Companion of the Order of St Michael and St George
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Companion of the Order of St Michael and St George

The Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George
Order of Saint Michael and Saint George grand cross collar badge (United Kingdom 1870-1900) - Tallinn Museum of Orders.jpg
Collar and Badge of the Grand Cross
Awarded by
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (Order of St Michael and St George).svg
Sovereign of the United Kingdom
TypeOrder of chivalry
Established28 April 1818
MottoAuspicium Melioris Ævi
Token of a Better Age
Awarded forAt the monarch's pleasure
StatusCurrently constituted
FounderPrince George, Prince Regent
SovereignQueen Elizabeth II
Grand MasterPrince Edward, Duke of Kent
GradesKnight/Dame Grand Cross (GCMG)
Knight/Dame Commander (KCMG/DCMG)
Companion (CMG)
Precedence
Next (higher)Order of the Star of India
Next (lower)Order of the Indian Empire
UK Order St-Michael St-George ribbon.svg
Ribbon bar of the Order of St Michael and St George
Star of a Knight or Dame Grand Cross

The Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George is a British order of chivalry founded on 28 April 1818 by George, Prince Regent, later King George IV,[1][2] while he was acting as regent for his father, King George III.

It is named in honour of two military saints, St Michael and St George.

The Order of St Michael and St George was originally awarded to those holding commands or high position in the Mediterranean territories acquired in the Napoleonic Wars, and was subsequently extended to holders of similar office or position in other territories of the British Empire.[2] It is at present awarded to men and women who hold high office or who render extraordinary or important non-military service in a foreign country, and can also be conferred for important or loyal service in relation to foreign and Commonwealth affairs.[2]

Description

The Order includes three classes, in descending order of seniority and rank:

  • Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross (GCMG)[1][2]
  • Knight Commander (KCMG) or Dame Commander (DCMG)[1][2]
  • Companion (CMG)[1][2]
Coat of arms of the British monarch as sovereign of the Order of St Michael and St George

It is used to honour individuals who have rendered important services in relation to Commonwealth or foreign nations. People are appointed to the Order rather than awarded it. British Ambassadors to foreign nations are regularly appointed as KCMGs or CMGs. For example, the former British Ambassador to the United States, Sir David Manning, was appointed a CMG when he worked for the British Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO), and then after his appointment as British Ambassador to the US, he was promoted to a Knight Commander (KCMG). It is the traditional award for members of the FCO.

The Order's motto is Auspicium melioris ævi (Latin for "Token of a better age"). Its patron saints, as the name suggests, are St. Michael the Archangel, and St. George, patron saint of England. One of its primary symbols is that of St Michael trampling over and subduing Satan in battle.

The Order is the sixth-most senior in the British honours system, after The Most Noble Order of the Garter, The Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle, The Most Illustrious Order of St Patrick, The Most Honourable Order of the Bath, and The Most Exalted Order of the Star of India. The third of the aforementioned Orders--which relates to Ireland, no longer fully a part of the United Kingdom--still exists but is in disuse; no appointments have been made to it since 1936. The last of the Orders on the list, related to India, has also been in disuse since that country's independence in 1947.

History

The Order's insignia often depict St Michael subduing Satan

The Prince Regent founded the Order to commemorate the British amical protectorate over the Ionian Islands, which had come under British control in 1814 and had been granted their own constitution as the United States of the Ionian Islands in 1817. It was intended to reward "natives of the Ionian Islands and of the island of Malta and its dependencies, and for such other subjects of His Majesty as may hold high and confidential situations in the Mediterranean".[3]

In 1864, however, the protectorate ended and the Ionian Islands became part of Greece. A revision of the basis of the Order in 1868, saw membership granted to those who "hold high and confidential offices within Her Majesty's colonial possessions, and in reward for services rendered to the Crown in relation to the foreign affairs of the Empire". Accordingly, numerous Governors-General and Governors feature as recipients of awards in the order.

In 1965 the order was opened to women,[4] with Evelyn Bark becoming the first female CMG in 1967.[5]

Composition

The British Sovereign is the Sovereign of the Order and appoints all other members of the Order (by convention, on the advice of the Government). The next-most senior member is the Grand Master. The office was formerly filled by the Lord High Commissioner of the Ionian Islands; now, however, Grand Masters are chosen by the Sovereign. Grand Masters include:

The Order originally included 15 Knights Grand Cross, 20 Knights Commanders, and 25 Companions but has since been expanded and the current limits on membership are 125, 375, and 1,750 respectively. Members of the Royal Family who are appointed to the Order do not count towards the limit, nor do foreign members appointed as "honorary members".

Officers

The Order has six officers. The Order's King of Arms is not a member of the College of Arms, like many other heraldic officers. The Usher of the Order is known as the Gentleman or Lady Usher of the Blue Rod. Blue Rod does not, unlike the usher of the Order of the Garter, perform any duties related to the House of Lords.

Habit and insignia

Mantle of the Order.
Representation of the star of a Knight or Dame Grand Cross
Star and badge of a Knight or Dame Commander
Collar worn by a Knight or Dame Grand Cross

Members of the Order wear elaborate regalia on important occasions (such as coronations), which vary by rank:

  • The mantle, worn only by Knights and Dames Grand Cross, is made of Saxon blue satin lined with crimson silk. On the left side is a representation of the star (see below). The mantle is bound with two large tassels.
  • The collar, worn only by Knights and Dames Grand Cross, is made of gold. It consists of depictions of crowned lions, Maltese Crosses, and the cyphers "SM" and "SG", all alternately. In the centre are two winged lions, each holding a book and seven arrows.

At less important occasions, simpler insignia are used:

  • The star is an insignia used only by Knights and Dames Grand Cross and Knights and Dames Commanders. It is worn pinned to the left breast. The Knight and Dame Grand Cross' star includes seven-armed, silver-rayed 'Maltese Asterisk' (for want of a better description--see image of badge), with a gold ray in between each pair of arms. The Knight and Dame Commander's star is a slightly smaller eight-pointed silver figure formed by two Maltese Crosses; it does not include any gold rays. In each case, the star bears a red cross of St George. In the centre of the star is a dark blue ring bearing the motto of the Order. Within the ring is a representation of St Michael trampling on Satan.
  • The badge is the only insignia used by all members of the Order; it is suspended on a blue-crimson-blue ribbon. Knights and Dames Grand Cross wear it on a riband or sash, passing from the right shoulder to the left hip. Knights Commanders and male Companions wear the badge from a ribbon around the neck; Dames Commanders and female Companions wear it from a bow on the left shoulder. The badge is a seven-armed, white-enamelled 'Maltese Asterisk' (see Maltese Cross); the obverse shows St Michael trampling on Satan, while the reverse shows St George on horseback killing a dragon, both within a dark blue ring bearing the motto of the Order.

On certain "collar days" designated by the Sovereign, members attending formal events may wear the Order's collar over their military uniform or morning wear. When collars are worn (either on collar days or on formal occasions such as coronations), the badge is suspended from the collar. All collars which have been awarded since 1948 must be returned to the Central Chancery of the Orders of Knighthood. The other insignia may be retained.

Chapel

The chapel of the Order of St Michael and St George in St Paul's Cathedral, London.

The original home of the Order was the Palace of St. Michael and St. George in Corfu, the residence of the Lord High Commissioner of the Ionian Islands and the seat of the Ionian Senate. Since 1906, the Order's chapel has been in St Paul's Cathedral in London. (The Cathedral also serves as home to the chapels of The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire and the Imperial Society of Knights Bachelor.) Religious services for the whole Order are held quadrennially; new Knights and Dames Grand Cross are installed at these services.

The Sovereign and the Knights and Dames Grand Cross are allotted stalls in the choir of the chapel, above which their heraldic devices are displayed. Perched on the pinnacle of a knight's stall is his helm, decorated with a mantling and topped by his crest. Under English heraldic law, women other than monarchs do not bear helms or crests; instead, the coronet appropriate to the dame's rank, if there is one, is used. Above the crest or coronet, the stall's occupant's heraldic banner is hung, emblazoned with his or her coat of arms. At a considerably smaller scale, to the back of the stall is affixed a piece of brass (a "stall plate") displaying its occupant's name, arms and date of admission into the Order. Upon the death of a Knight, the banner, helm, mantling and crest are taken down. The stall plates, however, are not removed; rather, they remain permanently affixed somewhere about the stall, so that the stalls of the chapel are festooned with a colourful record of the Order's Knights and Dames Grand Cross since 1906.

The reredos within the chapel were commissioned from Henry Poole in 1927.[6]

Precedence and privileges

The Duke of Kent, Grand Master of the Order, and his Duchess
German shipping magnate Rickmer Clasen Rickmers (1807-1886) wearing the insignia of a C.M.G. (centre)

Members of the Order of St Michael are assigned positions in the order of precedence in England and Wales. Wives of male members also feature on the order of precedence, as do sons, daughters and daughters-in-law of Knights Grand Cross and Knights Commanders; relatives of female members, however, are not assigned any special precedence. (As a general rule, individuals can derive precedence from their fathers or husbands, but not from their mothers or wives.)

Knights Grand Cross and Knights Commanders prefix "Sir", and Dames Grand Cross and Dames Commanders prefix "Dame", to their forenames. Wives of Knights may prefix "Lady" to their surnames, but no equivalent privilege exists for husbands of Dames. Such forms are not used by peers and princes, except when the names of the former are written out in their fullest forms. Furthermore, honorary (foreign) members and clergymen do not receive the accolade and thus are not entitled to use the prefix "Sir" or "Dame". Knights and Dames Grand Cross use the post-nominal "GCMG"; Knights Commanders and Dames Commanders use "KCMG" and "DCMG" respectively; Companions use "CMG".

Knights and Dames Grand Cross are also entitled to receive heraldic supporters. They may, furthermore, encircle their arms with a depiction of the circlet (a circle bearing the motto) and the collar; the former is shown either outside or on top of the latter. Knights and Dames Commanders and Companions may display the circlet, but not the collar, surrounding their arms. The badge is depicted suspended from the collar or circlet.

Popular references

Riband (worn incorrectly), star and collar of GCMG worn by Lord Grenfell

In the satirical British television programme Yes Minister, Jim Hacker MP is told an old joke[7] by his Private Secretary Bernard Woolley about what the various post-nominals stand for. From Season 2, Episode 2 "Doing the Honours":

Woolley: In the [civil] service, CMG stands for "Call Me God". And KCMG for "Kindly Call Me God".

Hacker: What does GCMG stand for?
Woolley (deadpan): "God Calls Me God".

Both sexes use the same post-nominals, except that there is a distinctly female form of Knight Commander of St. Michael and St. George. This is Dame Commander of St. Michael and St George (DCMG).

Ian Fleming's spy, James Bond, a commander in the Royal Navy Volunteer Reserve (RNVR) was fictionally decorated with the CMG in 1953. (This is mentioned in the novels From Russia, with Love and On Her Majesty's Secret Service, and on-screen in his obituary in Skyfall.) He was offered the KCMG (which would have elevated him from Companion to Knight Commander in the Order) in The Man with the Golden Gun, but he rejected the offer as he did not wish to become a public figure. Dame Judi Dench's character "M" is "offered" early retirement and a GCMG in Skyfall after a series of events resulting in the loss of a list that named every NATO espionage operative.

Long-time Doctor Who companion Brigadier Lethbridge-Stewart wore the ribbon of the order as the highest of his decorations in the series' classic era.

Current Knights and Dames Grand Cross

Riband, badge and star of a GCMG worn by Lord Tweedsmuir.

(NOTE: For clarity, the table denotes holders of the GCMG only; all other posts-nominal shown, for respective members, are for the sake of completeness alone.)

Knights and Dames Grand Cross

Number Name Post-nominals Known for Year
appointed
1 Zanzibar Sayyid Sir Jamshid bin Abdullah of Zanzibar Sultan of Zanzibar 1963
2 The Duke of Kent Royal family 1967
3 Belize Dame Elmira Minita Gordon Governor General of Belize 1984
4 United Kingdom Sir Antony Acland British diplomat 1986
5 United Kingdom Sir Crispin Tickell British diplomat 1989
6 United Kingdom The Lord Wright of Richmond British diplomat 1989
7 Guyana Sir Shridath Ramphal OE OM OCC Secretary General of the Commonwealth of Nations 1990
8 Papua New Guinea Sir Michael Somare GCL CF KStJ SSI KSG Prime Minister of Papua New Guinea 1990
9 New Zealand Dame Catherine Tizard Governor General of New Zealand 1990
10 United Kingdom The Lord Wilson of Tillyorn Governor of Hong Kong 1991
11 Papua New Guinea Sir Wiwa Korowi Governor General of Papua New Guinea 1992
12 Antigua and Barbuda Sir James Carlisle Governor General of Antigua and Barbuda 1993
13 United Kingdom Sir Rodric Braithwaite British diplomat 1994
14 Papua New Guinea Sir Julius Chan Prime Minister of Papua New Guinea 1994
15 Belize Sir Colville Young Governor General of Belize 1994
16 United Kingdom The Lord Hannay of Chiswick British diplomat 1995
17 The Bahamas Sir Orville Turnquest Governor General of the Bahamas 1995
18 New Zealand Sir Michael Hardie Boys Governor General of New Zealand 1996
19 United Kingdom Sir Christopher Mallaby British diplomat 1996
20 Tuvalu Sir Tulaga Manuella Governor General of Tuvalu 1996
21 Grenada Sir Daniel Williams Governor General of Grenada 1996
22 United Kingdom Sir John Coles British diplomat 1997
23 Papua New Guinea Sir Silas Atopare Governor General of Papua New Guinea 1998
24 Solomon Islands Sir John Lapli Governor General of the Solomon Islands 1999
25 Saint Lucia Dame Pearlette Louisy Governor General of Saint Lucia 1999
26 United Kingdom Sir Andrew Wood British diplomat 2001
27 United Kingdom Sir John Goulden British diplomat 2001
28 United Kingdom The Lord Kerr of Kinlochard British diplomat 2001
29 Tuvalu Sir Tomasi Puapua Governor General of Tuvalu 2002
30 United Kingdom Sir David Wright British diplomat 2002
31 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Sir Frederick Ballantyne Governor General of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2002
32 United Kingdom Sir Jeremy Greenstock British diplomat 2003
33 United Kingdom Sir Rob Young British diplomat 2003
34 United Kingdom The Lord Robertson of Port Ellen Secretary General of NATO 2004
35 United Kingdom Sir Stephen Wall British diplomat 2004
36 Papua New Guinea Sir Paulias Matane Governor General of Papua New Guinea 2005
37 Solomon Islands Sir Nathaniel Waena CSI Governor General of Solomon Islands 2005
38 United Kingdom The Lord Jay of Ewelme British diplomat 2006
39 United Kingdom Sir Emyr Jones Parry British diplomat 2007
40 Jamaica Sir Kenneth O. Hall OJ Governor General of Jamaica 2007
41 Antigua and Barbuda Dame Louise Lake-Tack Governor General of Antigua and Barbuda 2007
42 United Kingdom Sir David Manning British diplomat 2008
43 Grenada Sir Carlyle Glean Governor General of Grenada 2008
44 Jamaica Sir Patrick Allen ON Governor General of Jamaica 2009
45 Solomon Islands Sir Frank Kabui CSI Governor General of Solomon Islands 2009
46 The Bahamas Sir Arthur Foulkes Governor General of the Bahamas 2010
47 Tuvalu Sir Iakoba Italeli Governor General of Tuvalu 2010
48 United Kingdom The Lord Ricketts British diplomat 2011
49 United Kingdom Sir Nigel Sheinwald British diplomat 2011
50 Barbados Sir Elliott Belgrave Governor General of Barbados 2012
51 Grenada Dame Cécile La Grenade Governor General of Grenada 2013
52 Saint Kitts and Nevis Sir Edmund Lawrence Governor General of Saint Kitts and Nevis 2013
53 The Bahamas Dame Marguerite Pindling Governor General of the Bahamas 2014
54 Antigua and Barbuda Sir Rodney Williams Governor General of Antigua and Barbuda 2014
55 United Kingdom The Baroness Ashton of Upholland British diplomat 2015
56 United Kingdom Sir John Sawers British diplomat 2015
57 Saint Kitts and Nevis Sir Tapley Seaton Governor General of Saint Kitts and Nevis 2015
58 United Kingdom Sir Simon Fraser British diplomat 2016
59 United Kingdom Sir Peter Westmacott British diplomat 2016
60 Papua New Guinea Sir Robert Dadae Governor General of Papua New Guinea 2017
61 Barbados Dame Sandra Mason DA QC Governor General of Barbados 2017
62 United Kingdom Sir Mark Lyall Grant British diplomat & National Security Adviser 2018
63 Saint Lucia Sir Neville Cenac Governor General of Saint Lucia 2018
64 The Bahamas Sir Cornelius A. Smith Governor General of the Bahamas 2019
65 Solomon Islands Sir David Vunagi Governor General of Solomon Islands 2019

Officers

Honorary Knights/Dame Grand Cross (GCMG)

Star and collar of honorary GCMG worn by Serbian Field Marshal ?ivojin Mi?i?
Name Post-Nominals Known for Year
appointed
Notes
Oman Qaboos bin Said al Said Sultan of Oman 1976
Iceland Vigdís Finnbogadóttir Former President of Iceland 1982
Brunei Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah of Brunei Sultan of Brunei 1984
Qatar Abdelaziz bin Khalifa Al Thani Member of the royal family of Qatar 1985
Nepal Gyanendra of Nepal Former king of Nepal 1986
Philippines Fidel V. Ramos Former President of the Philippines 1995
Poland Aleksander Kwa?niewski Former President of Poland 1996
Maldives Maumoon Abdul Gayoom Former President of the Maldives 1997 [8]
Pakistan Nawaz Sharif Former Prime Minister of Pakistan 1997
Qatar Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani Former Emir of Qatar 1997
Argentina Carlos Menem Former President of Argentina 1998
Mexico Ernesto Zedillo Former President of Mexico 1998
Peru Alberto Fujimori Former President of Peru 1998
Hungary János Martonyi Former Minister of Foreign Affairs 1999 [8]
Jordan Abdullah II of Jordan King of Jordan 1999
Denmark Friis Arne Petersen Former Secretary of State of Denmark 2000
Italy Giuliano Amato Former Prime Minister of Italy 2000
Italy Lamberto Dini Former Prime Minister of Italy 2000
Italy Umberto Vattani Former Secretary General of the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs 2000
Romania Emil Constantinescu Former President of Romania 2000
South Africa Thabo Mbeki Former President of South Africa 2000
Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev Former President of Kazakhstan 2000
Jordan Ali Abu al-Ragheb Former Prime Minister of Jordan 2001
Portugal Jorge Sampaio Former President of Portugal 2001
Hong Kong Anson Chan GBM Former Chief Secretary of Hong Kong [9]
Mexico Vicente Fox Former President of Mexico 2002 [8]
East Timor Xanana Gusmão , GCL, Former Prime Minister of East Timor 2003
Afghanistan Hamid Karzai Former President of Afghanistan 2003
Albania Alfred Moisiu Former President of Albania 2003
Poland W?odzimierz Cimoszewicz Former Prime Minister of Poland 2004
Italy Gianfranco Fini Former Deputy Prime Minister of Italy 2005
United Arab Emirates Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum Prime Minister of the United Arab Emirates 2010 [10]
United Arab Emirates Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi 2010 [11]
Kuwait Sabah Al Khalid Al Sabah Deputy Prime Minister of Kuwait 2012 [12]
France Manuel Valls Former Prime Minister of France 2014 [13]
Malta Marie Louise Coleiro Preca Former President of Malta 2015 [14]

Honorary Knights/Dames Commander (KCMG/DCMG)

Knight Commander star of the Order of Saint Michael and Saint George
Name Post-Nominals Known for Year
appointed
Notes
Bahrain Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa King of Bahrain 1979
United States Henry Kissinger Former United States Secretary of State 1995
Brazil Frederico Cezar de Araujo Brazilian diplomat 1997
Brazil Gelson Fonseca Brazilian diplomat 1997
Brazil Affonso Emilio de Alencastro Massot Brazilian diplomat 1997
Japan Takekazu Kawamura Japanese diplomat 1998
Germany Henrik Schmiegelow German diplomat 1998
Sweden Carl Bildt Former Prime Minister of Sweden 1998 [15]
Hungary József Szájer Former Chairman of the European Integration Select Committee 1999
Denmark Jan Marcussen Danish diplomat 2000
Italy Carmela Decaro Bonella Former Deputy Director General and Director of the President of Italy's Office 2000
Italy Luigo Guidobono Cavalchini Former Private Secretary to the Foreign Minister of Italy 2000
Italy Francesco Olivieri Former Diplomatic Adviser to the Prime Minister of Italy 2000
Spain Javier Solana Former Secretary General of NATO 2000
United States Richard Armitage , , Former United States Deputy Secretary of State 2005
Bangladesh Fazle Hasan Abed Founder and chairman of BRAC 2010
Netherlands Jaap de Hoop Scheffer Former Secretary General of NATO 2010 [16]
Japan Sadako Ogata Japanese academic and diplomat 2011
Greece Efthymios Mitropoulos Former Secretary-General of International Maritime Organization 2011
Indonesia Marzuki Alie Former Speaker of the Indonesian House of Representatives 2012
Indonesia Irman Gusman Former Speaker of the Indonesian House of Regional Representatives 2012
Indonesia Marty Natalegawa Former Minister of Foreign Affairs of Indonesia 2012
Indonesia Sudi Silalahi Former Secretary of State of Indonesia 2012
United Arab Emirates Abdullah bin Zayed Al Nahyan Minister of Foreign Affairs of the UAE 2013
South Korea Yun Byung-se Former Minister of Foreign Affairs of South Korea 2013
Belgium Jacques Rogge Former President of the International Olympic Committee 2014
United States Angelina Jolie American actress, filmmaker, and humanitarian 2014 [17]
France Laurent Fabius Former Minister of Foreign Affairs of France 2014
France Laurent Stefanini Former Ambassador, Chief of Protocol to President Hollande 2014
Singapore Grace Fu Former Minister for Foreign Affairs of Singapore 2014
Denmark Anders Fogh Rasmussen Former Secretary General of NATO 2015 [18]
Mexico José Antonio Meade Kuribreña Former Secretary of Foreign Affairs of Mexico 2015 [18]
Malta Joseph Muscat Prime Minister of Malta 2015 [18]
Belgium Peter Piot Belgian microbiologist 2016 [19]
Malta George Vella Former Minister of Foreign Affairs of Malta 2018

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d Duckers, Peter (2009) [2004]. British Orders and Decorations. Oxford: Shire Publications. pp. 26-27. ISBN 978-0-7478-0580-9. OCLC 55587484.
  2. ^ a b c d e f The Royal Household (2009). "Order of St. Michael and St. George". The Official Website of the British Monarchy. London: Crown Copyright. Archived from the original on 27 February 2009. Retrieved 2016.
  3. ^ Townsend, Francis (1828). Calendar of Knights. William Pickering. p. 206.
  4. ^ "Knights/Knighthoods genealogy project". geni_family_tree. Retrieved 2017.
  5. ^ Evelyn Bark, article in The Independent
  6. ^ Henry POOLE 1873-1928 (Tate Britain); retrieved 1 October 2009.
  7. ^ Cross, Colin (1968). The Fall of the British Empire. London: Book Club Associates.
  8. ^ a b c [1]
  9. ^ "H.K.'s ex-No. 2 leader Anson Chan honored by Queen Elizabeth". Findarticles. 11 November 2002. Archived from the original on 10 July 2012. Retrieved 2009.
  10. ^ Alice Johnson Khalifa, Queen Elizabeth II exchange orders. Gulf News. 26 November 2010 Retrieved 5 September 2013.
  11. ^ List of honorary British knights and dames
  12. ^ "Sabah Dynasty". Royal Ark. Retrieved 2013.
  13. ^ "Honorary awards" (PDF). Retrieved 2017.
  14. ^ "Honorary awards" (PDF). Retrieved 2017.
  15. ^ [2] Archived 1 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  16. ^ "Hoge Britse ridderorde voor De Hoop Scheffer" (in Dutch).
  17. ^ "Honorary British Awards to Foreign Nationals - 2014". Archived from the original on 16 October 2014.
  18. ^ a b c "Honorary British Awards to Foreign Nationals - 2015" (PDF).
  19. ^ "Honorary awards" (PDF).

External links


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