the above-the-line counterpart to U+005F low line. It is a spacing character, not to be confused with U+0305 COMBINING OVERLINE. As with all overscores and underscores, a sequence of these characters should connect in an unbroken line. The overscoring characters also must be distinguished from U+0304 COMBINING MACRON, which does not connect horizontally in this way.
  3. ^ "Latin Extended Additional Code Chart, Range: 1E00-1EFF" (PDF). The Unicode Standard. Retrieved .
  4. ^ "Unicode character database". The Unicode Standard. Retrieved .

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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