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Community-level composting in a rural area in Germany
Backyard composter

Compost ( or ) is organic matter that has been decomposed in a process called composting. This process recycles various organic materials otherwise regarded as waste products and produces a soil conditioner (the compost).

Compost is rich in nutrients. It is used, for example, in gardens, landscaping, horticulture, urban agriculture and organic farming. The compost itself is beneficial for the land in many ways, including as a soil conditioner, a fertilizer, addition of vital humus or humic acids, and as a natural pesticide for soil. Compost is useful for erosion control, land and stream reclamation, wetland construction, and as landfill cover.

At the simplest level, the process of composting requires making a heap of wet organic matter (also called green waste), such as leaves, grass, and food scraps, and waiting for the materials to break down into humus after a period of months. However, composting can also take place as a multi-step, closely monitored process with measured inputs of water, air, and carbon- and nitrogen-rich materials. The decomposition process is aided by shredding the plant matter, adding water and ensuring proper aeration by regularly turning the mixture when open piles or "windrows" are used. Fungi, earthworms and other detritivores further break up the material. Aerobic bacteria and fungi manage the chemical process by converting the inputs into heat, carbon dioxide, and ammonium.


Home compost barrel
Materials in a compost pile
Food scraps compost heap

Composting is an aerobic method (meaning that it requires the presence of air) of decomposing organic solid wastes.[1] It can therefore be used to recycle organic material. The process involves decomposition of organic material into a humus-like material, known as compost, which is a good fertilizer for plants. Composting requires the following three components: human management, aerobic conditions, and development of internal biological heat.

Composting organisms require four equally important ingredients to work effectively:

  • Carbon -- for energy; the microbial oxidation of carbon produces the heat, if included at suggested levels.[2] High carbon materials tend to be brown and dry.
  • Nitrogen -- to grow and reproduce more organisms to oxidize the carbon. High nitrogen materials tend to be green (or colorful, such as fruits and vegetables) and wet.
  • Oxygen -- for oxidizing the carbon, the decomposition process.
  • Water -- in the right amounts to maintain activity without causing anaerobic conditions.[3]

Certain ratios of these materials will provide microorganisms to work at a rate that will heat up the pile. Active management of the pile (e.g. turning) is needed to maintain sufficient supply of oxygen and the right moisture level. The air/water balance is critical to maintaining high temperatures 130-160 °F (54-71 °C) until the materials are broken down.[4]

The most efficient composting occurs with an optimal carbon:nitrogen ratio of about 25:1.[5]Hot container composting focuses on retaining the heat to increase decomposition rate and produce compost more quickly. Rapid composting is favored by having a C/N ratio of ~30 or less. Above 30 the substrate is nitrogen starved, below 15 it is likely to outgas a portion of nitrogen as ammonia.[6]

Nearly all plant and animal materials have both carbon and nitrogen, but amounts vary widely, with characteristics noted above (dry/wet, brown/green).[7] Fresh grass clippings have an average ratio of about 15:1 and dry autumn leaves about 50:1 depending on species. Mixing equal parts by volume approximates the ideal C:N range. Few individual situations will provide the ideal mix of materials at any point. Observation of amounts, and consideration of different materials as a pile is built over time, can quickly achieve a workable technique for the individual situation.


With the proper mixture of water, oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen, micro-organisms are able to break down organic matter to produce compost.[8][9] The composting process is dependent on micro-organisms to break down organic matter into compost. There are many types of microorganisms found in active compost of which the most common are:[10]

  • Bacteria- The most numerous of all the microorganisms found in compost. Depending on the phase of composting, mesophilic or thermophilic bacteria may predominate.
  • Actinobacteria- Necessary for breaking down paper products such as newspaper, bark, etc.
  • Fungi- molds and yeast help break down materials that bacteria cannot, especially lignin in woody material.
  • Protozoa- Help consume bacteria, fungi and micro organic particulates.
  • Rotifers- Rotifers help control populations of bacteria and small protozoans.

In addition, earthworms not only ingest partly composted material, but also continually re-create aeration and drainage tunnels as they move through the compost.

Phases of composting

Three years old household compost

Under ideal conditions, composting proceeds through three major phases:[10]

  • Mesophilic phase: An initial, mesophilic phase, in which the decomposition is carried out under moderate temperatures by mesophilic microorganisms.
  • Thermophilic phase: As the temperature rises, a second, thermophilic phase starts, in which the decomposition is carried out by various thermophilic bacteria under higher temperatures (50 to 60 °C (122 to 140 °F).)
  • Maturation phase: As the supply of high-energy compounds dwindles, the temperature starts to decrease, and the mesophiles once again predominate in the maturation phase.

Slow and rapid composting

There are many proponents of rapid composting that attempt to correct some of the perceived problems associated with traditional, slow composting. Many advocate that compost can be made in 2 to 3 weeks.[11] Many such short processes involve a few changes to traditional methods, including smaller, more homogenized pieces in the compost, controlling carbon-to-nitrogen ratio (C:N) at 30 to 1 or less, and monitoring the moisture level more carefully. However, none of these parameters differ significantly from the early writings of compost researchers,[who?] suggesting that, in fact, modern composting has not made significant advances over the traditional methods that take a few months to work. For this reason and others, many scientists who deal with carbon transformations are skeptical that there is a "super-charged" way to get nature to make compost rapidly.[]

Both sides may be right to some extent. The bacterial activity in rapid high heat methods breaks down the material to the extent that heat-sensitive pathogens and seeds are destroyed,[12] and the original feedstock is unrecognizable. At this stage, the compost can be used to prepare fields or other planting areas. However, most professionals recommend that the compost be given time to cure before using in a nursery for starting seeds or growing young plants.[]

An alternative approach is anaerobic fermentation, known as bokashi. It retains carbon bonds, is faster than decomposition, and for application to soil requires only rapid but thorough aeration rather than curing. It depends on sufficient carbohydrates in the treated material.

Pathogen removal

Composting can destroy some pathogens or unwanted seeds, those that are destroyed by temperatures above 50 °C (122 °F).[12] Unwanted living plants (or weeds) can be discouraged by covering with mulch/compost.

Materials that can be composted

Composting is a process used for resource recovery. It can recycle an unwanted by-product from another process (a waste) into a useful new product.

Organic solid waste (green waste)

A large compost pile that is steaming with the heat generated by thermophilic microorganisms.

Composting is a process for converting decomposable organic materials into useful stable products. Therefore, valuable landfill space can be used for other wastes by composting these materials rather than dumping them on landfills. It may however be difficult to control inert and plastics contamination from municipal solid waste.

Co-composting is a technique that processes organic solid waste together with other input materials such as dewatered fecal sludge or sewage sludge.[5]

Industrial composting systems are being installed to treat organic solid waste and recycle it rather than landfilling it. It is one example of an advanced waste processing system. Mechanical sorting of mixed waste streams combined with anaerobic digestion or in-vessel composting is called mechanical biological treatment. It is increasingly being used in developed countries due to regulations controlling the amount of organic matter allowed in landfills. Treating biodegradable waste before it enters a landfill reduces global warming from fugitive methane; untreated waste breaks down anaerobically in a landfill, producing landfill gas that contains methane, a potent greenhouse gas.

Animal and human waste

Harvest of capsicum grown with compost made from human excreta at an experimental garden in Haiti

Reuse of excreta refers to the safe, beneficial use of treated animal or human excreta after applying suitable treatment steps and risk management approaches that are customized for the intended reuse application. Beneficial uses of the treated excreta may focus on using the plant-available nutrients (mainly nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) that are contained in the treated excreta. They may also make use of the organic matter and energy contained in the excreta. To a lesser extent, reuse of the excreta's water content might also take place, although this is better known as water reclamation from municipal wastewater. The intended reuse applications for the nutrient content may include: soil conditioner or fertilizer in agriculture or horticultural activities. Other reuse applications, which focus more on the organic matter content of the excreta, include use as a fuel source or as an energy source in the form of biogas.

There is a large and growing number of treatment options to make excreta safe and manageable for the intended reuse option.[13] Some options include: Urine diversion and dehydration of feces (urine-diverting dry toilets), composting (composting toilets or external composting processes), sewage sludge treatment technologies and a range of fecal sludge treatment processes. They all achieve various degrees of pathogen removal and reduction in water content for easier handling. Pathogens of concern are enteric bacteria, virus, protozoa, and helminth eggs in feces.[14] As the helminth eggs are the pathogens that are the most difficult to destroy with treatment processes, they are commonly used as an indicator organism in reuse schemes. Other health risks and environmental pollution aspects that need to be considered include spreading micropollutants, pharmaceutical residues and nitrate in the environment which could cause groundwater pollution and thus potentially affect drinking water quality.

There are several "excreta-derived fertilizers" which vary in their properties and fertilizing characteristics, for example: urine, dried feces, composted feces, fecal sludge, sewage, sewage sludge, and animal manure.

The nutrients and organic matter which are contained in human excreta or in domestic wastewater (sewage) have been used in agriculture in many countries for centuries. However, this practice is often carried out in an unregulated and unsafe manner in developing countries. World Health Organization Guidelines from 2006 have set up a framework how this reuse can be done safely by following a "multiple barrier approach".[15] Such barriers might be selecting a suitable crop, farming methods, methods of applying the fertilizer and education of the farmers.


Compost can be used as an additive to soil, or other matrices such as coir and peat, as a tilth improver, supplying humus and nutrients. It provides a rich growing medium as absorbent material (porous). This material contains moisture and soluble minerals, which provides support and nutrients. Although it is rarely used alone, plants can flourish from mixed soil, sand, grit, bark chips, vermiculite, perlite, or clay granules to produce loam. Compost can be tilled directly into the soil or growing medium to boost the level of organic matter and the overall fertility of the soil. Compost that is ready to be used as an additive is dark brown or even black with an earthy smell.[16]

Generally, direct seeding into a compost is not recommended due to the speed with which it may dry and the possible presence of phytotoxins in immature compost that may inhibit germination,[17][18][19] and the possible tie up of nitrogen by incompletely decomposed lignin.[20] It is very common to see blends of 20-30% compost used for transplanting seedlings at cotyledon stage or later.

Compost can be used to increase plant immunity to diseases and pests.[21]

Composting human excrement (feces and urine) for agricultural purposes is sometimes called "humanure", a blend of human and manure. The term was first used in 1994 in a book by Joseph Jenkins that advocates the use of this organic soil amendment.[22] The term humanure is used by compost enthusiasts in the United States but not widely used elsewhere.[5] Because the term "humanure" has no authoritative definition it is subject to various uses. News reporters may use the term also for sewage sludge or biosolids.[23]

Composting technologies

Various approaches have been developed to handle different ingredients, locations, throughput and applications for the composted product.


Industrial-scale composting can be carried out in the form of in-vessel composting, aerated static pile composting, vermicomposting, or windrow composting.[24]


Edmonton Composting Facility

Large-scale composting systems are used by many urban areas around the world.


Worms in a bin being harvested
Vermicomposting uses worms to decompose waste and make nutrient-rich "worm manure".

Vermicompost (vermi-compost) is the product of the decomposition process using various species of worms, usually red wigglers, white worms, and other earthworms, to create a mixture of decomposing vegetable or food waste, bedding materials, and vermicast. This process is called vermicomposting, while the rearing of worms for this purpose is called vermiculture.

Vermicast (also called worm castings, worm humus, worm manure, or worm faeces) is the end-product of the breakdown of organic matter by earthworms.[26] These castings have been shown to contain reduced levels of contaminants and a higher saturation of nutrients than the organic materials before vermicomposting.[27]

Vermicompost contains water-soluble nutrients and is an excellent, nutrient-rich organic fertilizer and soil conditioner.[28] It is used in farming and small scale sustainable, organic farming.

Vermicomposting can also be applied for treatment of sewage. A variation of the process is vermifiltration (or vermidigestion) which is used to remove organic matter, pathogens and oxygen demand from wastewater or directly from blackwater of flush toilets.[29][30]

Black soldier fly larvae

Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae are able to rapidly consume large amounts of organic material when kept at around 30 °C.[31][32] Black soldier fly larvae can reduce the dry matter of the organic waste by 73% and convert 16-22% of the dry matter in the waste to biomass.[33][34] The resulting compost still contains nutrients and can be used for biogas production, or further traditional composting or vermicomposting[35] The larvae are rich in fat and protein, and can be used as, for example, animal feed or biodiesel production.[36] Enthusiasts have experimented with a large number of different waste products.[37]


A soil ball with indigenous worms in soil amended a few weeks previously with bokashi fermented matter.

Bokashi is a process that converts food waste and similar organic matter into a soil amendment which adds nutrients and improves soil texture. It differs from traditional composting methods in several respects. The most important are:

  • The input matter is fermented by specialist bacteria, not decomposed.
  • The fermented matter is fed directly to field or garden soil, without requiring further time to mature.
  • As a result, virtually all input carbon, energy and nutrients enter the soil food web, having been neither emitted in greenhouse gases and heat nor leached out.
Other names attributed to this process include bokashi composting, bokashi fermentation and fermented composting.

Other systems at household level

Hügelkultur (raised garden beds or mounds)

An almost completed Hügelkultur bed; the bed does not have soil on it yet.

The practice of making raised garden beds or mounds filled with rotting wood is also called hügelkultur in German.[38][39] It is in effect creating a nurse log that is covered with soil.

Benefits of hügelkultur garden beds include water retention and warming of soil.[38][40] Buried wood acts like a sponge as it decomposes, able to capture water and store it for later use by crops planted on top of the hügelkultur bed.[38][41]

Compost tea

Compost teas are defined as water extracts leached from composted materials.[42] Compost teas are generally produced from adding one volume of compost to 4-10 volumes of water, but there has also been debate about the benefits of aerating the mixture.[42] Field studies have shown the benefits of adding compost teas to crops due to the adding of organic matter, increased nutrient availability and increased microbial activity.[42] They have also been shown to have an effect on plant pathogens.[43]

Worm Hotels

Worm Hotel in Amsterdam

Worm Hotels accommodate useful worm in ideal conditions.

Related technologies

Organic ingredients intended for composting can also be used to generate biogas through anaerobic digestion. This process stabilizes organic material. The residual material, sometimes in combination with sewage sludge can be treated by a composting process before selling or giving away the compost.[44]


There are process and product guidelines in Europe that date to the early 1980s (Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland) and only more recently in the UK and the US. In both these countries, private trade associations within the industry have established loose standards, some say as a stop-gap measure to discourage independent government agencies from establishing tougher consumer-friendly standards.[45]

The USA is the only Western country that does not distinguish sludge-source compost from green-composts, and by default in the USA 50% of states expect composts to comply in some manner with the federal EPA 503 rule promulgated in 1984 for sludge products.[46]

Compost is regulated in Canada[47] and Australia[48] as well.

Many countries such as Wales[49][50] and some individual cities such as Seattle and San Francisco require food and yard waste to be sorted for composting (San Francisco Mandatory Recycling and Composting Ordinance).[51][52]

Commercial sale

The term "compost" can also refer to potting mixes which are bagged up and sold commercially in garden centres and other outlets.[53] This may include composted materials such as manure and peat, but is also likely to contain loam, fertilisers, sand, grit, etc. Varieties include multi-purpose composts designed for most aspects of planting, John Innes formulations,[53] growbags, designed to have crops such as tomatoes directly planted into them. There are also a range of specialist composts available, e.g. for vegetables, orchids, houseplants, hanging baskets, roses, ericaceous plants, seedlings, potting on etc.


Compost Basket

Composting as a recognized practice dates to at least the early Roman Empire, and was mentioned as early as Cato the Elder's 160 BCE piece De Agri Cultura.[54] Traditionally, composting involved piling organic materials until the next planting season, at which time the materials would have decayed enough to be ready for use in the soil. The advantage of this method is that little working time or effort is required from the composter and it fits in naturally with agricultural practices in temperate climates. Disadvantages (from the modern perspective) are that space is used for a whole year, some nutrients might be leached due to exposure to rainfall, and disease-producing organisms and insects may not be adequately controlled.

Composting was somewhat modernized beginning in the 1920s in Europe as a tool for organic farming.[55] The first industrial station for the transformation of urban organic materials into compost was set up in Wels, Austria in the year 1921.[56] Early frequent citations for propounding composting within farming are for the German-speaking world Rudolf Steiner, founder of a farming method called biodynamics, and Annie Francé-Harrar, who was appointed on behalf of the government in Mexico and supported the country 1950-1958 to set up a large humus organization in the fight against erosion and soil degradation.[57]

In the English-speaking world it was Sir Albert Howard who worked extensively in India on sustainable practices and Lady Eve Balfour who was a huge proponent of composting. Composting was imported to America by various followers of these early European movements by the likes of J.I. Rodale (founder of Rodale Organic Gardening), E.E. Pfeiffer (who developed scientific practices in biodynamic farming), Paul Keene (founder of Walnut Acres in Pennsylvania), and Scott and Helen Nearing (who inspired the back-to-the-land movement of the 1960s). Coincidentally, some of the above met briefly in India - all were quite influential in the U.S. from the 1960s into the 1980s.

See also


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  2. ^ "Composting for the Homeowner - University of Illinois Extension". Archived from the original on 24 February 2016. Retrieved 2013.
  3. ^ "Composting for the Homeowner -Materials for Composting". Archived from the original on 25 December 2009. Retrieved 2010.
  4. ^ Lal, Rattan (30 November 2003). "Composting". Pollution a to Z. 1.
  5. ^ a b c Tilley, Elizabeth; Ulrich, Lukas; Lüthi, Christoph; Reymond, Philippe; Zurbrügg, Chris (2014). "Septic tanks". Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (2nd ed.). Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag). ISBN 978-3-906484-57-0.
  6. ^ Haug, Roger (1993). The Practical Handbook of Compost Engineering. CRC Press. ISBN 9780873713733.
  7. ^ Klickitat County WA, USA Compost Mix Calculator Archived 17 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ "Chapter 1, The Decomposition Process". Retrieved 2016.
  9. ^ "How to Make Compost at Home". Retrieved 2016.
  10. ^ a b "Composting - Compost Microorganisms". Cornell University. Retrieved 2010.
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